affricate

Manners of articulation
Obstruent
Click
Stop
Ejective
Implosive
Affricate
Fricative
Sibilant
Sonorant
Nasal
Flaps/Tap
Trill
Approximant
Liquid
Vowel
Semivowel
Lateral
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Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as [t] or [d]) but release as a fricative (such as [s] or [z] or occasionally into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel.

Samples

The English sounds spelled "ch" and "j" (transcribed [tʃ] and [dʒ] in IPA), German and Italian z [ts] and Italian z [dz] are typical affricates. These sounds are fairly common in the world's languages, as are other affricates with similar sounds, such as those in Polish and Chinese. However, other than [dʒ], voiced affricates are relatively uncommon. For several places of articulation they aren't attested at all.

Much less common are e.g. labiodental affricates, such as [p͡f] in German, or velar affricates, such as [k͡x] in Tswana (written kg) or High Alemannic Swiss German dialects (depending on the dialect also uvular [q͡χ]). Worldwide, only a few languages have affricates in these positions, even though the corresponding stop consonants are virtually universal. Also less common are alveolar affricates where the fricative is lateral, such as the [tɬ] sound found in Nahuatl and Totonac. Many Athabaskan languages (such as Dene Suline and Navajo) have series of coronal affricates which may be unaspirated, aspirated, or ejective in addition to being interdental/dental, alveolar, postalveolar, or lateral, i.e. [t̪͡θ], [t̪͡θʰ], [t̪͡θ’], [ts], [tsʰ], [ts’], [tʃ], [tʃʰ], [tʃ’], [tɬ], [tɬʰ], and [tɬ’]. Affricates may also be contrasted by palatalization, as in the Erzya language, where voiceless alveolar, postalveolar and palatal affricates are contrasted. Affricates may also have phonemic length, that is, affected by a chroneme, as in Karelian.

Notation

Affricates are often represented by the two sounds they consist of (e.g. [pf], [kx]). However, single signs for the affricates may be desirable, in order to stress that they function as unitary speech segments (i.e. as phonemes). In this case, the IPA recommends joining the two elements of the affricate by a tie bar (e.g. [p͡f], [k͡x]). Ligatures are available in Unicode for the six common affricates [ʦ], [ʣ], [ʧ], [ʤ], [ʨ], and [ʥ].

Another method is to indicate the release of the affricate with a superscript: [tˢ], [kˣ]. This is derived from the IPA convention of indicating other releases with a superscript.

In other phonetic transcription systems, such as the Americanist system, the affricates [ts], [dz], [tʃ], [dʒ], [tɬ], and [dɮ] are represented as <c> or <¢>; <j>, <ƶ>, or (older) <ʒ>; <c> or <č>; <ǰ>, <ǧ>, or (older) <ǯ>; <ƛ>; and <λ> or
respectively. Within the IPA, [tʃ] and [dʒ] are sometimes transcribed as palatal stops, <c> and <ɟ>.

Affricates vs. stop-fricative sequences

Affricates can contrast with stop-fricative sequences. Examples include:
Polish: [t͡ʃ] in czysta 'clean (f.)'   vs.   [tʃ] in trzysta 'three hundred',
and
Klallam: [t͡s] in k’ʷə́nc 'look at me'   vs.   [ts] in k’ʷə́nts 'he looks at it'.


The difference is that in the stop-fricative sequence, the stop has a release of its own before the fricative starts, but in the affricate, the fricative element is the release. Stop-fricative sequences may have a syllable boundary between the two segments.

Affricates and stop-fricative sequences are also distinguished phonemically. In English, [ts] and [dz] (as in nuts and nods) are considered to be sequences of a stop phoneme and a fricative phoneme even though they are phonetically affricates, because they may have a morpheme boundary in them (e.g. nuts is nut + s). The real English affricate phonemes /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ cannot have a morpheme boundary, and in order to show that they are not sequences of phonemes, some notation systems use <č> and <ǰ> to represent these two affricates (though this is not considered standard IPA notation).

List of affricates

In the case of coronals, the symbols <t, d> are normally used for the stop portion of the affricate regardless of place. For example, [t͡ʂ] is commonly seen for [ʈ͡ʂ]. For legibility, the tie bars have been removed from the table entries.

The exemplar languages are ones that these sounds have been reported from, but in several cases they may need confirmation.

Sibilant affricates

Non-sibilant affricates

Lateral affricates

Trilled affricates

Other Affricates

The more common of the voiceless affricates are all attested as ejectives as well: [tθ’, ts’, tɬ’, tʃ’, tɕ’, tʂ’, cʎ̥ʼ, kx’, kʟ̝̊’]. Several Khoisan languages such as !Xóõ are reported to have voiced ejective affricates, but these are actually consonant clusters: [dts’, dtʃ’]. Affricates are also commonly aspirated: [m̪p̪fʰ, tθʰ, tsʰ, tɬʰ, tʃʰ, tɕʰ, tʂʰ], occasionally murmured: [m̪b̪vʱ, d̠ʒʱ], and sometimes prenasalized: [ndz, ndzʰ, ɳɖʐ, ɳɖʐʰ]. Labialized, palatalized, velarized, and pharyngealized affricates also occur.

Citations

See also

manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs are involved in making a sound make contact. Often the concept is only used for the production of consonants.
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obstruent is a consonant sound formed by obstructing outward airflow, causing increased air pressure in the vocal tract.

Obstruents are those articulations in which there is a total closure or a stricture causing friction, both groups being associated with a
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Clicks are stops articulated with two closures in the oral cavity. The pocket of air enclosed between these two closures is rarefied by a sucking action of the tongue. (That is, they have a velaric/lingual ingressive airstream mechanism.
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stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. The terms plosive and stop are usually used interchangeably, but they are not perfect synonyms.
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Manners of articulation
Obstruent
Click
Stop
Ejective
Implosive
Affricate
Fricative
Sibilant
Sonorant
Nasal
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Implosive consonants are stops (rarely affricates) with a glottalic ingressive airstream mechanism. That is, the airstream is controlled by moving the glottis downward, rather than by expelling air from the lungs as in normal pulmonic consonants.
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Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. These are the lower lip against the upper teeth in the case of [f]
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sibilant is a type of fricative or affricate consonant, made by directing a jet of air through a narrow channel in the vocal tract towards the sharp edge of the teeth.

The term

The term sibilant is often taken to be synonymous with the term strident
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sonorant is a speech sound that is produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract. Essentially this means that a sound is sonorant if it can be produced continuously at the same pitch.
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nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. The oral cavity still acts as a resonance chamber for the sound, but the air does not escape through the mouth as it is
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flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
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trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. Standard Spanish <rr> as in perro is an alveolar trill, while in Parisian French it is almost always uvular.

Trills are very different from flaps.
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Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. In the articulation of approximants, articulatory organs produce a narrowing of the vocal tract, but leave enough space for air to flow without much audible turbulence.
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Liquid consonants, or liquids, are approximant consonants that are not classified as semivowels (glides) because they do not correspond phonetically to specific vowels (in the way that, for example, the initial [j]
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vowel is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by an open configuration of the vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure above the glottis. This contrasts with consonants, which are characterized by a constriction or closure at one or more points along the
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Semivowels (also glides, more rarely: semiconsonants) are non-syllabic vowels that form diphthongs with syllabic vowels. They may be contrasted with approximants, which are similar to but closer than vowels or semivowels and behave as consonants.
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Laterals are "L"-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue.
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Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning 'sound, voice') is the study of the sounds of human speech. It is concerned with the actual properties of speech sounds (phones), and their production, audition and perception, while phonology, which
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International Phonetic Alphabet

Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.

The International
Phonetic Alphabet
History
Nonstandard symbols
Extended IPA
Naming conventions
IPA for English The
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consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. The word consonant
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stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. The terms plosive and stop are usually used interchangeably, but they are not perfect synonyms.
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Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
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Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. These are the lower lip against the upper teeth in the case of [f]
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trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. Standard Spanish <rr> as in perro is an alveolar trill, while in Parisian French it is almost always uvular.

Trills are very different from flaps.
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English}}} 
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ISO 639-1: en
ISO 639-2: eng
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International Phonetic Alphabet

Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.

The International
Phonetic Alphabet
History
Nonstandard symbols
Extended IPA
Naming conventions
IPA for English The
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German language (Deutsch, ] ) is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages.
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Official status
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Polish}}} 
Writing system: Latin (Polish variant) 
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