Al-Jazeera



Al Jazeera
TypeSatellite television network
Country Qatar
Availability   Worldwide
Key peopleSheikh Hamad bin Thamer al-Thani, Chairman
Wadah Khanfar, Director-General
Ahmed Sheikh, Editor-in-chief
Launch date1996
Websitewww.aljazeera.net (Arabic)
english.aljazeera.net (English)


Al Jazeera (Arabic: الجزيرة, al-ğazīrä, [al.dʒaˈziː.ra], meaning "The Peninsula", referring to the Arabic name for the Arabian Peninsula) is a television network headquartered in Doha, Qatar. Initially launched as an Arabic news and current affairs satellite TV channel with the same name, Al Jazeera has since expanded into a network with several outlets, including the Internet and specialty TV channels in multiple languages, and in several regions of the world.

The original Al Jazeera channel's willingness to broadcast dissenting views, including on call-in shows, created controversies in Persian Gulf States. The station gained worldwide attention following the September 11, 2001 attacks, when it broadcast video statements by Osama bin Laden and other al-Qaeda leaders (see Videos of Osama bin Laden)

Network

Al Jazeera operates a number of specialty channels besides its original flagship news channel. As of early 2007, the Al Jazeera network's TV channels include:[1]
  • Al Jazeera
the original international Arabic-language 24h news channellaunched in 1996www.aljazeera.net/channel 

a popular Arabic-language sports channellaunched in 2003aljazeerasport.net 
launched in 2004 

a live politics and public interest channel (similar to C-SPAN or BBC Parliament), which broadcasts conferences in real time without editing or commentarylaunched in 2005 


a global English-language 24h news channellaunched in 2006english.aljazeera.net 

an Arabic language documentary channellaunched in 2007www.aljazeera.net/NR/exe... 

Future plans

Future announced products include Al Jazeera in a number of other languages - these would include Al Jazeera Urdu, an Urdu language channel to cater mainly to Pakistanis and other Urdu-speaking populations.

Al Jazeera has also been reported to be planning to launch an international newspaper.[2]

History

The original Al Jazeera channel was started in 1996 with a US$150 million grant from the Emir of Qatar, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa.

In April 1996, the BBC World Service's Saudi-co-owned Arabic language TV station, faced with censorship demands by the Saudi Arabian government, shut down after two years of operation. Many former BBC World Service staff members joined Al Jazeera, which at the time was not yet on air. The channel began broadcasting in late 1996.[3]

Al Jazeera's availability (via satellite) throughout the Middle East changed the television landscape of the region. Prior to the arrival of Al Jazeera, many Middle Eastern citizens were unable to watch TV channels other than state-censored national TV stations. Al Jazeera introduced a level of freedom of speech on TV that was previously unheard of in many of these countries. Al Jazeera presented controversial views regarding the governments of many Persian Gulf states, including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar; it also presented controversial views about Syria's relationship with Lebanon, and the Egyptian judiciary. Critics accused Al Jazeera of sensationalism in order to increase its audience share. Al Jazeera's broadcasts have sometimes resulted in drastic action: For example, on 27 January 1999, Al Jazeera had critics of the Algerian government on during their live program El-Itidjah el-Mouakass (="The Opposite Direction"). The Algerian government cut the electricity supply to at least large parts of the capital Algiers (and allegedly to large parts of the country), to prevent the program from getting seen.[4][5][6] At that time, Al Jazeera was not yet generally known in the Western world, but where it was known, the opinion about it was often favourable[7] and Al Jazeera claimed to be the only politically independent television station in the Middle East. Al Jazeera's well presented coverage of the Lebanese Civil War in 2000-2001 gave its viewer ratings a boost throughout the region. However, it wasn't until late 2001 that Al Jazeera achieved worldwide recognition, when it broadcast video statements by al-Qaeda leaders.[8]

It should also be mentioned that the US administration, though applauds freedom of speech on one hand, of late has not been happy with Al Jazeera's stand on the war on Iraq. Since 9/11 there have been multiple incidents in which the US administration has been critical about Al Jazeera. In addition, the US Air Force has twice bombed Al Jazeera offices (once in Afghanistan and once in Iraq), killing employees. [1]. Also Al Jazeera was once banned from the New York Stock Exchange [2].

Funding

Further to the initial US$ 150 million grant from the Hamad bin Khalifa Emir of Qatar, Al Jazeera had aimed to become self-sufficient through advertising by 2001, but when this failed to occur, the Emir agreed to continue subsidizing it on a year-by-year basis (US$30 million in 2004,[9] according to Arnaud de Borchgrave). Other major sources of income include advertising, cable subscription fees, broadcasting deals with other companies, and sale of footage.[10] In 2000, advertising accounted for 40% of the station's revenue.[11]

Outside the Middle East

Main article: Al Jazeera English


In 2003, Al Jazeera hired its first English-language journalist, Afshin Rattansi, from the BBC's Today Programme (which had been at the heart of UK events when it came to Tony Blair's decision to back the U.S. invasion of Iraq).

In March 2003, it launched an English-language website (see below).

On July 4, 2005 Al Jazeera officially announced plans to launch a new English-language satellite service to be called Al Jazeera International.[12] The new channel started at 12h GMT on November 15 2006 under the name Al Jazeera English and has broadcast centers in Doha (next to the original Al Jazeera headquarters and broadcast center), London, Kuala Lumpur and Washington D.C.. The channel is a 24-hour, 7-day-a-week news channel, with 12 hours broadcast from Doha, and four hours each from London, Kuala Lumpur, and Washington D.C.

With Al Jazeera's growing global outreach and influence, some scholars including Adel Iskandar have described the station as a transformation of the very definition of "alternative media."[13]

Viewership

It is widely believed internationally that inhabitants of the Arab world are given limited information by their governments and media, and that what is conveyed is biased towards the governments' views.<ref name="boot" /> Many people see Al Jazeera as a more trustworthy source of information than government and foreign channels. Some scholars and commentators use the notion of contextual objectivity,<ref name="ref1" /> which highlights the tension between objectivity and audience appeal, to describe the station's controversial yet popular news approach.[14] As a result, it is probably the most watched news channel in the Middle East. Increasingly, Al Jazeera's exclusive interviews and other footage are being rebroadcast in American, British, and other western media outlets such as CNN and the BBC. In January 2003, the BBC announced that it had signed an agreement with Al Jazeera for sharing facilities and information, including news footage.[15] Al Jazeera is now considered a fairly mainstream media network, though more controversial than most. In the United States as of 2006, video footage from the network carried by other stations was largely limited to video segments of hostages.

As of 2007, the Arabic Al Jazeera channel rivals the BBC in worldwide audiences with an estimated 40 to 50 million viewers.[16] Al Jazeera English has an estimated reach of around 80 million households.[17]

Availability

The original Al Jazeera channel is available worldwide through various satellite and cable systems.[18] In the U.S., it is available through subscription satellite and Free to Air DVB-S on the Galaxy-25 satellite. Al Jazeera can also be freely viewed with a DVB-S receiver in Europe, Northern Africa, and the Middle East as it is broadcast on the Astra and Hot Bird satellites. In the UK, it is available on Sky platform.

For availability info of the Al Jazeera network's other TV channels, see their respective articles.

Staff

The Chairman of Al Jazeera is Sheikh Hamad bin Thamer al-Thani, a distant cousin of Qatari Emir Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani.

Al Jazeera recently restructured its operations and have formed a Network that contains all their different channels. Wadah Khanfar, the managing director of the Arabic Channel was appointed as the Director General of the Al Jazeera Network. He also acts as the Managing Director of the Arabic channel. He is supported by Ahmed Sheikh, Editor-in-Chief, and Amen Jaballah.

The Editor-in-Chief of the Arabic website is Ahmed Sheikh, and the editorial head is Mohammad Dawood. It has more than one hundred editorial staff.

The Editor-in-Chief of the English-language site is Russell Merryman, who took over in August 2005. He replaced Omar Bec who was caretaking the site after the departure of Managing Editor Alison Balharry. Previous incumbents include Joanne Tucker and Ahmed Sheikh.

Prominent on-air personalities include Faisal al-Qassem, host of the talk show The Opposite Direction.

The chief investigative reporter is Yosri Fouda. He is currently in charge of Jazeera's London bureau.

Criticism and controversy

While Al Jazeera has a large audience in the Middle East and worldwide, the organisation and the original Arabic channel in particular have been involved in numerous controversies,[19] and especially in some parts of the western world, many people have an unfavourable view of Al Jazeera.[20][21]

A widely reported criticism is the allegation that Al Jazeera had shown videos of masked terrorists beheading western hostages in Iraq.[22] When this is reported in reputable media, Al Jazeera presses for retractions to be made.[23] This allegation was again repeated on Fox News in the USA on the launch day of Al Jazeera's English service, 15 November 2006.[24]

Later The Guardian apologized for incorrect information that Al Jazeera 'had shown videos of masked terrorists beheading western hostages'.[25]

Al Jazeera has been entangled in controversies involving the following countries:

Algeria

As mentioned above, on 27 January 1999, several Algerian cities lost power simultaneously, reportedly to keep residents from watching a program in which Algerian dissidents implicated the Algerian military in a series of massacres.<ref name="ref1" /><ref name="boot" /><ref name="Algeria" />

On July 4, 2004, the Algerian government froze the activities of Al Jazeera's Algerian correspondent. The official reason given was that a reorganization of the work of foreign correspondents was in progress. The international pressure group Reporters Without Borders says, however, that the measure was really taken in reprisal for a broadcast the previous week of another El-Itidjah el-Mouakass debate on the political situation in Algeria.[26]

Bahrain

The Bahraini Information Minister, Nabeel Yacoob Al Hamer, banned Al Jazeera correspondents from reporting from inside the country on 10 May, 2002, saying that the station was biased towards Israel and against Bahrain.[27] After improvements in relations between Bahrain and Qatar in 2004, Al Jazeera correspondents returned to Bahrain.

Iraq

During the Iraq war, Al Jazeera faced the same reporting and movement restrictions as other news-gathering organizations. In addition, one of its reporters, Tayseer Allouni, was expelled from the country, while another one, Diyar Al-Omari, was stripped of his journalistic permits by the Iraqi Information Ministry. Reacting to this, Al Jazeera announced on April 2, 2003, that it would "temporarily freeze all coverage" of Iraq in protest of what Al Jazeera described as unreasonable interference from Iraqi officials.[28] All of these decisions were later reverted.

In May 2003, the CIA, through the Iraqi National Congress, released documents purportedly showing that Al Jazeera had been infiltrated by Iraqi spies, and was regarded by Iraqi officials as part of their propaganda effort. As reported by the Sunday Times, the alleged spies were described by an Al Jazeera executive as having minor roles with no input on editorial decisions.

On 23 September 2003, Iraq suspended Al Jazeera (and Al-Arabiya) from reporting on official government activities for two weeks for what the Council stated as supporting recent attacks on council members and Coalition occupational forces. The move came after allegations by Iraqis who stated that the channel had incited anti-occupation violence (by airing statements from Iraqi insurgency leaders), increasing ethnic and sectarian tensions, and being supportive of the insurgency.

During 2004, Al Jazeera broadcast several video tapes of various victims of kidnappings in Iraq, which had been sent to the network. The videos had been filmed by the kidnappers holding the hostages. The hostages were shown, often blindfolded, pleading for their release. They often appeared to be forced to read out prepared statements of their kidnappers. Al Jazeera has assisted authorities from the home countries of the victims in an attempt to secure the release of kidnapping victims. This included broadcasting pleas from family members and government officials. Contrary to some allegations, including the oft-reported comments of Donald Rumsfeld on June 4, 2005, Al Jazeera has never shown beheadings. (Beheadings have appeared on numerous non-Al Jazeera Internet websites and have sometimes been misattributed to Al Jazeera.)<ref name="rumsfeld" />

On August 7 2004, the Iraqi Allawi government shut down the Iraq office of Al Jazeera, claiming that it was responsible for presenting a negative image of Iraq, and charging the network with fueling anti-Coalition hostilities. Al Jazeera spokesman Jihad Ballout said: "It's regrettable and we believe it's not justifiable. This latest decision runs contrary to all the promises made by Iraqi authorities concerning freedom of expression and freedom of the press."[29] and Al Jazeera vowed to continue its reporting from inside Iraq.[30] News photographs showed United States and Iraqi military personnel working together to close the office. Initially closed by a one-month ban, the shutdown was extended indefinitely in September 2004, and the offices were sealed,[31] drawing condemnation from international journalists.[32]

Qatar

Al Jazeera has been criticized for failing to report on many hard hitting news stories that originate from Qatar, where Al Jazeera is based. The two most frequently cited stories were the revoking of citizenship from the Al Ghafran clan of the Al Murrah tribe in response to a failed coup that members of the Al Ghafran clan were implicated in, and Qatar's growing relations with and diplomatic visits to Israel.[33]

Spain

Main article: Tayseer Allouni


Reporter Tayseer Allouni was arrested in Spain on 5 September, 2003, on a charge of having provided support for members of al-Qaeda.[34] Judge Baltasar Garzón, who had issued the arrest warrant, ordered Allouni held without bail. Al Jazeera wrote to then Spanish Prime Minister Jose Maria Aznar and protested: "On several occasions Western journalists met secretly with secret organizations and they were not subjected to any legal action because they were doing their job, so why is Alouni being excluded?"[35] Allouni was released on bail several weeks later over health concerns, but prohibited from leaving the country.

On 19 September, a Spanish court issued an arrest warrant for Allouni, before the expected verdict. Allouni had asked the court for permission to visit his family in Syria to attend the funeral of his mother, but authorities denied his request and instead ordered him back to jail.[36]

Although he pleaded not guilty of all the charges against him, Allouni was sentenced on 26 September 2005 to seven years in prison for being a financial courier for al-Qaeda. Allouni insisted he merely interviewed bin Laden after the September 11 attack on the United States.[37] Al Jazeera has continuously supported Allouni and protested his innocence.[38]

Many international and private organizations condemned the arrest and called on the Spanish court to free Taysir Allouni.[39] Websites such as Alony Solidarity were created to support Allouni.

United Kingdom

UK officials, like their US counterparts, strongly protested Al Jazeera's coverage of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Al Jazeera stated that the coalition leaders were taking exception because its reporting made it more difficult for both countries to manage the way the war was being reported.[40]

United States

While prior to September 11, 2001, the United States government had lauded Al Jazeera for its role as an independent media outlet in the Middle East, US officials have since claimed an anti-American bias to Al Jazeera's news coverage.<ref name="iraqwar" />[41]

The station first gained widespread attention in the West following the September 11, 2001 attacks, when it broadcast videos in which Osama bin Laden and Sulaiman Abu Ghaith defended and justified the attacks. This led to significant controversy and accusations by the United States government that Al Jazeera was engaging in propaganda on behalf of terrorists. Al Jazeera countered that it was merely making information available without comment, and indeed several western television channels later followed suit in broadcasting portions of the tapes.

On November 13, during the US invasion of Afghanistan, 2001 a U.S. missile strike destroyed Al Jazeera's office in Kabul. There were no casualties.[42]

Detention of Sami Al-Hajj

Main article: Sami Al Hajj


Al Jazeera cameraman Sami Al Hajj, a Sudanese national, was detained while in transit to Afghanistan in December 2001, and as of 2007 continues to be held without charge, as an "enemy combatant" in Camp Delta at Guantánamo Bay. The reasons for his detention remain unknown, although the US' official statement on all detainees is that they are security threats. Reporters Without Borders have repeatedly expressed concern over Al-Haj's detention,[43] mentioned Al-Haj in their Annual Worldwide Press Freedom Index,[44] and launched a petition for his release.[45] On 23 November 2005, Sami Al-Haj's lawyer Clive Stafford-Smith reported that, during (125 of 130) interviews, U.S. officials had questioned Sami as to whether Al Jazeera was a front for al-Qaeda.[46]

In the run-up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the U.S. Pentagon hired the Rendon Group to target and possibly punish Al Jazeera reporters who did not stay on message.[47]

When Al Jazeera went on to do reporting featuring very graphic footage from inside Iraq, US officials decried Al Jazeera as anti-American and as inciting violence.<ref name="iraqwar" /> This sentiment was widely echoed throughout the US media and population.

On Monday, 24 March 2003, shortly after the start of the invasion, two Al Jazeera reporters covering the New York Stock Exchange had their credentials revoked. The New York Stock Exchange banned Al Jazeera (as well as several other news organizations whose identities were not revealed) from its trading floor indefinitely. NYSE spokesman Ray Pellechia claimed "security reasons" and that the exchange had decided to give access only to networks that focus "on responsible business coverage". He denied the revocation has anything to do with the network's Iraq war coverage.[48] The move was quickly mirrored by Nasdaq stock market officials.[49]

Killing of Tareq Ayyoub

Main article: Tareq Ayyoub


On April 8, 2003 Al Jazeera's office in Baghdad was hit by a U.S. missile, killing reporter Tareq Ayyoub and wounding another.[50] Al Jazeera, in order to avoid coming under US fire, had informed the U.S. of the office's precise coordinates prior to the incident.[51] Dima Tareq Tahboub, the widow of Tareq Ayyoub, continues to seek justice for her husband's death and has among other things written for the Guardian and participated in a documentary broadcast on Al Jazeera English.[52]

On January 30, 2005 the New York Times reported that the Qatari government, under pressure from the Bush administration, was speeding up plans to sell the station.[53] However, as of 2007, the station/network has not been sold and it is unclear whether there are still any plans to do so.

Al Jazeera bombing memo

Also see O'Connor - Keogh official secrets trial.
On November 22, 2005, the UK tabloid The Daily Mirror published a story claiming that it had obtained a leaked memo from 10 Downing Street saying that U.S. President George W. Bush had considered bombing Al Jazeera's Doha headquarters in April 2004, when U.S. Marines were conducting a contentious assault on Fallujah.

In light of this allegation, Al Jazeera has questioned whether it has been targeted deliberately in the past — Al Jazeera's Kabul office was bombed in 2001 and another missile hit its office in Baghdad during the invasion of Iraq, killing correspondent Tareq Ayyoub. Both of these attacks occurred subsequent to Al Jazeera's disclosure of the locations of their offices to the United States.

On the Web

Al Jazeera's web-based service is accessible subscription-free throughout the world. The English and Arabic sections are editorially distinct, with their own selection of news and comment.

Arabic language

The Arabic version of the site was brought offline for about 10 hours by an FBI raid on its ISP, InfoCom Corporation, on September 5, 2001. InfoCom was later convicted of exporting to Libya and Syria, of knowingly being invested in by a Hamas member (both of which are illegal in the United States), and of underpaying customs duties.[54]

English language

The station launched an English-language edition of its online content in March, 2003. This English language website was relaunched on November 15, 2006, along with the launch of Al Jazeera English.

Web site attacked

Immediately after its launch, the English site was attacked by one or several hackers, who launched denial-of-service attacks, and by a social engineer, who redirected visitors to a site featuring an American flag.[55][56] Both events were widely reported as Al Jazeera's website having been attacked by "hackers".[57] In November 2003, John William Racine II, also known as 'John Buffo', was sentenced to 1000 hours of community service and a $1,500 U.S. fine for the online disruption. Racine posed as an Al Jazeera employee to get a password to the network's site, then redirected visitors to a page he created that showed an American flag shaped like a U.S. map and a patriotic motto, court documents said.[58] In June 2003, Racine pleaded guilty to wire fraud and unlawful interception of an electronic communication.[59] As of 2007, the perpetrators of the denial-of-service attacks remain unknown.

Web host changes

The English-language site was forced to change internet hosting providers several times, due, in Al Jazeera's opinion, to political pressure. Initially, hosting for the English-language site was provided by the U.S.-based company DataPipe, which gave Al Jazeera notice, soon followed by Akamai Technologies.<ref name="net" /> Al Jazeera later shifted to the French branch of NavLink, and then to (the as of 2007 current host) AT&T WorldNet Services.

Documentaries

Awards

  • In December 1999, Ibn Rushd (Averoes) Fund for Freedom of Thought in Berlin awarded the "Ibn Rushd Award" for media and journalism for the year to Al Jazeera.[62]
  • In March 2003, Al Jazeera was awarded by Index on Censorship for its "courage in circumventing censorship and contributing to the free exchange of information in the Arab world."[63]
  • In April 2004, Webby Awards nominated Al Jazeera as one of the five best news Web sites, along with BBC News, National Geographic, RocketNews and The Smoking Gun. According to Tifanny Schlain, the founder of the Webby Awards, this caused a controversy as [other media organisations] "felt it was a risk-taking site".[64]
  • In 2004, Al Jazeera was voted by brandchannel.com readers as the fifth most influential global brand behind Apple Computer, Google, Ikea and Starbucks.[65]

Competitors

  • In response to Al Jazeera, a group of Saudi investors created Al Arabiya in the first quarter of 2003. Despite (especially initial) scepticism over the station's Saudi funding (cf. History) and a perception of censorship of anti-Saudi content,[66] Al Arabiya has successfully emulated Al Jazeera, garnered a significant audience share, and has also gotten similarly involved in controversy — Al Arabiya has been severely criticised by the Iraqi and US authorities and has also had journalists killed on the job.[67]
  • In order to counter a perceived bias of Al Jazeera, the U.S. government in 2004 founded Al Hurra (="the free one"), a competing Arabic-language satellite TV station variably seen as a public diplomacy tool or a propaganda outlet. Al Hurra is forbidden to broadcast to the US under the provisions of the Smith-Mundt Act. A Zogby poll found that 1% of Arab viewers watch Al Hurra as their first choice.[68]
  • Since the launch of Al Jazeera English, Al Jazeera directly competes with BBC World and CNN International, as do a growing number of other international broadcasters such as France 24 , Russia Today and Press TV.
  • Another competitor is Al-Alam, Established in 2003 by Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, it broadcasts continuously. It seeks to address the most challenging issues of the Muslim and Arab world and the Middle East.
  • The new competitor is Rusiya Al-Yaum channel - the first Russian TV news channel broadcasting in Arabic and headquartered in Moscow, Russia. Rusiya Al-Yaum started broadcasting on May 4, 2007 at 7:00 (Moscow time). The Channel is established and operated by RIA Novosti, the same news agency that launched Russia Today TV in December 2005 to deliver a Russian perspective on news to English-speaking audiences, and its name is indeed a translation of "Russia Today" into Arabic.

References

1. ^ Lyngsat page showing, among others, Al Jazeera's channels
Lyngsat page showing Qatari TV channels, including Al Jazeera's
2. ^ Al Jazeera plans to launch Arab newspaper Arabian Business; published Saturday 4, November 2006
3. ^ Qatar's Al-Jazeera livens up Arab TV scene BBC News - Monitoring; published Thursday, January 7, 1999
In defense of al-Jazeera MSNBC; by Michael Moran; published October 18, 2001
4. ^ El-Nawawy and Iskandar. Al-Jazeera: How the free Arab News Network Scooped the World and Changed the Middle East. Westview.  cf. Further reading
5. ^ Books of our Time: Al-Jazeera at Google Video; TV programme feat. Lawrence Velvel, Dean of the Mass. School of Law, interviewing author Hugh Miles who reveals a lot about the channel (a, c: 48:30, b: 55:00)
6. ^ The Rise of Al JazeeraPDF (502 KiB) by Nicolas Eliades; Peace & Conflict Monitor; University for Peace
Qatar's Al-Jazeera TV: The Power of Free Speech
7. ^ E.g. in 1999, New York Times reporter Thomas L. Friedman called Al-Jazeera "the freest, most widely watched TV network in the Arab world." — Friedman, Thomas L. (12 February 1999). "Fathers and Sons". New York Times: A27. 
8. ^ Al Jazeera and Bin Laden
9. ^ Tutwiler's mission impossible
10. ^ According to pravda.ru [3], a tabloid-style website unrelated to the original Pravda, "Al Jazeera received $20,000 per minute for Bin Laden's speech."
11. ^ Al-Jazeera - "The opinion, and the other opinion" - Sustaining a Free Press in the Middle EastPDF (966 KiB) by Kahlil Byrd and Theresse Kawarabayashi; MIT's Media in Transition 3; published May 2-4, 2003
12. ^ Al Jazeera turns its signal West
13. ^ Is Al Jazeera alternative? Mainstream alterity and Assimilating discourses of dissent
14. ^ The Minotaur of 'Contextual Objectivity': War coverage and the pursuit of accuracy with appeal
15. ^ BBC in news deal with Arabic TV BBC News, published 17 January 2003
16. ^ Audience Demographics and Viewership Profile
17. ^ BBC World dropped by Israeli satellite TV
18. ^ Al Jazeera TV Footprint - Coverage
19. ^ Al Jazeera under fire
20. ^ Mosaic Intelligence Report - November 17, 2006; NB: the poll figures quoted in the report are from a poll analysis apparently commissioned by Accuracy in Media with the goal of exploring how the US public could be mobilised against Al Jazeera (cf. section "In Conclusion…" of survey analysis documentPDF (39.1 KiB)).
21. ^ Anderson Cooper 360 on Al Jazeera International
22. ^ Rumsfeld blames Al Jazeera over Iraq
23. ^ Was George Bush serious about attack on Al Jazeera?
24. ^ by Brent Bozell at 12.30 ET during the Fox Online program (YouTube video)
25. ^ The Guardian's Corrections and clarifications column, Wednesday November 30 2005
26. ^ RSF strongly condemns ban on al-Jazeera
27. ^ Bahrain bans Al Jazeera TV
28. ^ CPJ News Alert - Missing journalist's wife demands more information
29. ^ Militia dig in as fighting rages in holy city The Sydney Morning Herald; published August 9, 2004
30. ^ Iraqi Government Shuts Al-Jazeera Station by Rawya Rageh; Associated Press; published August 7, 2004
31. ^ Iraq extends al-Jazeera ban and raids offices by Luke Harding; The Guardian; published Monday September 6, 2004
32. ^ Al-Jazeera Under Fire: IFJ Condemns Iraqi Ban and Canada’s “Bizarre” Restrictions International Federation of Journalists; published September 6, 2004
33. ^ Secret Dubai diary: into exile
34. ^ Al-Jazeera Arrest CNN; published September 5, 2003
35. ^ Spanish judge orders Al-Jazeera reporter to jail by Mar Roman; Associated Press; published Thursday, September 11, 2003
36. ^ Aljazeera reporter placed in detention Al Jazeera; published Wednesday, January 19, 2005
37. ^ Special Reports - Taysir Alluni Al Jazeera
38. ^ A fight for justice - Al Jazeera
39. ^ e.g. Al Jazeera journalist re-arrested 10 days before trial verdict
40. ^ Al-Jazeera: News channel in the news BBC News; published Saturday, 29 March, 2003
41. ^ World and America watching different wars Christian Science Monitor
42. ^ Al-Jazeera Kabul offices hit in US raid
43. ^ Call for Sami Al-Haj’s release from Guantanamo after lawyer provides new information
Call for release of cameraman Sami Al-Haj as he completes fourth year in Guantanamo
Call for Al-Jazeera cameraman's release from Guantanamo on fifth anniversary of arrival of first detainees
44. ^ North Korea, Turkmenistan, Eritrea the worst violators of press freedom
45. ^ Sami Al Haj - Petition - Reporters Sans Frontieres
46. ^ More news is good news at New Age BD
47. ^ The Man Who Sold the War by James Bamford; Rolling Stone; published November 17, 2005
48. ^ Al Jazeera banned from NYSE floor at Arab Press Freedom Watch]
Al Jazeera ousted from NYSE (March 25, 2003
49. ^ Al Jazeera banned from two Wall Street exchanges (March 26, 2003)
50. ^ Al-Jazeera 'hit by missile'
51. ^ Did the US murder these Journalists? by Robert Fisk; SF Bay Guardian; published April 26, 2003
52. ^ The war on al-Jazeera Comment by Dima Tareq Tahboub, the widow of Tareq Ayyoub, The Guardian, October 4, 2003
53. ^ Under Pressure, Qatar May Sell Jazeera Station, New York Times, January 30, 2005
54. ^ Elisha Brothers convictedPDF (63.1 KiB)
55. ^ Al-Jazeera hacker pleads guilty BBC News; published Friday, June 13, 2003
56. ^ Al Jazeera and the Net - free speech, but don't say that by John Lettice; The Register; published Monday, April 7, 2003
57. ^ Al-Jazeera websites 'hit by hackers' by Dominic Timms; Guardian Unlimited; published Wednesday, March 26, 2003
58. ^ Al-Jazeera cracker charged by John Leyden; The Register; published Thursday, June 12, 2003
59. ^ Southern California Man Who Hijacked Al Jazeera Website Agrees to Plead Guilty to Federal Charges
Guilty plea in Al Jazeera site hack
Al Jazeera hacker gets community service
60. ^ Wide Angle - Exclusive to Al Jazeera
61. ^ "Al-Jazeera, An Arab Voice for Freedom or Demagoguery? The UNC Tour"
62. ^ Ibn Rushd prize 1999
63. ^ Index: Free speaking voices in the wilderness
64. ^ The Webby Awards
65. ^ Apple bites big
66. ^ Attacks on the Press - 2004: Mideast
67. ^ Profile: Al Arabiya TV
Shock over Iraqi reporter's death
68. ^ Time for the Last Hurrah for US' Al-Hurra


Further reading

  • M. Arafa, P.J. Auter, & K. Al-Jaber (2005), Hungry for news and information: Instrumental use of Al-Jazeera TV among viewers in the Arab World and Arab Diaspora, Journal of Middle East Media, 1(1), 21-50
  • Marc Lynch (2005), Voices of the New Arab Public: Iraq, al-Jazeera, and Middle East Politics Today, Columbia University Press
  • N. Miladi (2004), Al-Jazeera, ISBN 1-86020-593-3
  • Hugh Miles (2004), Al Jazeera: How Arab TV news challenged the world, Abacus, ISBN 0-3491-1807-8,
  • aka Al Jazeera: How Arab TV News challenges America, Grove Press, ISBN 0-8021-1789-9 (2005 reprint),
  • aka Al Jazeera: The inside story of the Arab news channel that is challenging the West, Grove Press, ISBN 0-8021-4235-4 (2006 reprint)
  • Mohammed el-Nawawy and Adel Iskandar (2002), Al-Jazeera: How the Free Arab News Network Scooped the World and Changed the Middle East, Westview Press, ISBN 0-8133-4017-9,
  • aka Al-Jazeera: The story of the network that is rattling governments and redefining modern journalism, aka Al-Jazeera: Ambassador of the Arab World, Westview Press/Basic Books/Perseus Books, ISBN 0-8133-4149-3 (2003 reprint)
  • Erik C. Nisbet, Matthew C. Nisbet, Dietram Scheufele, and James Shanahan (2004), Public diplomacy, television news, and Muslim opinionPDF (187 KiB), Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 9 (2), 11-37
  • Donatella Della Ratta (2005), Al Jazeera. Media e società arabe nel nuovo millennio (Italian), Bruno Mondadori, ISBN
8-8424-9282-5
  • Naomi Sakr (2002), Satellite Realms: Transnational Television, Globalization and the Middle East, I.B. Tauris, ISBN 1-8606-4689-1
  • Tatham, Steve (2006), Losing Arab Hearts & Minds: The Coalition, Al-Jazeera & Muslim Public Opinion, Hurst & Co (London), Published 1 Jan 2006, ISBN 0-9725-5723-7
  • Mohamed Zayani (2005), The Al Jazeera Phenomenon: Critical Perspectives On New Arab Media, Paradigm Publishers, ISBN 1-5945-1126-8

External links

Note that the websites aljazeera.com and aljazeerah.info are not affiliated with Al Jazeera.
[Al] Jazira (جزيرة) means [the] island or [the] peninsula in Arabic, and may refer to:
  • Arabian peninsula — also called Al Jazeera

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The of this article or section may be compromised by "weasel words".
You can help Wikipedia by removing weasel words. Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television.
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A television network is a distribution for television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many television stations. Until the mid-1980s, television programming in most countries of the world was dominated by a small number of broadcast networks.
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Anthem
As Salam al Amiri


Capital
(and largest city) Doha

Official languages Arabic
Demonym Qatari
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global" and the adverb "globally" are synonyms of worldwide and mean of or relating to or involving the entire world in the general sense or as the planet Earth.
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Wadah Khanfar is the Director General of the Al Jazeera Network.

Journalism

Khanfar has covered some of the the world's key political zones for the Al Jazeera Channel since 1997. Khanfar's first role in the organisation was as a correspondent in South Africa.
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Ahmed Sheikh (born 1967) is a Palestinian journalist and the current editor-in-chief of the Qatar-based television channel Al Jazeera.

Ahmed Sheikh was born in Nablus on the West Bank. He left his homeland in 1968 to study in Jordan.
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-1996- 1997 1998 1999  2000 .  2001 .  2002 .  2003  . 2004  . 2005  . 2006 

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al-‘Arabiyyah in written Arabic (Kufic script):  
Pronunciation: /alˌʕa.raˈbij.ja/
Spoken in: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman,
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English}}} 
Writing system: Latin (English variant) 
Official status
Official language of: 53 countries
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: en
ISO 639-2: eng
ISO 639-3: eng  
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al-‘Arabiyyah in written Arabic (Kufic script):  
Pronunciation: /alˌʕa.raˈbij.ja/
Spoken in: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman,
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Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of
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Television (often abbreviated to TV, T.V., or more recently, tv; sometimes called telly, the tube, boob tube, or idiot box in British English) is a widely used telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures
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Doha
الدوحة

West Bay
Location of Doha within Qatar.
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Anthem
As Salam al Amiri


Capital
(and largest city) Doha

Official languages Arabic
Demonym Qatari
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News channels are television specialty channels which focus on presenting news content.

The world's first dedicated 24-hour news channel was CNN.

Public news channels

  • TVP3 - Poland
  • 3/24 - Catalonia
  • TVE Canal 24 Horas - Spain

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The of this article or section may be compromised by "weasel words".
You can help Wikipedia by removing weasel words. Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television.
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A specialty channel (or speciality channel) is a television channel which consists of programming focused on a single type or targeted at a specific demographic.
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The term television channel generally refers to either a television station or its cable/satellite counterpart (both outlined below). Sometimes, it is confused with the term television network, which (when properly used) describes a group of geographically-distributed television
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In broadcasting, a phone in, or call in, is a programme format in which viewers or listeners are invited to air their live comments by telephone, usually in respect of a specific topic selected for discussion on the day of the broadcast.
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Arab states of the Persian Gulf are made of the kingdoms of Bahrain and Saudi Arabia, the sultanate of Oman, and the emirates of Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. These six countries form the members of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf.
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September 11, 2001 attacks

The towers of the World Trade Center burn shortly after United Airlines Flight 175 crashed into the South Tower on the right. To its left is the still smoking North Tower, struck earlier by American Airlines Flight 11.
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Osama bin Muhammad bin 'Awad bin Laden
(Arabic: أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن)
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Al-Qaeda (also al-Qaida or al-Qa'ida or al-Qa'idah) (Arabic: القاعدة
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There have been several videos released by Osama bin Laden. Many of the Osama bin Laden tapes have been released directly (by mail or messenger) to Arabic language satellite television networks like Al Jazeera or Al Araabiya.
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A specialty channel (or speciality channel) is a television channel which consists of programming focused on a single type or targeted at a specific demographic.
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al-‘Arabiyyah in written Arabic (Kufic script):  
Pronunciation: /alˌʕa.raˈbij.ja/
Spoken in: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman,
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News channels are television specialty channels which focus on presenting news content.

The world's first dedicated 24-hour news channel was CNN.

Public news channels

  • TVP3 - Poland
  • 3/24 - Catalonia
  • TVE Canal 24 Horas - Spain

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Al Jazeera Sports (Arabic: الجزيرة الرياضية
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Sports channels are television specialty channels (usually available exclusively through cable and satellite) broadcast sporting events, usually live, and when not broadcasting events, sports news and other related programming.
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