ammonium bicarbonate

Ammonium bicarbonate
IUPAC nameAmmonium bicarbonate
Identifiers
CAS number1066-33-7
Properties
Molar mass79.05563 g/mol
Melting point 106 °C sublimes
Solubility in other solventsSoluble (17.4% at 20 °C)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 C, 100 kPa)



Ammonium bicarbonate (also called bicarbonate of ammonia, ammonium hydrogen carbonate, hartshorn, or powdered baking ammonia) is the bicarbonate salt of ammonia.

Ammonium bicarbonate is formed as shown above and also by passing carbon dioxide through a solution of the normal compound, when it is deposited as a white powder, which has no smell and is only slightly soluble in water. The aqueous solution of this salt liberates carbon dioxide on exposure to air or on heating, and becomes alkaline in reaction. The aqueous solutions of all the carbonates when boiled undergo decomposition with liberation of carbon dioxide and the substance with which the carbonate ion reacted to form the bicarbonate, in this case, ammonia:
NH4HCO3 → NH3 + H2O + CO2

Properties

At room temperature ammonium bicarbonate is a white, crystalline powder with a slight odour of ammonia that can dissolve in water to give a mildly alkaline solution. It is however insoluble in acetone and alcohols. Ammonium bicarbonate decomposes at 36 to 60 °C into ammonia, carbon dioxide and water vapor in an endothermic process (as it is with many ammonium salts) and so causes a drop in the temperature of the water. When reacted with acids carbon dioxide is produced, while reactions with alkalis give ammonia.

Uses

Ammonium bicarbonate was used in the food industry as a raising agent (e.g., for gingerbread or Chinese youtiao) before the introduction of baking soda. Ammonium Bicarbonate is still used in many food products, in addition to baking soda. Many baking cookbooks (especially from Scandinavian countries) may still refer to it as hartshorn. It is fine to replace it with baking soda.[1]

It is commonly used as an inexpensive nitrogen fertilizer in China, but is now being phased out in favor of urea because of its relatively low quality and instability. This compound is used as a component in the production of fire-extinguishing compounds, pharmaceuticals, dyes, pigments and it is also a basic fertilizer being a source of ammonia. Ammonium bicarbonate is still widely used in the plastic and rubber industry, in the manufacture of ceramics, in chrome leather tanning and for the synthesis of catalysts.

Safety

Ammonium bicarbonate is an irritant to the skin, eyes and respiratory system. Additionally, the acrylamide that is formed during the baking process has been connected to cancer in lab animals.

References

1. ^ What is hartshorn?. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.

See also

IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. It is developed and kept up to date under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
..... Click the link for more information.
CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. They are also referred to as CAS numbers, CAS RNs or CAS #s.
..... Click the link for more information.
Molar mass, symbol M,[1] is the mass of one mole of a substance (chemical element or chemical compound).[2] It is a physical property which is characteristic of each pure substance.
..... Click the link for more information.
The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. Although the phrase would suggest a specific temperature and is commonly and incorrectly used as such in most textbooks and literature, most crystalline compounds
..... Click the link for more information.
Sublimation of an element or compound is a transition from the solid to gas phase with no intermediate liquid stage. Sublimation is a phase transition that occurs at temperatures and pressures below the triple point (see phase diagram).
..... Click the link for more information.
Solubility is a physical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent.[1] It is measured in terms of the maximum amount of solute dissolved in a solvent at equilibrium. The resulting solution is called a saturated solution.
..... Click the link for more information.
standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). This pressure was changed from 1 atm (101.325 kilopascals) by IUPAC in 1990.[1] The standard state of a material can be defined at any given temperature, most commonly 25 degrees Celsius,
..... Click the link for more information.
bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.

Chemical properties



The bicarbonate ion (hydrogen carbonate) is an anion with the empirical formula HCO3
..... Click the link for more information.
Salt is a mineral essential for animal life, composed primarily of sodium chloride. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt), refined salt (table salt), and iodized salt.
..... Click the link for more information.
Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odor. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of the planet as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers.
..... Click the link for more information.
Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. It is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and exists in Earth's atmosphere in this state.
..... Click the link for more information.
Water is a common chemical substance that is essential to all known forms of life.[1] In typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice, and a gaseous state, water vapor.
..... Click the link for more information.
alkali (from Arabic: Al-Qalyالقلي, القالي ) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal element.
..... Click the link for more information.
In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
..... Click the link for more information.
The chemical compound acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones.
..... Click the link for more information.
alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group. The general formula for a simple acyclic alcohol is CnH2n+1OH.
..... Click the link for more information.
Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odor. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of the planet as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers.
..... Click the link for more information.
Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. It is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and exists in Earth's atmosphere in this state.
..... Click the link for more information.
endothermic describes a process or reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat. Its etymology stems from the Greek prefix endo-, meaning “inside” and the Greek suffix –thermic, meaning “to heat”.
..... Click the link for more information.
Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt.


The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic cation of the chemical formula NH4+. It has a molecular mass of 18.
..... Click the link for more information.
ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that database transactions are processed reliably. In the context of databases, a single logical operation on the data is called a transaction.
..... Click the link for more information.
A leavening agent (sometimes called just leavening or leaven) is a substance used in doughs and batters that causes a foaming action. The leavening agent reacts with moisture, heat, acidity, or other triggers to produce gas that becomes trapped as bubbles within the
..... Click the link for more information.
Gingerbread is a sweet that can take the form of a cake or a cookie in which the predominant flavor is ginger.

As a cookie, gingerbread can be made into a thin, crisp cookie (often called a ginger snap) or a softer cookie similar to the German Lebkuchen.
..... Click the link for more information.
Youtiao or You tiao is a long, golden-brown, deep fried strip of dough in Chinese cuisine and other East and Southeast Asian cuisines and is usually eaten for breakfast. Conventionally, youtiao are lightly salted and made so they can be torn lengthwise in two.
..... Click the link for more information.
Sodium bicarbonate is the chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. Because it has long been known and is widely used, the salt has many other names including sodium hydrogencarbonate, sodium bicarb, baking soda, bread soda,
..... Click the link for more information.
Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves.
..... Click the link for more information.
Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO.

Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe.
..... Click the link for more information.
dye can generally be described as a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. The dye is generally applied in an aqueous solution, and may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber.
..... Click the link for more information.
ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). The term covers inorganic non-metallic materials which are formed by the action of heat.
..... Click the link for more information.
Tanning is the process of converting putrescible skin into non-putrescible leather, usually with tannin, an acidic chemical compound that prevents decomposition and often imparts color.
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.