Anthozoa

Anthozoa
Enlarge picture
Stony corals, Scleractinia

Stony corals, Scleractinia
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Cnidaria
Class:Anthozoa
Ehrenberg, 1831


Anthozoa is a class within the phylum Cnidaria that contains the sea anemones and corals. Unlike other cnidarians, anthozoans do not have a medusa stage in their development. Instead, they release sperm and eggs that form a planula, which attaches to some substrate on which the cnidarian grows. Some anthozoans can also be reproduce asexually through budding.

All cnidarian species can feed by catching prey with nematocysts, sea anemones capable of catching fish and corals catching plankton. Some of the species also harbour a type of algae, dinoflagellates called zooxanthellae, in a symbiotic relationship; the reef building corals known as hermatypic corals rely on this symbiotic relationship particularly. The zooxanthellae benefit by using nitrogenous waste and carbon dioxide produced by the host, and the cnidarian gains photosynthetic capability and increased calcium carbonate production in hermatypic corals.[1]

Anemonies and certain species of coral live in isolation, however most corals form colonies of genetically identical polyps; these polyps closely resemble anemonies in structure, although are generally considerably smaller. Most kinds of stony coral live in all parts of the underwater world.

Enlarge picture
Giant green anemone, likely Epicystis crucifer, Southern California

Phylogeny

The two subclasses are divided into a number of orders[2] and a series of orders.[3][4][5][6], extinct orders from the Paleozoic (570-245 m.y.a.)[7] are marked with †.
  • Subclass Alcyonaria (= Octocorallia) (8-way symmetry)
  • Alcyonacea (soft corals)
  • Gorgonacea (sea fans, sea feathers)
  • Helioporacea (= Coenothecalia) (Indo-Pacific blue coral)
  • Pennatulacea (sea pens, sea pansies)
  • Stolonifera (organ-pipe coral, tree fern coral)
  • Telestacea (soft corals)
  • Subclass Zoantharia (= Hexacorallia (6-way symmetry)
  • Ceriantharia (tube-dwelling anemones)
  • Actiniaria (sea anemones)
  • Corallimorpharia
  • Numidiaphyllida ?
  • Scleractinia (= Madreporaria) (stony corals)
  • Kilbuchophyllida ?
  • Antipatharia (black corals, thorny corals)
  • Zoanthidea
  • Heterocorallia ?
  • Rugosa † (= Tetracoralla) (horned corals)
  • Heliolitida ?
  • Tabulata † (tabulate corals)
  • Cothoniida ?
  • Tabuloconida ?
  • Ptychodactiaria

References

1. ^ Contribution to the BUFUS Newsletter, Field excursion to Milne Bay Province - Papua New Guinea, Madl and Yip 2000
2. ^ Fautin, Daphne G. and Romano, Sandra L. (2000). Anthozoa. Sea Anemones, Corals, Sea Pens.. The Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved on 2006-03-31.
3. ^ Chen, C. A., D. M. Odorico, M. ten Lohuis, J. E. N. Veron, and D. J. Miller (June 1995). "Systematic relationships within the Anthozoa (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) using the 5'-end of the 28S rDNA". Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution 4 (2): 175-183. PubMed. 
4. ^ France, S. C., P. E. Rosel, J. E. Agenbroad, L. S. Mullineaux, and T. D. Kocher (March 1996). "DNA sequence variation of mitochondrial large-subunit rRNA provides support for a two subclass organization of the Anthozoa (Cnidaria)". Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology 5 (1): 15-28. PubMed. 
5. ^ Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey (2006). Subclass Alcyonaria. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Retrieved on 2006-03-31.
6. ^ Ben Kotrc (2005). Anthozoa: Subgroups. Fossil Groups. University of Bristol. Retrieved on 2007-04-09.
7. ^ Oliver, W. A., Jr. (1996). "Origins and relationships of Paleozoic coral groups and the origin of the Scleractinia", in G. D. J. Stanley (ed.): Paleobiology and Biology of Corals. Columbus, Ohio: The Paleontological Society, 107-134. 
Scleractinia
Bourne, 1900

Families

Suborder Astrocoeiina
  Acroporidae
  Astrocoeniidae
  Pocilloporiidae
Suborder Caryophylliina
  Caryophylliidae
Suborder Dendrophylliina
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Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. Scientific classification also can be called scientific taxonomy, but should be distinguished from folk taxonomy, which lacks scientific basis.
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Cnidaria
Hatschek, 1888

Subphylum/Classes[1]

Anthozoa — corals and sea anemones
Medusozoa:[2]
:Cubozoa — sea wasps or box jellyfish

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Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (April 19, 1795 – June 27, 1876), German naturalist, zoologist, comparative anatomist, geologist, and microscopist, was one of the most famous and productive scientists of his time.
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Cnidaria
Hatschek, 1888

Subphylum/Classes[1]

Anthozoa — corals and sea anemones
Medusozoa:[2]
:Cubozoa — sea wasps or box jellyfish

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Actiniaria

Diversity
46 families

Suborders

Endocoelantheae
Nyantheae
Protantheae
Ptychodacteae
Sea anemones are a group of water dwelling, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria
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Corals are marine animals from the class Anthozoa and exist as small sea anemone-like polyps, typically in colonies of many identical individuals. The group includes the important reef builders that are found in tropical oceans, which secrete calcium carbonate to form a hard
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In biology, a medusa (plural: medusae) is a form of cnidarian in which the body is shortened on its principal axis and broadened, sometimes greatly, in contrast with polyps.
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sperm is derived from the word spermos (meaning "seed") and refers to the male reproductive cells. Sperm cells are the smaller gametes involved in fertilization.
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A planula is the free-swimming, flattened, ciliated, bilaterally symmetric larva of a jellyfish, a hydrozoan cnidarian, or a ctenophore. Depending on the species, the planula either metamorphosises into a miniature version of the adult form (such as some jellyfish and all
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In biochemistry, a substrate is a molecule upon which an enzyme acts. Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions involving the substrate(s). The substrate binds with the enzyme's active site, and an enzyme-substrate complex is formed.
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Budding is the formation of a new organism by the protrusion of part of another organism. This is very common in plants and fungi, but may be found in animal organisms, such as the hydra, as well.
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partially discharged nematocyst.]] A cnidocyte, cnidoblast or nematocyte, is a type of venomous cell unique to the phylum Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydrae, jellyfish etc.).
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Plankton are any drifting organism that inhabits the pelagic zone of oceans, seas, or bodies of fresh water. It is a description of life-style rather than a genetic classification.
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phytoplankton — provide the food base for most marine food chains. In very high densities (so-called algal blooms) these algae may discolor the water and outcompete or poison other life forms.
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Dinoflagellata
Bütschli 1885

Classes

Dinophyceae
Noctiluciphyceae
Syndiniophyceae

The dinoflagella are a large group of flagellate protists. Most are marine plankton, but they are common in fresh water habitats as well.
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Symbiodinium

Zooxanthellae (IPA: /ˌzoʊoʊzænˈθɛli/) are golden-brown intracellular endosymbionts of various marine animals and protozoa, especially anthozoans.
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symbiosis (from the Greek: συμ, sym, "with"; and βίοσίς, biosis, "living") can be used to describe various degrees of close relationship between organisms of different species.
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Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found as rock in all parts of the world, and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, and eggshells.
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The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, "old" and zoion, "animals", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon.
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mya or "m.y.a." is an abbreviation for million years ago. This abbreviation is commonly used as a unit of time to denote length of time before the present or "B.P." (before AD 1950). Specifically, one mya is equal to 106 years ago.
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Alcyonaria

Alcyonaria (also known as Octocorallia, as they have 8-fold symmetry) is a subclass of the class Anthozoa within the phylum Cnidaria. It includes the sea fans and sea pens, and the soft corals of the order Alcyonacea.
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Alcyonacea

Suborders

Alcyoniina
Calcaxonia
Holaxonia
Protoalcyonaria
Scleraxonia
Stolonifera

The Alcyonacea, or the soft corals are an order of corals which do not produce calcium carbonate skeletons.
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Gorgonacea

A sea fan, or gorgonian, is a form of sessile colonial cnidarian, similar to a sea pen or a soft coral, found throughout the oceans of the world, especially in tropical and subtropical seawater.
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Pennatulacea
Verrill, 1865

Families
  • Suborder Sessiliflorae
  • Anthoptilidae
  • Chunellidae

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Zoantharia

Zoantharia (also known as Hexacorallia, as they have 6-fold symmetry) is a subclass of the class Anthozoa within the phylum Cnidaria.
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Ceriantharia

Families
  • Suborder Botrucnidiferidae
  • Suborder Cerianthidae


The tube-dwelling anemone is a close relation of the Sea Anemone.
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Actiniaria

Diversity
46 families

Suborders

Endocoelantheae
Nyantheae
Protantheae
Ptychodacteae
Sea anemones are a group of water dwelling, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria
..... Click the link for more information.
Scleractinia
Bourne, 1900

Families

Suborder Astrocoeiina
  Acroporidae
  Astrocoeniidae
  Pocilloporiidae
Suborder Caryophylliina
  Caryophylliidae
Suborder Dendrophylliina
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