1650-1700 in fashion

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The elegant gentleman wears a coat, waistcoat, and breeches. The lady's bodice is long-waisted and her narrow skirt is draped and pinned up in back. Dutch, 1678.


Fashion in the period 1650-1700 in Western European clothing is characterised by rapid change. Following the end of the Thirty Years' War and the Restoration of England's Charles II, military influences in men's clothing were replaced by a brief period of decorative exuberance which then sobered into the coat, waistcoat and breeches costume that would reign for the next century and a half. In the normal cycle of fashion, the broad, high-waisted silhouette of the previous period was replaced by a long, lean line with a low waist for both men and women. This period also marked the rise of the periwig as an essential item of men's fashion.

Women's fashion

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Susanna Huygens wears a long, tight white satin bodice with paned sleeves lined in pink and a matching petticoat. Her hair is worn in a mass of tight curls, and she wears pearl eardrops and a pearl necklace. 1667-69.
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Mary II wears 1690s fashion: a mantua with elbow-length, cuffed sleeves over a chemise with lace flounces at the elbow, a wired lace fontange, opera-length gloves, and pearls.

Overview

The wide, high-waisted look of the previous period was gradually superseded by a long vertical line, with horizontal emphasis at the shoulder. Full, loose sleeves ended just below the elbow at mid century and became longer and tighter in keeping with the new trend. The body was tightly corseted, with a low, broad neckline and dropped shoulder. In later decades, the overskirt was drawn back and pinned up to display the petticoat, which was heavily decorated.

Spanish court fashion remained out of step with the fashions that arose in France and England, and prosperous Holland also retained its own modest fashions, especially in headdress and hairstyles, as it had retained the ruff in the previous period.

Romantic negligence

A daring new fashion arose for having one's portrait painted in undress, wearing a loosely fastened gown called a nightgown over a voluminous chemise, with tousled curls. The style is epitomized by the portraits of Peter Lely, which derive from the romanticized style originated by Anthony van Dyck in the 1630s. The clothing in these portraits is not representative of what was worn on the street or at court. [1] [2]

The mantua

The mantua or manteau was a new fashion that arose in the 1680s. Instead of a bodice and skirt cut separately, the mantua hung from the shoulders to the floor (in the manner of gowns of earlier periods) started off as the female version of the men's Banyan, worn for 'undress' wear. Gradually it developed into a draped and pleated gown and eventually evolved into a gown worn looped and draped up over a contrasting petticoat and a stomacher. The mantua-and-stomacher resulted in a high, square neckline in contrast to the broad, off-the-shoulder neckline previously in fashion. The new look was both more modest and covered-up than previous fashions and decidedly fussy, with bows, frills, ribbons, and other trim, but the short string of pearls and pearl earrings or eardrops worn since the 1630s remained popular.

The mantua, made from a single length of fabric pleated to fit with a long train, was ideal for showing the designs of the new elaborately patterned silks that replaced the solid-colored satins popular in mid-century.[3]

Hunting and riding dress

In a June 1666 diary entry, Samuel Pepys describes the Maids of Honour in their riding habits of mannish coats, doublets, hats, and periwigs, "so that, only for a long petticoat dragging under their men's coats, nobody could take them for women in any point whatever". For riding side-saddle, the costume had a long, trailing petticoat or skirt. This would be looped up or replaced by an ankle-length skirt for shooting or walking.

Hairstyles and headgear

Early in the period, hair was worn in a bun at the back of the head with a cluster of curls framing the face. The curls grew more elaborate through the 1650s, then longer, until curls were hanging gracefully on the shoulder. In the 1680s hair was parted in the center with height over the temples, and by the 1690s hair was unparted, with rows of curls stacked high over the forehead.

This hairstyle was often topped with a fontange, a frilly cap of lace wired to stand in vertical tiers with streamers to either side, named for a mistress of the French King. This was popular from the 1690s to the first few years of the 18th century.

Style gallery 1650s


1 - 1650

2 - 1652

3 - 1652

4 -1655

5 - 1658-60

6 - 1658

7 - 1659


  1. German fashion of 1650 shows a smooth, tight, conical satin bodice with a dropped shoulder. Slashed sleeves are caught with jeweled clasps over voluminous chemise sleeves.
  2. Margareta Maria de Roodere wears a salmon-colored gown. A sheer scarf is knotted into a collar around her shoulders, and her white sleeve linings are fastened back with a covered button, 1652.
  3. Mary, Princess of Orange wears a satin gown with a long pointed bodice and a satin petticoat. The many tiny pleats that gather in her skirt can be seen, 1652.
  4. Rear view of a Dutch jacket-bodice of 1655 shows the tabbed skirts and the curved side-back seams.
  5. Young Dutch girl wears a rose jacket-bodice and a plain pink petticoat. Her hair is worn in a wound braid with small curls over her ears. 1658-60.
  6. Details of Dutch fashion of 1658 include a string of pearls tied with a black ribbon, a jack-bodice with matching skirt, pleated sleeves, and dropped shoulder.
  7. Spanish court fashion adapted the cartwheel farthingale late and retained it long after it had disappeared elsewhere. Margaret of Spain, age 8, 1659.

Style gallery 1660-1680


1 - c.1660

2 - 1662

3 - 1663

4 - 1666

5 - 1670

6 - 1671-74

7 - 1675-80

8 - 1670s-80s


  1. Peter Lely portrays Two Ladies of the Lake Family wearing satin nightgowns over shifts or chemises with voluminous sleeves. Their hair is worn in masses of ringlets to the shoulders on either side, and both wear large pearl eardrops.
  2. Dutch lacemaker's jacket-bodice has a dropped shoulder line and full, three-quarter length sleeves cartridge-pleated at shoulder and cuff. Her indoor cap has a circular back anhood is embroidered. Her shoes have thick heels and square toes, now somewhat old-fashioned.
  3. The very long pointed bodice of c. 1663 is shown clearly in this portrait of a woman playing a viola de gamba. The sleeve is pleated into the dropped should and into the cuff.
  4. Mourning dress of unrelieved black with long sleeves, cloak and hood. Margaret of Spain wears her hair parted to one side and severely bound in braids, 1666.
  5. Two English ladies wear gowns with short sleeves over chemise sleeves gathered into three puffs. The long bodice front with curving bands of vertical trim is characteristic of 1670.
  6. Lingering Puritan influence appears in this portrait of a Boston matron: she wears a lace-trimmed linen collar that covers her from the neck down with the fashionable short string of pearls, and she covers her hair with hood-like cap, 1671-74.
  7. Fashionable hairstyle of 1675-80 is heart shaped, similar to men's wig styles in the same period.
  8. Empress Eleonore of Pfalz-Neuburg wears a brocade gown with a very low waist and elbow-length sleeves gathered in puffs, 1670s or '80s.

Style gallery 1680s-1690s




1 - 1680

2 - 1680s-90s

3 - c.1690

4 - c.1690

5 - 1685-90

6 - 1690s

7 - 1698


  1. Mary of Modena, second wife of James II of England, wears a nightgown fastened with jeweled clasps over a simple chemise, 1680. Her hair curls over either temple, and long curls hang on her shoulders.
  2. Dorothy Mason, Lady Brownlow in fashionable undress. Her nightgown is casually unfastened at the breast, and her chemise sleeves are caught up in puffs, probably with drawstrings.
  3. Spanish court fashion of c. 1690 shows a long, rigidly corseted line with a broad neckline and long sleeves.
  4. Mary II of England. By 1690, hair was dressed high over her forehead with curls dangling behind.
  5. Contemporary French fashion plate of a manteau or mantua, 1685-90.
  6. The Electress Palatine (Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici) in hunting dress, probably mid-to-late 1690s. She wears a long, mannish coat with wide cuffs and a matching petticoat over a high-necked bodice (Pepys calls it a doublet) with long tight sleeves. She wears a lace-trimmed cravat and a tricorne hat with ostrich plumes.
  7. Comtesse de Mailly, 1698, wears court fashion: Her mantua has elbow-length cuffed sleeves over the lace-ruffled sleeves of her chemise. The trained skirt is looped back to reveal a petticoat. She wears elbow-length gloves and a cap with a high lace fontange. She has a fur muff on her right wrist, trimmed with a ribbon bow, and carries a fan. She wears the short string of pearls that remained fashionable throughout this period.

Men’s Fashion

Overview

With the end of the Thirty Years' War, the fashions of the 1650s and early 1660s imitated the new peaceful and more relaxed feeling in Europe. The military boots gave way to shoes, and a mania for baggy breeches, short coats, and hundreds of yards of ribbon set the style. The breeches (see Petticoat breeches) became so baggy that Samuel Pepys wrote in his diary: “And among other things, met with Mr. Townsend, who told of his mistake the other day to put both his legs through one of his Knees of his breeches, and so went all day.” (April 1661) The wide breeches that made such an error possible were soon being gathered at the knee: Pepys noted, 19 April 1663 "this day put on my close-kneed coloured suit, which, with new stockings of the colour, with belt, and new gilt-handled sword, is very handsome." This era was also one of great variation and transition.

In 1666, Charles II of England, following the earlier example of Louis XIV of France decreed that at court, men were to wear a long coat, a vest or waistcoat (originally called a petticoat, a term which later became applied solely to women's dress), a cravat, a periwig or wig, and breeches gathered at the knee, as well as a hat for outdoor wear. By 1680, this more sober uniform-like outfit of coat, waistcoat, and breeches became the norm for formal dress.

Coat and Waistcoat

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Coat with cuffs, red-heeled shoes, and colored stockings, 1685
The unfitted looser fit of the 1640s continued into the 1650s. In the 1650s, sleeves ranged from above to below the elbow. The sleeves could be slashed, unslashed, or dividing into two parts and buttoned together. The length of the coat reached the waist but by the late 1650s and early 1660s, the coat became very short, only reaching the bottom of the rib cage, much like a bolero jacket. During the 1660s, the sleeves varied a lot from elbow length to no sleeves at all. The coat could be worn opened or buttoned in the front. One common factor were many yards of ribbon loops arranged on the shoulders and the lower parts of the sleeves.

A longer and rather baggy coat (still with sleeves rarely going below the elbow) made an appearance in the early 1660s and as the decade progressed became the most popular coat. By the late 1660s, an upturned cuff became popular although the sleeves had still remained above the elbows. By the 1670s, a vest or waistcoat was worn under the coat. It was usually made of contrasting, often luxurious, fabric, and might have a plain back since that was not seen under the coat. It was a long garment which by the 1680s reached just above the knees. With the end of the 1670s the sleeves became longer and the coat more fitted. The 1680s saw larger upturned cuffs and the waist of the coat became much wider. The coat could have lapels or none. This coat is known as the justacorps. The pockets on both sides of the coats were arranged horizontally or vertically (especially the mid to late 1680s) until the 1690s when the pockets were usually always arranged horizontally. The waistcoat could be sleeveless or have long sleeves. Typically, a long-sleeved waistcoat was worn in winter for added warmth. By the mid 1680s, ribbons were reduced to one side of the shoulder until by the 1690s, they were gone.

Shirt, collar and cravat

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Puritan influence lingered in New England. This merchant of Boston wears his own long hair, not a wig. The flat lace collar with curved corners that came into fashion in the 1660s is worn over a simple dark coat and waistcoat, 1674.
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James II of England wears red ribbon knots under his lace cravat and a blond wig, 1686
The ruffled long-sleeved white shirt remained the only constant throughout the period, although less of it was seen with the advent of the waistcoat.

During the early to mid 1650s, a rather small falling collar was in fashion. This increased in size and encompassed much of the shoulders by 1660. Cravats around the neck started to be worn during the early 1660s (initially with the falling collar). By the mid 1660s, the collar had disappeared with just the cravat remaining, sometimes tied with a small bow of ribbon. Red was the most common color for the bow, although pink, blue, and other colors were also used. By the 1670s, the bow of ribbons had increased in size and in the 1680s, the bow of ribbons became very large and intricate with many loops of ribbon. By the mid 1690s, the very large bow of ribbons was discarded. Also, a new style of cravat made its appearance in the 1690s, the Steinkerk (named after the Battle of Steenkerque in 1692). Before, the cravat was always worn flowing down the chest; the Steinkerk cravat looped through a buttonhole of the coat.

Breeches and stockings

The previous decade saw Spanish breeches as the most popular. These were stiff breeches which fell above or just below the knee and were rather moderately fitted. By the mid 1650s, in Western Europe, much looser, uncollected breeches, called petticoat breeches became the most popular. As the 1650s progressed, they became larger and looser, very much giving the impression of a lady’s petticoat. They were usually decorated with many yards of ribbon around the waist and around the ungathered knee on the outside of the leg. Alongside the petticoat breeches, a collected but still loose fitted breeches called rhinegraves, were also worn. By the early 1660s, their popularity surpassed petticoat breeches. They were usually worn with an overskirt over them. The overskirt was heavily decorated with ribbon on the waist and the bottom of the skirt. Its length was usually just above the knee, but could also extend past the knee so that the rhinegraves underneath could not be seen and only the bottom of the stocking-tops was visible.

With the rising popularity of the longer coat and waistcoat, the large collected rhingraves and overskirt were abandoned in favor of more close fitting breeches. By the late 1670s, close fitted breeches were worn with the stockings worn over them and on or above the knee, often being gartered with a garter below the knee. With the long waistcoat and stockings worn over the knee, very little of the breeches could be seen. A possible reason that the stockings were worn over the knee, was to give the impression of longer legs since the waist coat fell very low, just above the knee. The breeches tended to be of the same material as the coat. The stockings varied in color.

Footwear and accessories

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This man wears white boothose over red stockings with low shoes, 1663-65.
Shoes again became the most popular footwear during the 1650s, although boots remained in use for riding and outdoor pursuits. Boothose, originally of linen with lace cuffs and worn over the fine silk stockings to protect them from wear, remained in fashion even when boots lost their popularity. Boothose lasted well in the mid 1660s, attached right under where the rhinegraves were gathered below the knee, or fashionably slouched and unfastened. Shoes from the 1650s through the 1670s tended to be square toed and bit long in appearance. Usually the shoes were tied with ribbon and decorated with bows. By the 1680s, the shoe became a bit more fitted; the heel increased in height (with red heels being very popular, especially for attendance at Court), and only a small ribbon if any remained.

The baldric (a sword hanger worn across one shoulder) was worn until the mid 1680s, when it was replaced by the sword belt (a sword hanger worn across the hips).

Hairstyles

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The elaborate wig of the 1690s
Throughout the period, men wore their hair long with flowing curls well past the shoulders. The bangs (fringe) were usually combed forward and allowed to flow over the forehead a bit. Although men had worn wigs for years to cover up thinning hair or baldness, the popularity of the wig or periwig as standard wardrobe is usually credited to King Louis XIV of France. Louis started to go bald at a relatively young age and had to cover up his baldness with wigs. His early wigs very much imitated what were the hairstyles of the day, but they gave a thicker and fuller appearance than natural hair. Due to the success of the wigs, other men started to wear wigs as well. By 1680, a part in the middle of the wig became the norm. The hair on either side of the part continued to grow in the 1680s until by the 1690s two very high pronounced points developed on the forehead. As well, during the 1680s, the wig was divided into three parts: the front including the center part and the long curls which fell well past the shoulders, the back of the head which was combed rather close to the head, and a mass of curls which flowed down the shoulders and back. The curls of the wig throughout the 1660s until 1700 were rather loose and flowing. Tighter curls would not make their appearance until after 1700. Every natural color of wig was possible. Louis XIV tended to favor a brown wig. His son, Monseigneur was well known for wearing blond wigs.

Hats and headgear

Hats vary greatly during this period. Hats with very tall crowns, derived from the earlier capotain but with flat crowns, were popular until the end of the 1650s. The brims varied as well. Hats were decorated with feathers. By the 1660s, a very small hat with a very low crown, little brim, and large amount of feathers was popular amongst the French courtiers. Later in the 1660s, very large brims and moderate crowns became popular. Sometimes one side of the brim would be turned up. These continued fashionable well into the 1680s. From the 1680s until 1700, various styles and combinations of upturned brims were in fashion, from one brim upturned to three brims upturned (the tricorne). Even the angle at which the brims were situated on the head varied. Sometimes with a tricorne, the point would meet over the forehead or it would be set at a 45 degree angle from the forehead.

Style gallery 1650s-1660s


1 - 1654

2 - 1658

3 - 1658

4 - 1661

5 -1661

6 - 1663

7 - 1660s

8 - 1665


  1. Coat of 1654 has many tiny buttons on the front and sleeves, which are left unfastened below the chest and upper arm. A collared cloak trimmed with braid is worn casually over one shoulder.
  2. Dutch fashions, 1658. White boothose, petticoat breeches
  3. Dutch fashions, 1658. Note tall hat with dyed ostrich plumes.
  4. 1661. The short coat is worn over a voluminous shirt with wide ruffles at the cuffs and flat, curve-cornered collar, petticoat breeches.
  5. Young Louis XIV wears a lace-bordered linen collar, and military sash, and a voluminous wig over his armor, 1661.
  6. French court style, 1663, showing very short coat and masses of ribbon loops, petticoat breeches.
  7. French court style, 1660s. Short coat with short sleeves.
  8. French court style, 1665. The hat has a broad brim and shallow crown, elaborate stocking-tops, rhinegraves, and overskirt.

Style gallery 1670s-1690s


1 - 1675

2 - 1678

4 - 1680s


  1. French courtier of 1675, wears a wide red bow under a long cravat.
  2. Long coat of 1678 is worn with a red bow and a long cravat. The coat has vertically placed pockets on the long skirts, stockings worn over the breeches.
  3. French court style, 1680s. Vertical coat pockets and tricorne hat, stockings worn over the breeches.

Children's fashion

Young boys wore skirts with doublets or back-fastening bodices until they were breeched at six to eight. They wore smaller versions of men's hats over coifs or caps. Small children's clothing featured leading strings at the shoulder.


Child with leading strings, 1658

Two English sisters and their brother (right), c. 1656

Swiss boy, 1657

English boy, 1661

English boys, 1670


External links

Notes

1. ^ Gordenker, Van Dyck and the Representation of Dress in Seventeenth-Century Portraiture
2. ^ de Marly, "Undress in the Œuvre of Lely"
3. ^ Ribeiro, Aileen, on the origins of the mantua in the late 17th century, in Dress in Eighteenth Century Europe 1715-1789; Ashelford, Jane, The Art of Dress

References

  • Arnold, Janet: Patterns of Fashion 1 (cut and construction of women's clothing, 1660-1860), Wace 1964, Macmillan 1972. Revised metric edition, Drama Books 1977. ISBN 0-89676-026-X
  • Ashelford, Jane: The Art of Dress: Clothing and Society 1500-1914, Abrams, 1996. ISBN 0-8109-6317-5
  • Black, J. Anderson and Madge Garland: A History of Fashion, Morrow, 1975. ISBN 0-688-02893-4
  • Brooke, Iris: Western European Costume II, Theatre Arts Books, 1966.
  • de Marly, Diana: "Undress in the Œuvre of Lely", The Burlington Magazine, November 1978.
  • Gordenker, Emilie E.S.: Van Dyck and the Representation of Dress in Seventeenth-Century Portraiture, Brepols, 2001, ISBN 2-503-50880-4
  • Payne, Blanche: History of Costume from the Ancient Egyptians to the Twentieth Century, Harper & Row, 1965. No ISBN for this edition; ASIN B0006BMNFS
  • Ribeiro, Aileen: Fashion and Fiction: Dress in Art and Lierature in Stuart England, Yale, 2005, ISBN 0-300-10999-7
  • Ribeiro, Aileen: Dress in Eighteenth Century Europe 1715-1789, Yale University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-300-09151-6
Western Europe is mainly a socio-political concept forged during the Cold War, which largely defined its borders. Its boundaries were effectively forged during the final stages of World War II and came to encompass all European countries which did not come under Soviet control and
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Thirty Years' War was fought between 1618 and 1648, principally on the territory of today's Germany, and involved most of the major European continental powers. Although it was ostensibly a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics, the rivalry between the Habsburg
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English Restoration, or simply The Restoration, was an episode in the history of Britain beginning in 1660 when the English monarchy, Scottish monarchy and Irish monarchy were restored under King Charles II after the English Civil War.
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Motto
Dieu et mon droit   (French)
"God and my right"
Anthem
No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is "God Save the Queen".
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Charles II (Charles Stuart; 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

According to royalists, Charles II became king when his father Charles I was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, the climax of the English Civil War.
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coat (a term frequently interchangeable with jacket) is an outer garment worn by both men and women, for warmth or fashion. Coats typically have long sleeves and open down the front, closing by means of buttons, zippers, hook-and-loop fasteners, toggles, a belt, or a
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waistcoat (sometimes called a vest or a vestee in Canada and the US) is a sleeveless upper-body garment worn over a dress shirt and necktie (if applicable) and below a coat as a part of most men's formal wear, and as the third piece of the three-piece male business
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Breeches (bri't'chis) are an item of clothing covering the body from the waist down, with separate coverings for each leg, usually stopping just below the knee, though in some cases reaching to the ankles.
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Fashion in the period 1600-1650 in Western European clothing is characterized by the disappearance of the ruff in favor of broad lace or linen collars. Waistlines rose through the period for both men and women.
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Wig may refer to:
  • For a wig as in false hair, see Wig (hair);
  • For an article on stock index see WIG;
  • Wing In Ground, a type of Ground effect;
  • For WiG, Women in Green, see Women for Israel's Tomorrow.''
  • an Old English word for "holy", see weoh.

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Fashion in the period 1600-1650 in Western European clothing is characterized by the disappearance of the ruff in favor of broad lace or linen collars. Waistlines rose through the period for both men and women.
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Sleeve (O. Eng. slieve, or slyf, a word allied to slip, cf. Dutch sloof) is that part of a garment which covers the arm, or through which the arm passes or slips.
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corset is a garment worn to mold and shape the torso into a desired shape for aesthetic or medical purposes (either for the duration of wearing it, or with a more lasting effect).

Both men and women are known to wear corsets.
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petticoat or underskirt is an article of clothing for women; specifically an undergarment to be worn under a skirt, dress or sari. The petticoat is a separate garment hanging from the waist (unlike the chemise).
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Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands with a population of 6.1 million people. Holland was a county of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by the Count of Holland, and later became the dominant province of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces
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ruff is an item of clothing worn in Western Europe from the mid-sixteenth century to the mid-seventeenth century.

The ruff evolved from the small fabric ruffle at the drawstring neck of the shirt or chemise.
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gown (medieval Latin gunna) is a (usually) loose outer garment from knee- to full-length worn by men and women in Europe from the early Middle Ages to the seventeenth century (and continuing today in certain professions); later, gown
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chemise can refer to the classic smock or shift, or else can refer to certain modern types of women's undergarments and dresses. In the classical usage it is a simple garment worn next to the skin to protect clothing from sweat and body oils, the precursor to the
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Sir Peter Lely (14 September, 1618 - 30 November, 1680) was a painter of Dutch origin. He was the most popular portrait artist in England from soon after he arrived in the country in the 1640s to his death.
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Sir Anthony van Dyck (many variant spellings [1] See Van Dyke for other uses of all spellings), (22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish artist who became the leading court painter in England.
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Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century

1600s 1610s 1620s - 1630s - 1640s 1650s 1660s
1630 1631 1632 1633 1634
1635 1636 1637 1638 1639

- -
-

Events and trends

  • Great Migration (Puritan)

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A Mantua (from the French Manteuil ) is an article of women's clothing worn in the late seventeenth century and early eighteenth century. Originally a loose gown, the later mantua was an overgown or robe typically worn over an underdress or stomacher and petticoat.
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8th century - 9th century - 10th century
850s  860s  870s  - 880s -  890s  900s  910s
885 886 887 - 888 - 889 890 891

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. Although Pepys had no maritime experience, he rose by patronage, hard work and his talent for administration to be the Chief
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riding habit is women's clothing for horseback riding.

Since the mid-17th century, a formal habit for riding sidesaddle usually consisted of:
  • A tailored jacket with a long skirt (sometimes called a petticoat) to match
  • A tailored shirt or chemisette

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Marie Angélique de Scorailles de Roussille, duchesse de Fontanges (1661–1681), one of the many paramours of King Louis XIV of France, was a lady in waiting to Elizabeth Charlotte, Princess Palatine who caught the attention of the King and became his lover in 1679.
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Margaret Theresa of Spain (Spanish: Margarita Teresa de España), (German: Margarete Theresia von Spanien) (12 July, 1651, Madrid, Spain - 12 March, 1673, Vienna, Austria), Infanta of Spain and Empress of the Holy Roman Empire.
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viol (also called viola da gamba) is any one of a family of bowed, fretted stringed musical instruments developed in the 1400s and used primarily in the Renaissance and Baroque periods.
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James II (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[1] became King of England, King of Scots,[2] and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of Scotland, England, and Ireland.
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