Ahmedabad

''
  Ahmedabad
Gujarat • India
Coordinates:
Area
Elevation| | 1,300 km (0 sq mi)
•  m ( ft)
District(s)| | Ahmedabad
Mayor| style="border-top: 2px dotted #DCDCDC;" | Amit Shah
Coordinates: Ahmedabad (Gujarati: અમદાવાદ Amdāvād, Hindi: अहमदाबाद i) is the largest city in the state of Gujarat and the seventh-largest urban agglomeration in India, with a population of almost 53 lakhs (5.3 million).[1] Located on the banks of the River Sabarmati, the city is the administrative centre of Ahmedabad district, and was the capital of Gujarat from 1960 to 1970; the capital was shifted to Gandhinagar thereafter. The city is sometimes called Karṇāvatī, a name for an older town that existed in the same location; in colloquial Gujarati, it is commonly called Amdāvād.

The city was founded in 1411 to serve as the capital of the Sultanate of Gujarat, by its namesake, Sultan Ahmed Shah. Under British rule, a military cantonment was established and the city infrastructure was modernised and expanded. Although incorporated into the Bombay Presidency during the British rule in India, Ahmedabad remained the most important city in the Gujarat region. The city established itself as the home of a booming textile industry, which earned it the nickname "the Manchester of the East."[2] The city was at the forefront of the Indian independence movement in the first half of the 20th century.[2] It was the epicentre of many campaigns of civil disobedience to promote workers' rights, civil rights and political independence.

With the creation of the state of Gujarat in 1960, Ahmedabad gained prominence as the political and commercial capital of the state. Once characterised by dusty roads and bungalows, the city is witnessing a major construction boom and population increase. A rising centre of education, information technology and scientific industries, Ahmedabad remains the cultural and commercial heart of Gujarat, and much of western India. Since 2000, the city has been transformed through the construction of skyscrapers, shopping malls and multiplexes.[3] However, this progress has been marred by natural calamities, political instability and outbreaks of communal violence.

History

Main article: History of Ahmedabad
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Exterior view of the Sidi Saiyyed Jaali — an unofficial symbol of Ahmedabad
Archaeological evidence suggests that the area around Ahmedabad has been inhabited since the 11th century, when it was known as Ashapalli or Ashaval. At that time, Karandev I, the Solanki ruler of Anhilwara (modern Patan), waged a successful war against the Bhil king of Ashaval. Soon after the victory, he established a city called Karnavati on the banks of the Sabarmati at the site of modern Ahmedabad. Solanki rule lasted until the 13th century, when Gujarat came under the control of the Vaghela dynasty of Dholka and Ahmedabad was conquered by the Sultanate of Delhi.

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Map of Ahmedabad, depicted in a miniature style painting on a cloth, circa 19th century
In 1411 , the rule of the Muzaffarid dynasty was established in Gujarat. According to tradition, Sultan Ahmed Shah, while camping on the banks of the River Sabarmati, saw a hare chasing a dog. Impressed by this act of bravery, the Sultan, who had been looking for a place to build his new capital, decided to locate the capital here and called it Ahmedabad.[4]

In 1487, Mahmud Begada, the grandson of Ahmed Shah, fortified the city with an outer wall 10 km (6 miles) in circumference and consisting of twelve gates, 189 bastions and over 6,000 battlements. Ahmedabad was ruled by the Muzaffarid dynasty until 1573 when Muzaffar II was the Sultan of Ahmedabad. Gujarat was then conquered by the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1573. During the Mughal reign, Ahmedabad became one of the Empire's thriving centres of trade, mainly in textiles, which were exported to as far as Europe. The Mughal ruler Shahjahan spent the prime of his life in the city, sponsoring the construction of the Moti Shahi Mahal in Shahibaug. The armies of the Maratha generals Raghunath Rao and Damaji Gaekwad captured the city and ended Mughal rule in Ahmedabad. A famine in 1630 and the constant conflicts between the Peshwa and the Gaekwad armies virtually destroyed many parts of the city, causing its population to flee.[5] The British East India Company took over the city in 1818 as a part of the conquest of India. A military cantonment was established in 1824 and a municipal government in 1858. In 1864, a railway link between Ahmedabad and Mumbai (then Bombay) was established by the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway (BB&CI), making Ahmedabad an important junction in the traffic and trade between northern and southern India. Large numbers of people migrated from rural areas to work in textile mills, establishing a robust industry.

The Indian independence movement developed strong roots in the city when, in 1915, Mahatma Gandhi established two ashrams — the Kochrab Ashram near Paldi in 1915 and the Satyagraha Ashram on the banks of the Sabarmati in 1917 — that would become centres of intense nationalist activities. During the mass protests against the Rowlatt Act in 1919, textile workers burned down 51 government buildings across the city in protest at a British attempt to extend wartime regulations after the First World War.[6] In the 1920s, textile workers and teachers went on strike, demanding civil rights and better pay and working conditions. In 1930, Gandhi initiated the Salt Satyagraha from Ahmedabad by embarking from his ashram on the famous Dandi Salt March. The city administration and economic institutions were rendered functionless by the large masses of people who took to the streets in peaceful protests in the early 1930s, and again in 1942 during the Quit India movement. Following independence and the partition of India in 1947, the city was scarred by intense communal violence that broke out between Hindus and Muslims.
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The Sabarmati Ashram, established by Mahatma Gandhi


Ahmedabad became the capital of the new state of Gujarat after the bifurcation of the State of Bombay on 1 May 1960. During that period, a large number of educational and research institutions were founded in the city, making it a major centre of higher education, science and technology. Ahmedabad's economic base was diversified with the establishment of heavy and chemical industries in its vicinity around the same period. But the growth in the next two decades was punctuated by political events in and around the city. In February 1974, Ahmedabad occupied the centre stage in national politics with the launch of the Nav Nirman agitation — a protest against a 20% hike in the hostel food fees at the L.D. College of Engineering that snowballed into a mass agitation to remove Chimanbhai Patel, then-chief minister of Gujarat, on charges of corruption.[7] In the 1980s, a reservation policy was introduced in the country, which led to anti-reservation protests in 1981 and 1985. The protests witnessed violent clashes between people belonging to various castes.[8]

On 26 January 2001 a devastating earthquake struck the city, centred near Bhuj, measuring 6.9 on the Richter scale. As many as 50 multistory buildings collapsed, killing 752 people and devastating the city's infrastructure.[9] The following year, communal riots between Hindus and Muslims spread to Ahmedabad, paralysing the city for more than a month. The crisis resulted in the deaths of an estimated 1,044 people across the state.[10] The displacement of thousands of Muslims led to the erection of refugee camps around the city.

In recent years, the effects of globalisation and the liberalisation of the Indian economy has energised the city's economy.[3] The city has witnessed the establishment of scientific and service industries, the expansion of the information technology sector, and significant improvements in transportation and communications. Ahmedabad's population is growing, which has resulted in a construction and housing boom. However, this has challenged the city's infrastructure and power supply.[3]

Geography and climate

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River Sabarmati
Ahmedabad is located at in western India at an elevation of 53 metres (174 feet). The city sits on the banks of the River Sabarmati, in north-central Gujarat. It spans an area of 205 km² (79.15 square miles). The Sabarmati frequently dries up in the summer, leaving only a small stream of water. The city is located in a sandy and dry area. Many of the localities and roads are often spread in sand, reflecting the intensifying fallout caused by deforestation. The steady expansion of the Rann of Kutch threatens to increase desertification around the city area and much of the state. Except for the small hills of Thaltej-Jodhpur Tekra, the city is almost flat. Two lakes are within the city's limits — Kankaria Lake and Vastrapur Lake. Kankaria lake, in the neighbourhood of Maninagar, is an artificial lake developed by the Sultan of Delhi, Qutb-ud-din Aybak, in 1451.[11] According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the town falls under seismic zone-III, in a scale of I to V (in order of increasing proneness to earthquakes)[12] while the wind and cyclone zoning is "very high damage risk", according to UNDP report.[12]

There are three main seasons: summer, monsoon and winter. Aside from the monsoon season, the climate is dry. The weather is hot through the months of March to June — the average summer maximum is 36 °C (97 °F), and the average minimum is 23 °C (73 °F). From November to February, the average maximum temperature is 30 °C (85 °F), the average minimum is 15 °C (59 °F), and the climate is extremely dry. Cold northerly winds are responsible for a mild chill in January. The southwest monsoon brings a humid climate from mid-June to mid-September. The average rainfall is 93.2 cm (36.7 inches), but infrequent heavy torrential rains cause the river to flood. The highest temperature recorded is 47 °C (116.6 °F) and the lowest is 5 °C (41 °F).[13] In recent years, Ahmedabad has suffered from increasing air, water and soil pollution from neighbouring industrial areas and textile mills.

Ahmedabad is divided by the Sabarmati into two physically distinct eastern and western regions. The eastern bank of the river houses the old city, which includes the central town of Bhadra. This part of Ahmedabad is characterised by packed bazaars, the clustered and barricaded pol system of shanty buildings, and numerous places of worship. It houses the main railway station, the General Post Office, and landmark buildings of the Muzaffarid and British eras. The colonial period saw the expansion of the city to the western side of Sabarmati, facilitated by the construction of Ellis Bridge in 1875 and later with the modern Nehru Bridge. This part of the city houses educational institutions, modern buildings, well-planned residential areas, shopping malls, multiplexes and new business districts centred around C. G. Road, Ashram Road, and more recently, the Sarkhej-Gandhinagar Highway.[14]

Civic administration

Ahmedabad city officials
MayorAmit Shah
Municipal CommissionerI. P. Gautam
Police CommissionerJ. J. Mahapatra
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Balvantrai Thakore, Sardar Patel and Ganesh Mavlankar at a ceremony held in the municipality compound to celebrate centenary year of the Ahmedabad Municipality in 1935
Ahmedabad is administered by the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC). Some of the regions surrounding the city are administered by the Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority (AUDA). The AMC was established in July 1950 under the Bombay Provincial Corporation Act, 1949. For administrative purposes, the city is divided into five zones and 43 wards. Three corporators are elected from each ward,[15] who in turn elect a mayor. Executive powers are vested in the municipal commissioner, who is an IAS officer appointed by the Gujarat state government. The mayor is responsible for the day-to-day running of the municipal school board, the city bus service, the municipal hospital, and the city library. The city serves as the headquarters of Ahmedabad district and as the seat of the Gujarat High Court.

The Ahmedabad city police are headed by a Police Commissioner, an IPS officer. Electricity in the city is provided by Torrent Power AEC Limited, previously a state-run corporation. The city elects one member to the Lok Sabha and seven to the Gujarat Vidhan Sabha. Two main political parties have won a significant number of seats in elections — the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Indian National Congress. Of the seven assembly seats of Ahmedabad, five were won by the BJP and two by the Congress Party during the legislative elections in 2002. In the 2005 Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation elections, the BJP won 96 seats, 32 seats went to the Congress, and one seat went to an independent candidate.[16]

Economy

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Big Bazaar on the Sarkhej-Gandhinagar Highway
Main article: Economy of Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad is the largest inland industrial centre in western India, and has historically enjoyed a reputation as an important base of commerce, trade and industry. Under Muzaffarid rule, the city was a major trade destination for western India, because of its proximity to the port at Surat and for its access to the hinterland of Gujarat. In the 19th century, the textile and garments industry developed and thrived in the city — on 30 May 1861 Ranchhodlal Chhotalal founded the first Indian textile mill, the Ahmedabad Spinning and Weaving Company Limited. This was followed by the establishment of a series of textile mills such as the Calico Mills in 1880 by Maganbhai, and mills founded by industrialists such as Ambalal Sarabhai and Kasturbhai Lalbhai. The textile industry expanded rapidly during the First World War, and benefited from the influence of Mahatma Gandhi's Swadeshi movement, which promoted the purchase of Indian-made goods.[18] Arvind Mills, located in Ahmedabad, is one of the largest textile mills in the country.

Ahmedabad has a thriving chemicals and pharmaceuticals industry. Two of the biggest pharmaceutical companies of India — Zydus Cadila and Torrent Pharmaceuticals — are based in the city. The city serves as the corporate headquarters of the Adani Group, which is a leading multinational trading company. The Nirma group of industries, which runs a large number of detergent and chemical industrial units, has its corporate headquarters in the city. In recent year many foreign companies have set up their sales offices and production facilities in Ahmedabad. Amongst them are Bosch Rexroth, Germany (hydraulic components); Stork, Netherlands (textile machinery; joint venture with ATE, India's leading textile equipment trading house); Rollepaal, Netherlands (pipe extrusion equipment); and Johnson Pumps, Sweden.

The completion and operation of the Sardar Sarovar Project of dams and canals has improved the supply of potable water and electricity for the city. In recent years, the Gujarat government has increased investment in the modernisation of the city's infrastructure, providing for the construction of larger roads and improvements to water supply, electricity and communications. The information technology industry has developed significantly in Ahmedabad.[3] A NASSCOM survey in 2002 on the "Super Nine Indian Destinations" for IT-enabled services ranked Ahmedabad fifth among the top nine most competitive cities in the country.[19]

A diverse labour force of migrant workers from different parts of Gujarat and neighbouring states is integral to the economy of the city. These workers provide vital household labour and services for the city's large middle class. Ahmedabad plays a strong and significant role in providing commercial resources and market access for the economies of neighbouring cities. A majority of the working-age citizens of Ahmedabad are traders and business people. This has led to the creation of major mercantile corporations and artisan guilds that are a key influence on the economic life of Gujarat. The city's educational and industrial institutions have attracted students and young skilled workers from the rest of India.[3]

Demographics

As of 2001 India census,[20] Ahmedabad had a population of 3,515,361. This figure was limited to the municipal region. The total population of the Ahmedabad Urban Agglomeration (which includes the region governed by AUDA) came to 4.5 million, and is estimated to have grown to 5.2 million in 2006.[21] There are 886 females to every 1000 males. Ahmedabad has a literacy rate of 79.89%, which is the highest in Gujarat (87.81% males and 71.12% females are literate).[22] According to the census for the Ninth Plan, there are 30,737 rural families living in Ahmedabad. Of those, 5.41% (1663 families) live below the poverty line.[23] Approximately 440,000 people live in slums in the city.[24] Ahmedabad is home to a large population of Vanias (i.e., traders), belonging to the Vaishnava sect of Hinduism and the sects of Jainism. Most of the residents of Ahmedabad are native Gujaratis. Hindi and English are commonly spoken, especially in commerce, education, politics and government.

Ever since its foundation, the city has attracted migrant workers from other areas of Gujarat including Kutch and Saurashtra and from the neighbouring states of Rajasthan and Maharashtra as well as the Pakistani province of Sindh. There is a sizeable population of Punjabis, Marathis, Tamils, Sindhis, Malayalis and Marwaris, who bring their native language and culture to the city. The military base near the city, and government institutions such as ONGC, bring an influx of people from across India. Ahmedabad enjoys great religious diversity. According to the 2001 census, 84.62% of the people in Ahmedabad are Hindu, 2.92% Jain, 11.4% Muslim and 0.72% Christian.[25] The community of Muslims is culturally significant in Ahmedabad and dates back to the times of the sultanate. Most Muslims live in the old town, especially Bhadra. The city is home to a major population of Parsis and a community of 300 Bene Israel Jews living in Ahmedabad.[26]

Culture

Main article: Culture of Ahmedabad
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Road side food stalls — a common sight in Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad enjoys a thriving cultural tradition, being the centre of Gujarati cultural activities and diverse traditions of different ethnic and religious communities. Popular celebrations and observances include Uttarayan — an annual kite-flying day on 14 January. The nine nights of Navratri are celebrated with people performing Garba — the folk dance of Gujarat — at venues across the city. The festival of lights — Deepavali is celebrated with the lighting of lamps in every house, the decorating the floors with the rangoli and the bursting of firecrackers. Other festivals such as Holi, Eid ul-Fitr and Christmas are celebrated with enthusiasm. The annual Rath Yatra procession on the Ashadh-sud-bij date of the Hindu calendar and the procession of Tajia during the Muslim holy month of Muharram are integral parts of the city's culture. The people of Ahmedabad enjoy rich culinary traditions. The most popular form of meal — a typical Gujarati thali (meal) — consists of rotli, dal, rice and Shaak (cooked vegetables, sometimes with curry), with accompaniments of pickles and roasted papads. Popular beverages include buttermilk and tea; sweet dishes include laddoos and mango. There are many restaurants, which serve a wide array of Indian and international cuisines. Most of the food outlets serve only vegetarian food, as a strong tradition of vegetarianism is maintained by the city's Jain and Hindu communities. The first all-vegetarian Pizza Hut in the world opened in Ahmedabad.[27]

The architectural history of Ahmedabad stretches across the last millennium. The Sultanate fused Hindu craftsmanship with Islamic architecture, giving rise to the Indo-Saracenic style. Many mosques in the city are built in this fashion. ref> (2002) "Architectural Legacies of Ahmedabad", The Ahmedabad Chronicle: Imprints of a millennium. Vastu-Shilpa Foundation for Studies and Research. After independence modern buildings came up in Ahmedabad when renowned architects were given commissions in the city like Louis Kahn who designed the Indian Institute of Management; Le Corbusier who designed the Shodhan and Sarabhai Villas, the Sanskar Kendra and the Mill Owner's Association; and Buckminister Fuller who designed the Calico Dome. B. V. Doshi came to the city from Paris to supervise Le Corbusier's works and later set up the School of Architecture. His local masterpieces include Sangath, the Doshi-Hussain Gumpha and the School of Architecture. Charles Correa, who became a partner of Doshi's, designed the Gandhi Ashram and Achut Kanvinde the Indian Textile Industries Research Association. Christopher Charles Benninger's first work, the Alliance Francaise, is located in the Ellis Bridge area. Hashmuck C. Patel, and his son Dr. Bimal Patel, are renound architects of the city having designed the St. Xavier's High School Loyola Hall, Gujarat High Court and the Ahmedabad Management Association. Dr. Bimal Patel recently designed a major addition to Louis Kahn's campus, the Indian Institute of Management., 103. 
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Traditional clothes called Chania Cholis being sold at Law Garden
Parts of Ahmedabad are known for their speciality of folk art. The Paldi area is famous for shops selling works of embroidery from the Kutch and Saurashtra regions. The artisans of Rangeela pol are famous for making bandhinis (tie and dye work), while the cobbler shops of Madhupura sell traditional mojri footwear. High-quality idols of Ganesha and other religious icons are made in huge numbers in the Gulbai Tekra area. The shops at the Law Garden are famous for their mirror work handicraft. Victorian architecture is showcased in most college, railway station and government buildings, mainly constructed during the colonial period.

Many Gujarati intellectuals migrated to Ahmedabad due to its prosperity. Three main literary institutions were established in Ahmedabad for the promotion of Gujarati literatureGujarat Vidhya Sabha, Gujarati Sahitya Parishad and Gujarat Sahitya Sabha. Musicians and instrumentalists from across the world come to perform at the popular classical music festival held each 1 January by the Saptak School of Music. The Sanskar Kendra — one of the many buildings in Ahmedabad designed by Le Corbusier — is a city museum depicting history, art, culture and architecture of Ahmedabad. The Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya and the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Memorial have a permanent display of photographs, documents and other articles of Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Patel. The Calico Museum of Textiles has a large collection of Indian and international fabrics, garments and textiles. Ahmedabad maintains a strong popular literary tradition in large public libraries maintained by the literary societies, research and government institutions and colleges. The Hazrat Pir Mohammad Shah Library has a collection of rare original manuscripts in Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Sindhi and Turkish languages.[28]

Sports

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Cricket stadium at the Sports Club of Gujarat
Cricket is the most popular sport in the city. Both one-day internationals and test matches are played at the Sardar Patel Stadium. The stadium has frequently served as venue for matches during major tournaments such as the 1987 Cricket World Cup, the 1996 Cricket World Cup and the 2006 ICC Champions Trophy. Ahmedabad has a second cricket stadium at the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation's Sports Club of Gujarat, which as the home ground of the Gujarat cricket team is the venue for domestic tournaments such as the Ranji Trophy, the Duleep Trophy and many inter-school and collegiate tournaments. Even though other sports are overshadowed by cricket's popularity, football, field hockey, badminton, tennis, squash and basketball are gaining popularity at collegiate levels. There has been a significant increase in recent years in the number of private sports clubs, gymkhanas, gymnasiums and sports teams sponsored by corporations, private associations, schools and colleges. Young people congregate in the evenings to play cricket and football on the numerous public and neighbourhood grounds. Ahmedabad's rich sports traditions have produced legendary sportsmen, such as Jasu Patel, and younger stars such as Parthiv Patel and Geet Sethi, a five-time winner of the World Professional Billiards Championship and a recipient of India's highest sporting award, the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna.

Transport

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Rickshaws and scooters navigating through packed roads in front of the Teen Darwaja
Ahmedabad is one of the six operating divisions of the Western Railway. Railway lines connect the city to all towns in Gujarat, and to major cities in the rest of India. The Ahmedabad Railway Station and the Maninagar Railway Station are the main terminals for the city. The Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport provides for both domestic and international aviation for the city and the neighbouring cities of Gandhinagar, Mehsana and Nadiad. The airport connects the city with destinations across India and to cities in the Middle East (Muscat, Sharjah, Kuwait), East Asia (Singapore) and destinations in Western Europe (London).

National Highway 8, linking Delhi to Mumbai, passes though Ahmedabad. Ahmedabad is connected to Vadodara through National Expressway 1, a 94 km (58 mi) long highway with only two exits. This expressway is part of the Golden Quadrilateral project.[29] Ahmedabad is directly connected by highways to Bhavnagar, Nadiad, Mehsana, Surendranagar, Bhuj, Rajkot and Gandhinagar.

The city's main traffic arteries are the Mahatma Gandhi Road, C. G. Road, the Jawaharlal Nehru Road, the Ashram Road and the Sarkhej-Gandhinagar highway (S.G. Highway). Auto rickshaws, share autos and buses are the most popular forms of public transport. The Ahmedabad Municipal Transport Service (AMTS) runs the local bus service in the city. In 2005, AMTS began a drive to convert all of its petrol and diesel engine buses to run on compressed natural gas engines to reduce the effects of air pollution. AMTS runs 750 buses.[30] Bicycles and motorcycles are a popular medium of transport with the city's young people and students. A bus rapid transport project has been launched by the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. The first phase of the project is expected to be over by September 2007.[31]

Education

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The Gujarat University clock tower in Ahmedabad
Schools in Ahmedabad are run either by the municipal corporation, or privately by entities, trusts and corporations. Most schools are affiliated with the Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board. Some schools, like the Delhi Public School and the Kendriya Vidyalayas, are associated with the Central Board for Secondary Education. A large number of colleges in the city are affiliated with Gujarat University. Other deemed universities in Ahmedabad include the Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology, Nirma University of Science & Technology and the Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Open University.[32] The prestigious Gujarat Vidyapith was established in 1920 by Mahatma Gandhi; it was among the first institutions of higher learning managed entirely by Indians, despite British control.

Prestigious institutions such as the Indian Institute of Management, the National Institute of Design, the Mudra Institute of Communications, the National Institute of Fashion Technology, the Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India, the Gujarat National Law University and the Center for Environmental Planning and Technology are located in Ahmedabad. Many national academic and scientific institutions, such as the Physical Research Laboratory and the Space Applications Centre of the Indian Space Research Organisation, were established in the 1960s largely through the efforts of prominent astrophysicist and industrialist Vikram Sarabhai.[33] The Ahmedabad Management Association is a notable institution established to impart management training and experience to young students and professionals. A plan to open a satellite campus of the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, with a capacity of around 4,000 students, is on the papers. The IIT will offer courses with a focus on the skilled-labour needs of Gujarat, such as textiles, and aeronautical, marine, and ship engineering.[34]

Places to Visit

Media

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Broadcasting tower of the All India Radio, Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad has a number of newspaper publications. English-language dailies published and sold in the city are A large number of magazines, periodicals and journals are regularly published and circulated across the city. The city is home to the historic Navajivan Publishing House — founded in 1919 by Mahatma Gandhi — which is one of India's premier publications company. The Gujarat film and television industry has a small but significant presence in the city.

The city has six local FM stations: All India Radio is broadcast on the AM band.[35] Satellite radio was launched in the city by WorldSpace in 2005.[36] Households receive television through two main cable networks, InCablenet and Siti Cable, while DTH has little popularity in Ahmedabad. A network of optical fibre cables connects almost the entire city. The city's telephone services are provided by landline and mobile operators like BSNL, Reliance Infocomm, Airtel, Hutch and Tata Indicom. Broadband Internet services are provided in most parts of the city by the telecom companies.

Administrative Legends

Preceded by
Unknown
Village Municipality Head
1991 – 2003
Succeeded by
Incumbent
Preceded by
Unknown
Village Taluka Panchayat Head
2003 – Present
Succeeded by
Incumbent
Preceded by
Unknown
Village Fire Department Head
2003 – Present
Succeeded by
Incumbent
Preceded by
Unknown
Village Police Department Head
2003 – Present
Succeeded by
Incumbent

Sister cities

References

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27. ^ Senapaty, Sumitra. "Bon `veggie' appetit", Internet Edition, The Hindu Business Lines, 2002-11-16. Retrieved on 2006-07-30. 
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31. ^ Tanvir A Siddiqui. "BRTS project finally hits the road, off to a ‘flyover’ start", Ahmedabad Newsline, The Indian Express, 2006-11-15. Retrieved on 2006-11-22. 
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34. ^ "IIT’s happening at last: satellite campus in offing", Ahmedabad edition, The Indian Express, 2006-07-22, p. 1. Retrieved on 2006-07-30. 
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36. ^ WorldSpace Satellite Radio Lights Up Ahmedabad. Worldspace Satellite Radio (2005-11-03). Retrieved on 2006-07-30.

Further reading

  • Altekar, Anant Sadashiv. A history of important ancient towns and cities in Gujarat and Kathiawad (from the earliest times down to the Moslem conquest. ASIN B0008B2NGA. 
  • Crook, Nigel (1993), India's Industrial Cities: Essays in Economy and Demography, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195631722
  • Rajan, K. V. Soundra (1989). Ahmadabad. Archaeological Survey of India. 
  • Forrest, George William. Cities of India. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 0-543-93823-9. 
  • Gandhi, R (1990), Patel: A Life, Navajivan Press, Ahmedabad, ASIN B0006EYQ0A
  • Michell, George (2003). Ahmadabad. Art Media Resources. ISBN 81-85026-03-3. 

External links






Gujarat (Gujarati: ગુજરાત
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geographic coordinate system enables every location on the earth to be specified by the three coordinates of a spherical coordinate system aligned with the spin axis of the Earth.
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The geography of India is diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, rainforests, hills, and plateaus. India comprises most of the Indian subcontinent situated on the Indian Plate, the northerly portion of the Indo-Australian Plate.
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elevation of a geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point, often the mean sea level. Elevation, or geometric height, is mainly used when referring to points on the Earth's surface, while altitude or geopotential height
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district is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory. Districts are further subdivided, in some cases into Sub-Divisions, and otherwise directly into tehsils or talukas.
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Ahmedabad District is the 5th largest city of India in the central part of the state of Gujarat in western India and located on the bank of river Sabarmati. The city of Ahmedabad, in the northern part of the district, is the administrative headquarters.
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Amit Shah is the mayor of the city of Ahmedabad, in the state of Gujarat. India

References




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geographic coordinate system enables every location on the earth to be specified by the three coordinates of a spherical coordinate system aligned with the spin axis of the Earth.
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Gujarati}}} 
Writing system: Gujarati script 
Official status
Official language of: Gujarat (India)[1][2]
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: gu
ISO 639-2: guj
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Hindi}}} 
Writing system: Devanagari script 
Official status
Official language of:  India
 Fiji (as Hindustani)
Regulated by: Central Hindi Directorate (only in India)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-1: hi
ISO 639-2:
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Gujarat (Gujarati: ગુજરાત
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This article lists the top fifty metropolitan areas in India by population as of 2007. The combined population of these 50 metros accounts for approximately one-eighth of the national population.
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A lakh (Hindi/Nepali : लाख, Urdu: لکھ, Bengali: লাখ, Kannada : లక్ష, Tamil : இலட்சம்) is a unit in the Indian numbering
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Sabarmati River is a river in Western India. It is approximately 371 km in length.

The Sabarmati originates in the Aravalli Range of the Udaipur District of Rajasthan. In its initial course it is also called as Wakal. Most of the river flows in Gujarat state.
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Ahmedabad District is the 5th largest city of India in the central part of the state of Gujarat in western India and located on the bank of river Sabarmati. The city of Ahmedabad, in the northern part of the district, is the administrative headquarters.
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capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has a second meaning based on an alternative sense of "capital") is the center of government.
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Gandhinagar pronunciation   (Gujarati: ગાંધીનગર, Hindi: गाँधीनगर) is the capital of
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The Muzaffarid dynasty were sultans of Gujarat in western India from 1391 to 1583. The founder of the dynasty was Zafar Khan Muzaffar (later Muzaffar Shah I) who was governor of Gujarat under the Delhi Sultanate. Zafar Khan's father was a Rajput convert to Islam.
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Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. Originally it was an Arabic language abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", or "rulership", derived from the Arabic
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Ahmed Shah was a sultan of Gujarat's ruling Muzaffarid dynasty from 1411 until his death in 1442. He founded Ahmedabad and established it as his capital.
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British Raj (rāj, lit. "rule" in Hindi) or British India, officially the British Indian Empire, and internationally and contemporaneously, India
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cantonment is a temporary or semi-permanent military quarters. In Southern Asia, the term cantonment also describes permanent military stations.[1] Cantonments can be found in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, South Africa and Sri Lanka.
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The Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. It was established in the 17th century as trading posts of the British East India Company, but later grew to encompass much of western and central India, as well as parts of post-partition Pakistan and the Arabian
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City of Manchester
Manchester City Centre

Coat of Arms of the City Council
Nickname: "Capital of the North", "Cottonopolis", "Madchester", "Second city"
Motto: "Concilio Et Labore"
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The Indian Independence Movement was a series of revolutions empowered by the people of India put forth to battle the British Empire for complete political independence, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857.
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Civil disobedience is the active refusal to obey certain laws, demands and commands of a government or of an occupying power without resorting to physical violence. It is one of the primary tactics of nonviolent resistance.
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Discrimination

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Racism
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Slavery · Racial profiling
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The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries and governance of India's states and territories. The act reorganized the boundaries of India's states along linguistic lines, and amended the Indian Constitution to replace the three types of states, known
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