Adyghe people

Adyghe
Total population
600,000
Regions with significant populations
Russia:
   200,000
Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Republic of Macedonia, Lebanon, Syria, United States, West Europe
Languages
Adyghe language, Russian, Turkish
Religions
Sunni Islam
Related ethnic groups
Kabardin, other "Circassian" peoples
The Adyghe or Adygs are a people of the northwest Caucasus region, principally inhabiting Adygeya (23%) (now a constituent republic of the Russian Federation) and Karachay-Cherkessia (11%) (where they are named as "Cherkes"). Shapsug National District, an autonomous district founded for Shapsigh (or Shapsugh) tribe living on the Black Sea coast was abolished in 1943. Kabardin of Kabardino-Balkaria (along with Besleney tribe) who speak the Kabardian language are often conceived as the eastern branch of Adyghe. While Adyghe is the name this people apply to themselves, in the West they are often known as the Circassians, a term which can also apply to a broader group of peoples in the North Caucasus. Their language is also referred to as Adyghe or Adygeyan. Besleney speak a dialect of Kabardian.

History

The Adyghe first emerged as a coherent entity somewhere around the tenth century A.D., although references to them exist much earlier. They were never politically united, a fact which reduced their influence in the area and their ability to withstand periodic invasions from groups like the Mongols, Avars, Pechenegs, Huns, and Khazars.

This lack of unity eventually cost the Adyghe their independence, as they were slowly conquered by Russia in a series of wars and campaigns in the late 18th and early to mid-19th centuries. During this period, the Adyghe plight achieved a certain celebrity status in the West, but pledges of assistance were never fulfilled. After the Crimean War, Russia turned her attention to the Caucasus in earnest, starting with the peoples of Chechnya and Dagestan. In 1859, the Russians had finished defeating Imam Shamil in the eastern Caucasus, and turned their attention westward, finally subjugating the Adyghe in 1864.

Like other ethnic minorities under Russian rule, the Adyghe were subjected to policies of mass resettlement. Collectivization under the Communists also took its toll.

Culture

The Adyghe were a warlike people. Grown men were expected to carry arms, and boys trained to be warriors. Familial ties were not strongly encouraged; parents fostered their children to other adults rather than raising them themselves. The Adyghe society was once matriarchal. Women fought in war alongside their husbands. Although the society is no longer matriarchal, women still have a high place of respect and dignity.

Adyghe society prior to the Russian invasion was highly stratified. While a few tribes in the mountainous regions of Adygeya were fairly egalitarian, most were broken into strict castes. The highest was the caste of the "princes", followed by a caste of lesser nobility, and then commoners, serfs, and slaves. In the decades before Russian rule, two tribes overthrew their traditional rulers and set up democratic processes, but this social experiment was cut short by the end of Adyghe independence.

Today most Adyghe speak Russian and/or the original Adyghe language, a member of the Northwest Caucasian (Circassian) language family. Both languages are written with the Cyrillic alphabet.

The primary religion among modern Adyghe is Sunni Islam.

The main Adyghe tribes are: Abzekh, Adamey, Bzhedugh;Hakuch, Hatukuay, Kabardey, Kemirgoy, Makhosh; Natekuay, Shapsigh; Zhane, Yegerikuay, Besleney. Most Adyghe living in Caucasia are Bzhedugh and Kemirgoy, while the majority in diaspora are Abzekh and Shapsigh. Standard Adyghe language is based on Kemirgoy dialect.

The Diaspora

Adyghe have lived outside the Caucasus region since the Middle Ages. They formed a tradition of joining foreign armies, including those of Persia, Rome, Byzantium, and the Golden Horde. They were particularly well represented in the Mamluks of Turkey and Egypt. In fact, the Burji dynasty which ruled Egypt from 1382 to 1517 was founded by Adyghe Mamluks.

Much of Adyghe culture was disrupted after their conquest by Russia in 1864. This led to a diaspora of the peoples of the northwest Caucasus, known as Muhajirism, mostly to various parts of the Ottoman Empire. The largest Adyghe diaspora community today is in Turkey, especially in Samsun, Kahramanmaraş, Kayseri, and Düzce. Significant communities live in Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Israel (in the villages of Kfar Kama and Rikhaniya), Libya, the Republic of Macedonia, and the United States (Upstate New York and New Jersey). The small community in Kosovo expatriated to Adygea in 1998. [1] A number of Adyghe were introduced to Bulgaria in 1864-1865 but most fled after it became separate from the Ottoman Empire in 1878. Today, their number in Bulgaria is estimated at around 1,300.

See also

References

  • Amjad Jaimoukha, The Circassians: A Handbook, New York: Palgrave, 2001; London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2001. ISBN 0-312-23994-7

External links

Anthem
Hymn of the Russian Federation


Capital
(and largest city) Moscow

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Yurtta Sulh, Cihanda Sulh
Peace at Home, Peace in the World
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İstiklâl Marşı
The Anthem of Independence
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Anthem
عاش المليك
The Royal Anthem of Jordan
   ("As-salam al-malaki al-urdoni") 1
Long live the King
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Hatikvah
The Hope


Capital
(and largest city) Jerusalem

Official languages Hebrew, Arabic
Demonym Israeli
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Денес над Македонија   (Macedonian)
"Today over Macedonia"
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Motto
Kūllūnā li-l-waṭan, li-l-'ula wa-l-'alam   (Arabic)
"Nous sommes tous pour le pays, la sublimation et le drapeau!"
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Homat el Diyar
Guardians of the Land


Capital
(and largest city) Damascus

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Motto
"In God We Trust"   (since 1956)
"E Pluribus Unum"   ("From Many, One"; Latin, traditional)
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Western Europe is mainly a socio-political concept forged during the Cold War, which largely defined its borders. Its boundaries were effectively forged during the final stages of World War II and came to encompass all European countries which did not come under Soviet control and
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Adyghe language (адыгэбзэ, adygebze, adəgăbză
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Russian}}} 
Writing system: Cyrillic (Russian variant)  
Official status
Official language of:  Abkhazia (Georgia)
 Belarus
 Commonwealth of Independent States (working)
 Crimea (de facto; Ukraine)
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Turkish (Türkçe, ]
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Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Sunnism or as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic:
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Kabarda, Kabard or Kabarid are simply alternative ways of referring to the Kabar people of the northern Caucasus more commonly known by the plural term Kabardin (or Kebertei as they term themselves).
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Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess (Çerkes), and is not the self-designation of any people. It has sometimes been applied indiscriminately to all the peoples of the North Caucasus.
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Caucasus or Caucasia is a region in Eurasia bordered on the north by Russia, on the southwest by Turkey, on the west by the Black Sea, on the east by the Caspian Sea, and on the south by Iran. The Caucasus includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands.
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Республика Адыге?
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Anthem
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Capital
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Карачаево-Черкесская Республик?
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Cherkes (also Cherkess) are an ethnic group of the northwestern Caucasus region, principally inhabiting northern Karachay-Cherkessia (where they comprise 11% of the population) as well as four villages of Adygeya: Khodz, Blechepsin, Koshekhabl, and Ulyap.
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Autonomous district is a type of administrative country subdivision.

It can be found in Russia, see Autonomous districts of Russia.


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Shapsugs (Russian: Шапсуги; self-designation: шапсыг, or Shapsyg) are a people of the Adyghe branch, who live in Tuapsinsky District of Krasnodar Krai, Lazarevsky City
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Shapsugs (Russian: Шапсуги; self-designation: шапсыг, or Shapsyg) are a people of the Adyghe branch, who live in Tuapsinsky District of Krasnodar Krai, Lazarevsky City
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19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1910s  1920s  1930s  - 1940s -  1950s  1960s  1970s
1940 1941 1942 - 1943 - 1944 1945 1946

Year 1943 (MCMXLIII
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Kabarda, Kabard or Kabarid are simply alternative ways of referring to the Kabar people of the northern Caucasus more commonly known by the plural term Kabardin (or Kebertei as they term themselves).
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Кабардино-Балкарская Республик?
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The Kabardian language is closely related to the Adyghe language (see Adyghe people), both members of the Northwest Caucasian language family, mainly spoken in Kabardino-Balkar Republic and Karachay-Cherkess Republic of Russia (the native territories) and in Turkey and the
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Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess (Çerkes), and is not the self-designation of any people. It has sometimes been applied indiscriminately to all the peoples of the North Caucasus.
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Adyghe language (адыгэбзэ, adygebze, adəgăbză
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