Agaricus bisporus

Common mushroom

Conservation status
secure
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Fungi
Division:Basidiomycota
Class:Homobasidiomycetes
Subclass:Homobasidiomycetidae
Order:Agaricales
Family:Agaricaceae
Genus:Agaricus
Species:A. bisporus
Binomial name
Agaricus bisporus
(J.E.Lange) Imbach


<imagemap>Image:Information-silk.png|How to create a mycomorphbox rect 0 0 50 50 desc none</imagemap>Agaricus bisporus
mycological characteristics:
 
gills on hymenium
 
umbonate cap is convex umbonate
 
no hymenium is free sinuate
 
cortina stipe has a ring ring and volva
 
yellow-orange spore print is brown buff
 
saprophytic ecology is saprophytic saprophytic
 
unknown edibility: edible or
Agaricus bisporus, known as table mushroom, cultivated mushroom or button mushroom, is an edible basidiomycete fungus which naturally occurs in grasslands, fields and meadows across Europe and North America, though has spread much more widely and is one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms in the world. The original wild form bore a brownish cap and dark brown gills but more familiar is the current variant with a white form with white cap, stalk and flesh and brown gills.

Some grocery stores in the Western world sell this mushroom in canned and fresh preparations. An agaric, its gills are often left on in preparations. It can be found cooked on pizzas and casseroles, stuffed mushrooms, raw on salads, and in various forms in a variety of dishes. Mycologist Paul Stamets has raised concerns that this mushroom contains trace quantities of a chemical agaritine known to have carcinogenic properties, though whether levels are sufficient to cause harm in consumers is debated.

Taxonomy and naming

Agaricus bisporus is known by many names several of which refer to different stages; "button mushroom" when sold, collected or eaten in young, unopened form, "Crimini mushroom" or "baby bella" an immature portobello, or "Portobello mushroom" as a large brown mature mushroom. It is known as the champignon de Paris in France. It is also often called simply "champignon" (the french word for "fungus") in several languages.

The cultivated mushroom is a member of the large genus Agaricus, which has numerous members which are edible, tasty and collected worldwide. The next best-known is the commonly collected wild mushroom A. campestris, known in North America as the meadow mushroom or field mushroom in England and Australia. This can be found throughout much of the United States and Europe.

For many years it and other members of the genus were placed in the genus Psalliota.

Description

The pileus or cap of the original wild species is pale brown in color and 5-10 cm (2-4 in) in diameter; it is first hemispherical in shape before flattening out with maturity. The crowded gills are initially pink, then red-brown and finally a dark brown, as is the spore print. The stipe is up to 6 cm (2⅓ in) tall and bears a rough ring. The flesh is white though stains a pale pinkish-red on bruising.[1][1]

Commonly found in fields and grassy areas after rain from late spring through to autumn worldwide, especially in association with manure. It is widely collected and eaten, even by those who would not normally experiment with mushrooming.[1]

Similar species

See also: Mushroom hunting
The common mushroom can easily be confused with young specimens of the destroying angel (Amanita virosa), however the latter can be distinguished by their volva or cup at the base of the mushroom and pure white gills (as opposed to pinkish or brown of Agaricus bisporus). Thus it is important to always clear away debris and examine the base of a mushroom, as well as cutting open young specimens to check the gills. Furthermore, the destroying angel grows on mossy woods and lives symbiotically with spruce.

Culinary use

Common mushrooms are fairly rich in vitamins and minerals. The mushroom contains an especially high amount of vitamin B and potassium. Raw mushrooms are naturally cholesterol, fat, and sodium free. The mushrooms also have very low energy levels — five medium-sized common mushrooms added together only have 20 calories.

Common mushrooms have a unique flavor that can be matched by few other mushrooms. No specific flavor can be defined; most people describe the mushroom as "plain", but other people say that the common mushroom tastes slightly sweet or "meaty".

Like potatoes and apples, table mushrooms oxidize ("rust") quickly when exposed to air. When sliced and exposed to air for ten minutes or more, the mushrooms quickly soften, turn a brownish color, and lose their original flavor.

History of cultivation

The cultivated Agaricus bisporus common mushroom originated in France. Originally, cultivation was unreliable as mushroom growers would watch for good flushes of mushrooms in fields and then dig up the mycelium, replanting in beds of composted manure or inoculating 'bricks' of compressed litter, loam and manure. Spawn collected this way contained pathogens and crops would be commonly infected or not grow at all.[3]

In 1893 sterilised, or pure culture, spawn was discovered and produced by the Pasteur Institute in Paris.[4] Today's commercial variety of the common mushroom was originally a light brown color. In 1926, a Pennsylvanian mushroom farmer found a clump of common mushrooms with white caps in his mushroom bed. Like white bread it was seen as a more attractive food item and was very popular.[5] As was done with the navel orange and Red Delicious apple, cultures were grown from the mutant individuals, and most of the cream-colored store mushrooms we see today are products of this chance natural mutation.

In most supermarkets, common mushrooms are marketed as "table mushrooms" and are often packed in small quantities. Mushrooms may be sold sliced or whole.

Portobello mushroom

The 'Portobello mushroom' is a large brown strain of the same fungus, left to mature and take on a broader, more open shape before picking. Portobello mushrooms are distinguished by their large size, thick cap and stem, and a distinctive musky smell. Because of their size and the thickness of their fleshy caps, these mushrooms can be cooked in a range of different ways, including grilling and frying.




Portobello mushrooms

Portobello mushrooms are popular mushrooms for stuffing

Cross-section

View from underneath


Crimini mushroom

Although sometimes described a sub-variety of the portobello mushroom, the Crimini or Cremini mushroom is actually an immature portobello. Marketers have begun to refer to Crimini mushrooms as baby Portobellos and Portabellinis. Left to grow another 48 to 72 hours, a Crimini mushroom will more than quadruple in size, taking on the large-capped Portobello shape. They are more delicate in texture but still have the meaty Portobello flavor.

Agaritine

Common mushrooms, as all mushrooms of the genus Agaricus, have been found to contain very low levels of agaritine, which will metabolize into hydrazine, a well known carcinogen[6][7].

References

1. ^ Zeitlmayr L (1976). Wild Mushrooms:An Illustrated Handbook. Garden City Press, Hertfordshire, 82-83. ISBN 0-584-10324-7. 
2. ^ Carluccio A (2003). The Complete Mushroom Book pages=21-22. Quadrille. ISBN 1-84400-040-0. 
3. ^ Genders. p19
4. ^ Genders. p18
5. ^ Genders. p121
6. ^ NCBI.NLM.NIM.GOV Abstract
7. ^ Agartine, Fungi.com

Cited texts

External links

conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. Many factors are taken into account when assessing the conservation status of a species: not simply the number remaining, but the
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Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. Scientific classification also can be called scientific taxonomy, but should be distinguished from folk taxonomy, which lacks scientific basis.
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Eukarya
Whittaker & Margulis, 1978
(unranked) Opisthokonta

Kingdom: Fungi
(L., 1753) R.T. Moore, 1980[1]

Subkingdom/Phyla

Chytridiomycota
Blastocladiomycota

..... Click the link for more information.
Basidiomycota
R.T. Moore, 1980[1]

Subphyla/Classes

Pucciniomycotina
Ustilaginomycotina
Agaricomycotina
Incertae sedis (no phylum)
Wallemiomycetes
Entorrhizomycetes




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Agaricomycetes includes the so-called "true" mushrooms and a common name for this group of some 16,000 described species is the mushroom-forming fungi (53% of the described basidiomycetes).
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Homobasidiomycetidae

Homobasidiomycetidae is one of the two subclasses of the class Homobasidiomycetes which is contained in the Kingdom of Fungi. The other subclass is Gasteromycetidae.
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Agaricales, also known as gilled mushrooms (for their distinctive gills), or euagarics, contains some of the most familiar types of mushrooms. The order has about 4,000 identified species, or one quarter of all known homobasidiomycetes.
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Agaricaceae is a family of basidiomycete fungi and includes organisms previously known as Tulostomataceae and Lepiotaceae.

Genera Leucoagaricus and Leucocoprinus are varieties of fungus cultivated by ants in ant-fungus mutualism.
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Agaricus

Species
See article

Agaricus is a large and important genus of mushrooms containing both edible and poisonous species, with possibly over 300 members worldwide[1][2].
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binomial nomenclature is the formal system of naming species. The system is also called binominal nomenclature (particularly in zoological circles), binary nomenclature (particularly in botanical circles), or the binomial classification system.
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The hymenium is the tissue layer on the hymenophore of a fungal fruiting body where the cells develop into basidia or asci, which produce spores. In some species all of the cells of the hymenium develop into basidia or asci, while in others some cells develop into sterile cells
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The pileus is the technical name for what is commonly known as the cap of a fungal fruiting body. It is particularly characteristic of agarics, boletes, and some polypores, tooth fungi, and ascocarps.
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The hymenium is the tissue layer on the hymenophore of a fungal fruiting body where the cells develop into basidia or asci, which produce spores. In some species all of the cells of the hymenium develop into basidia or asci, while in others some cells develop into sterile cells
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stipe refers to the stem or stalk-like feature supporting the cap of a mushroom. Like all tissues of the mushroom other than the hymenium, the stipe is composed of sterile hyphal tissue. In many instances, however, the fertile hymenium extends down the stipe some distance.
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spore print of a mushroom is an important diagnostic character in most handbooks for identifying mushrooms. A spore print is made by placing the spore-producing surface flat on a sheet of dark and white (or just white) paper . The mushroom is left overnight in this manner.
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A saprotroph (or saprobe) is an organism that obtains its nutrients from non-living organic matter, usually dead and decaying plant or animal matter, by absorbing soluble organic compounds.
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edible mushroom is a mushroom that can potentially be safely eaten, including thousands of types of mushrooms that are regularly harvested. Some species that cannot be easily cultivated, such as the truffle or matsutake, are highly prized.
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edible mushroom is a mushroom that can potentially be safely eaten, including thousands of types of mushrooms that are regularly harvested. Some species that cannot be easily cultivated, such as the truffle or matsutake, are highly prized.
..... Click the link for more information.
Basidiomycota
R.T. Moore, 1980[1]

Subphyla/Classes

Pucciniomycotina
Ustilaginomycotina
Agaricomycotina
Incertae sedis (no phylum)
Wallemiomycetes
Entorrhizomycetes




..... Click the link for more information.
Eukarya
Whittaker & Margulis, 1978
(unranked) Opisthokonta

Kingdom: Fungi
(L., 1753) R.T. Moore, 1980[1]

Subkingdom/Phyla

Chytridiomycota
Blastocladiomycota

..... Click the link for more information.
Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. Physically and geologically, Europe is the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, west of Asia. Europe is bounded to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Mediterranean Sea,
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North America is a continent [1] in the Earth's northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. It is bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southeast by the Caribbean Sea, and on the south and west
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Agriculture (from Agri Latin for ager ("a field"), and culture, from the Latin cultura "cultivation" in the strict sense of "tillage of the soil". A literal reading of the English word yields "tillage of the soil of a field".
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A Mushroom is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of fungus typically produced above ground on soil or on their food source. The standard for the name mushroom is the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus
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grocery store is a store established primarily for the retailing of food. You buy food at a grocery store. A grocer, the owner of a grocery store, stocks different kinds of foods from assorted places and cultures, and sells them to customers.
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Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e.g., the time period, or the social situation).
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Agaricales, also known as gilled mushrooms (for their distinctive gills), or euagarics, contains some of the most familiar types of mushrooms. The order has about 4,000 identified species, or one quarter of all known homobasidiomycetes.
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Pizza

Structural Variations
Pizza Calzone
Stromboli


Ethnic Variations
Greek pizza
Hawaiian pizza Lahmacun
Manakish Mexican pizza
Pissaladire Sardenara
Sicilian pizza .
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In cooking a casserole, from the French for "sauce pan,"[1] is a large, deep pot or dish used both in the oven and as a serving dish. In the mid-twentieth century, the word also came to be used for the food cooked and served in such a dish.
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Salad is a light meal — or, more commonly a part of a larger meal, such as an appetizer — consisting of mixed vegetables (usually including at least one leaf vegetable) or fruit, often with a dressing or sauce, occasionally nuts and sometimes with the addition of meat,
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