Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907

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The blue areas of Persia were to be Russian controlled, while the southeast pink region was to be British.
The Anglo-Russian Entente or the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 was an accord signed on August 31, 1907 in St. Petersburg by Count Alexander Izvolsky, Foreign Minister of the Russian Empire, and Sir Arthur Nicolson, Britain's ambassador in Russia.

The convention capped off several decades of the Great Game between the two powers. It defined their respective spheres of interest in Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet. Its primary aim was to check German expansion into the area. The Anglo-Russian Entente along with the Entente Cordiale (1904) and the Franco-Russian Alliance (1892) formed the Triple Entente between the UK, France and Russia.

The convention had three sections, dealing with Persia, Afghanistan and Tibet.
  • *Persia was divided into three zones: a British zone in the south, a Russian zone in the north, and a narrow neutral zone serving as buffer in between. (The Convention was very careful not to call any of these zones a sphere of influence, for fear it would look like the Great Powers were partitioning Persia.)
  • As regards Afghanistan, Russia recognized the country as a semi-protectorate of Great Britain and "abandoned its earlier efforts to establish direct relations with the emir".[1]
  • Following the British expedition to Tibet, both powers agreed to maintain territorial integrity of this buffer state and "to deal with Lhasa only through China, the suzerain power".[2]
The accord concerning Persia, which had 5 articles, was signed without the participation or knowledge of the Persian government, and was thus eventually met with a bitter response from Iran's parliament. Iran was officially informed of the Accord later, on September 16, 1907. Similarly, the Emir of Afghanistan refused to acknowledge the agreement concerning Afghanistan. And the Tibetans never acknowledged China's suzerain rights over their country.

References

General
  • Adelson, R. London and the Invention of the Middle East: Money, Power and War, 1902-1922. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. 1995. p.59-62.
  • Siegel, Jennifer. Endgame: Britain, Russia and the Final Struggle for Central Asia. London: I.B. Tauris, 2002.
Inline
1. ^ Quoted from: Lowe, John. The Great Powers, Imperialism, and the German Problem, 1865-1925. Routledge, 1994. Page 138.
2. ^ Quoted from: Hopkirk, Peter. The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia. ISBN 1568360223. Page 520.

See also

August 31 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

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Санкт-Петербург
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Alexander Petrovich Izvolsky or Iswolsky (Russian: Александр Петрович Извольский, 18 March [O.S.
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Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian: Pоссiйская Имперiя, Modern Russian: Российская империя,
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Arthur Nicolson, 1st Baron Carnock]] Arthur Nicolson, 1st Baron Carnock (1849-1928), known as Sir Arthur Nicolson, 11th Baronet, from 1899 to 1916, was a British diplomat and politician through the last quarter of the 19th century to the middle of World War I.
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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927. It was formed by the merger of the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself having been a merger of the Kingdoms of England and Scotland) and the Kingdom of
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The Great Game, a term usually attributed to Arthur Conolly, has been used to describe the rivalry and strategic conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.
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sphere of influence (SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political domination.
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Anthem
Sorūd-e Mellī-e Īrān ²


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Tibet (see Name section below for other spellings) is a Plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. With an average elevation of 4,900 metres (16,000 ft), it is the highest region on Earth and is commonly referred to as the "Roof of the World.
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German Empire is the name used in English to describe the first 47 years of the German Reich when it was a semi-constitutional monarchy: beginning with the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I of Prussia as German Emperor (January 18, 1871), effectively
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Baghdad Railway under German control. The Baghdad Railway consisted of the already constructed Orient Express line and the newer Constantinople-Baghdad line through Turkey, Syria and Iraq. By this railway, Germans attempted to establish a port at the Persian Gulf[1].
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entente cordiale is a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom and France. Beyond the immediate concerns of colonial expansion addressed by the agreement, the signing of the Entente cordiale marked the end of centuries of intermittent conflict
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Franco-Russian Alliance, or Dual Alliance was a military alliance between the French Third Republic and the Russian Empire that ran from 1892 to 1917. The alliance ended the diplomatic isolation of France and undermined the supremacy of the German Empire in Europe.
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Triple Entente ("entente" — French for "understanding") was the alliance formed in 1907 among the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the French Third Republic and the Russian Empire after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente.
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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927. It was formed by the merger of the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself having been a merger of the Kingdoms of England and Scotland) and the Kingdom of
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The French Third Republic (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870-10 July 1940) was the political regime of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime.
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Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian: Pоссiйская Имперiя, Modern Russian: Российская империя,
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BCE Zayandeh River Civilization Sialk civilization 7500–1000 Jiroft civilization (Aratta) Proto-Elamite civilization Bactria-Margiana Complex Elamite dynasties 2800–550 Kingdom of Mannai Median Empire 728–550 Achaemenid Empire Seleucid Empire Greco-Bactrian
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sphere of influence (SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political domination.
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The British expedition to Tibet in 1903 and 1904 was actually an armed invasion of Tibet by British Indian forces, seeking to prevent the Russian Empire from interfering in Tibetan affairs and thus gaining a foothold in one of the buffer states surrounding British India,
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A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers, which by its sheer existence is thought to prevent conflict between them. Buffer states
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Lhasa
Lasa



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Iran

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Peter Hopkirk, born December 15 1930, in Nottingham, England is a British journalist and author. He worked for ITV news as a reporter and The Times newspaper as a foreign affairs specialist and latterly as chief reporter.
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entente cordiale is a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom and France. Beyond the immediate concerns of colonial expansion addressed by the agreement, the signing of the Entente cordiale marked the end of centuries of intermittent conflict
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Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of groups or states. It usually refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to issues of peace-making,
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great power is a nation or state that has the ability to exert its influence on a global scale. Great powers characteristically possess economic, military, diplomatic, and cultural strength, which may cause other, smaller nations to consider the opinions of great powers before
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