Abhira

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An Ahir woman harvesting wheat in Nadapa, east of Bhuj
Ahir (a corruption of the word, "fearless") is a subgroup of the Yadav caste of India.

The people of the Ahir tribe are traditionally cow herders and shepherds. They are a subcaste of Dhangar and are not only found in the Kaatch (Kutch) area of western Gujarat, but also in Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, Nepal [1]. The Ahirs also share most gotras with the Jats (Abhars) and have the same physical appearance as them. This led to the theory they being of the same stock.

According to tradition, the Abhiras had the distinction of founding the first recorded kingdom on the banks of the sacred river Saraswati. On the other side of the river was the kingdom of the Suras. The Sarswati gradually went underground, and the Suras were blamed for the mishap and charged with sins with which the river was burdened. Both the Suras and Abhiras had to migrate away from their kingdom and were alienated from the rest of society.

Hindu writers [2] [3] [4] [5] have described the Ahirs as living in the north and west, the quarter varying according to the locality of the writer.The Sabha-parva and Bhisma-parva sections of the Mahabharata mention the province of Abhira, situated near what once was the Sarasvati River in ancient Sind .Suras and Abhira has together been referred to as Surabhiras in scriptures and later works does not discriminate between the two.Many scholars have sought link between Indian Abhira and Surabhir with Biblical equivalent Ophir and Sofir.Ptolemy says there was a country called Abhira at the mouth of the River Indus.Sreemad Bhagwatam gives similar account and location matches with Sind.Christian Lassen (1800-1876) author of Indische Alterthumskunde vol I p. 354, thinks “Ophir” was a seaport on the south west coast of India. Mrs.Manning says it was situated on the western coast of India.Gesenius, Sir Emerson Tennent, and Max Muller appear to agree with Christian Lassen .Because of so many views in favour sometimes Abhira is regarded as equivalent of Ophir, mentioned in the Bible and sofir (also the coptic name of India) refers to surabhir .

According to the Markandeya Purana, all the Haiheya aggressors (warrior caste) were killed in a massacre led by Parshuram. In that time, the Ahirs were either a sub-clan of the Hayheya or sided with the Hayheya. Only the Abhiras survived by escaping into the craters between mountains. The sage Markandeya remarked that "all Haiheya have been killed but Abhira have survived; they will surely rule the earth in Kaliyuga." The Ahirs also attacked Arjun as he entered the Ahirvati and launced attacks against the Yadus.[6] Vātsyāyana also mentions the Abhira kingdoms in the Kama Sutra[1].References of Abhira being residents of kingdom ruled by Yudhisthira is found in Bhagwatam. [7]

Shreemad Bhagwatam, which gives detailed account of dynasties ruling after great war of Mahabharata, talks in detail about Abhira rulers

:Then will follow seven kings of the Abhira race from the city of Avabhrti, and then ten Gardabhis. After them, sixteen kings of the Kankas will rule and will be known for their excessive greed.Eight Yavanas will then take power, followed by fourteen Turuskas, ten Gurundas and eleven kings of the Maula dynasty.These Abhiras, Gardabhis and Kankas will enjoy the earth for 1,099 years.


Gupta Dynasty's account exactly matches with the Abhira Kings mentioned in the Bhagwatam.Many believe both Guptas[8] and Mauryas were abhir[9].

They are identified by different names in different regions of the country:

Andar, Ahiyaru , Ahir, Appugol, Maldhari / Bharwad / Rabari, Bharavadaru, Dhangar, Dhangad / Dhanwar / Dhanka /Dhangod, Doddi Gowda, Gadhariya, Gadaria, Gowda, Gaddi, Gadri, Gollavadu, Gounder,Halumatha, Heggades, Idyar, Khuruk, Kuda, Kuruba, Kuruba Gowda, Kurumba, Kurmar, Kurumbar, Kalavar, Kuruma, Kurumavaaru, Kurkhi, Kurupu, Naikers, Nikhers, Oraon, Pal / Pala, Palaru, Paalakyatriya, Poduvar, Yadavalu.

The Ahirs were also one of the more militant Hindus, including in the modern era. For example, in 1930 about 200 Ahirs marched towards the shrine of Trilochan and performed puja in response to tanzeem processions.[10]

Language

The spoken language among Abhiras, was known as Ahirani [11] or Abhiri [12] as described in Bharata's Natyasastr {Kavyamala No. 42}.

See also

References

1. ^ [2] Nepal Before Unification
2. ^ [3]
3. ^ [4]
4. ^ [5]
5. ^ [6]
6. ^ The Birth of Yaduvansh] Sunita Singh
7. ^ [7]
8. ^ [8] Nepal Before Unification
9. ^ [9]
10. ^ P. 307, The Politics of the Urban Poor in Early Twentieth-Century India By Nandini Gooptu
11. ^ [10] ISO 639-3: ahr Ahirani
12. ^ [11]

External links

  1. Death of the Aryan Invasion Theory
  2. Ophir-Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary
  3. Abhira Located in Sind-Shrimad Bhagwatam
  4. Krishna, as Abhira-boy to Radha, Sri Caitanya Caritamta Antya 1.154
  5. History of Antiquity – By Max Dunker volume IV
  6. Ancient Indian Commerce
  7. Puranic Literature
  8. Newletter142

  1. Pandulena, Nasik Maharashtra
  2. Sindh News for Sindhi People
  3. Scythic Origin of the Rajput Race
  4. Andhra History
  5. Maharastra History
  6. Vaishnava
Yadav or Yadava (Sanskrit: यादव) is an Indian caste that claims descent from Yadu. Yadavas have been mentioned as one of the ancient Vedic panchjanya tribes in ancient Dharmic texts.
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Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social restriction and social stratification, enforced by law or common practice, based on endogamy, , economic status, race and ethnicity.
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The Dhangar (Sanskrit / Devanāgarī: धनगर ) caste is primarily located in the Indian state of Maharashtra. The literal translation of the name Dhangar is "Who is wealthy". The word Dhangar is derived from the Sanskrit word 'Dhenu' i.e. Cow.
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The Sarasvati River (Sanskrit: सरस्वती नदी
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Sura (sometimes spelt "Surah" سورة sūrah
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Hindu ( pronunciation  , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the
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Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος; after 83 – 161 AD), known in English as Ptolemy, was a Greek[1] or Egyptian
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Indus
Sindh, Sindhu, Hindu, Abasin, Sengge Chu
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Sindh (Sindhī: سنڌ, Urdū: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. Different cultural and ethnic groups also reside in Sindh including Urdu speaking people who migrated from India
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Christian Lassen (October 22, 1800 - May 8, 1876) was a Norwegian- German orientalist.

He was born at Bergen, Norway. Having received a university education at Oslo, he went to Germany and continued his studies at the University of Heidelberg and the University of Bonn.
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Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius (February 3, 1786–October 23, 1842), was a German orientalist and Biblical critic.

He was born at Nordhausen, Thuringia. In 1803 he became a student of philosophy and theology at the University of Helmstedt, where Heinrich Henke was
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Sir James Emerson Tennent, 1st Baronet (7 April 1804–6 March 1869), born James Emerson, was an English politician and traveller.

The third son of William Emerson, a merchant of Belfast, he was born there in 1804.
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Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German philologist and Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion.
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Ophir (Hebrew: אוֹפִיר, Standard  
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Tanakh (Hebrew: תנ״ך‎) (also Tanach, IPA: [taˈnax]
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Coptic}}} 
Writing system: Coptic alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: cop
ISO 639-3: cop Coptic or Coptic Egyptian[3] ( Met.
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Indian subcontinent is a large section of the Asian continent consisting of countries lying substantially on the Indian tectonic plate. These include countries on the continental crust— India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and parts of Afghanistan, Nepal and Bhutan, island countries
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Markandeya Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is in the style of a dialogue between the sage Jaimini, and the sage Markandeya. It generally has not sectarian content, that is, it is neutral to Vishnu and Shiva, and other aspects of the deities.
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Parashurama Bhargava (Sanskrit: परशुराम भार्गव) or Parasurama (Axe-wielding Rama), the sixth avatar of Vishnu, belongs to the Treta yuga, and is the son of Jamadagni and Renuka.
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Kali Yuga (Devanāgarī: कलियुग, lit. "Age of Kali", "age of vice"), is one of the four stages of development that the world goes through as part of the cycle of Yugas, as described in Hindu
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Arjun and Arjuna are popular male given names in India and Sri Lanka.

Arjun or Arjuna may refer to:
  • Arjuna, a hero of the Mahabharata, a Hindu epic
  • Arjun MBT, an Indian main battle tank

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Yadu (Sanskrit: यदु) is the name of one of the five Aryan clans mentioned in the Rig Veda. The epic Mahabharata and Puranas refer to Yadu as the eldest son of mythological king Yayati.
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Abhira kingdom finds reference in Hindu scriptures, but its description and location varies according to the particular scripture.

The most ancient reference to Abhira Kingdom indicates its location on the banks of the river Saraswati.
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Kamasutram, generally known to the Western world as Kama Sutra, is an ancient Indian text widely considered to be the standard work on love in Sanskrit literature. This is authored by Mallanaga Vatsyayana. A portion of the work deals with human sexual behavior.
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Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. It was ruled by members of the Gupta dynasty from around 320 to 600 CE and covered most of Northern India, the region presently in the nation of Pakistan and what is now western India and Bangladesh.
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Gupta (Hindi: गुप्ता) is a surname of Indian origin. Gupta is a common surname in India, but it is uncertain whether there was one parent clan from which all families with Gupta surname branched. According to the historian R. C.
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Maurya Empire (322–185 BCE), ruled by the Mauryan dynasty, was a geographically extensive and powerful political and military empire in ancient India.

Originating from the kingdom of Magadha in the Indo-Gangetic plains (modern Bihar and Bengal) in the eastern side of
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Ahir (a corruption of the word, "fearless") is a subgroup of the Yadav caste of India.

The people of the Ahir tribe are traditionally cow herders and shepherds. They are a subcaste of Dhangar and are not only found in the Kaatch (Kutch) area of western Gujarat, but also in
..... Click the link for more information.
Maldharis are nomadic herdsmen who live in the Gujarat state of India. Literal meaning of Maldhari is owner of animal stock. In different regions, they belong to different caste genre.
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