Attock

Enlarge picture
Akbar's Fort at Attock
Coordinates:
City of Attock
Coordinates:
Country Pakistan
Province Punjab, Pakistan
Established 1904
Incorporated 1978
Government
 - Nazim Maj.(R) Tahir Sadiq Khan
 - Founded By Sir Campbell
Area
 - City 6857 km  (0 sq mi)
Elevation 266 m (0 ft)
Population (2006)
 - City 1,274,935
 - Urban 260,724
 - Metro 1,014,211
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Postal code span 43600
Area code(s) 0597
Website: [1]


Attock (Urdu: اٹک) is a city located in the northern border of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and also a border district on the river Indus. The district is named after Attock Kurdh, the ancient town of the same name. It lies at the end of a natural corridor formed by the Kabul River where it flows into the Indus. Historically and strategically, Attock is considered the gateway to Central Asia[1]. The city lies on the bank of the River Indus. It is just 80 km from Rawalpindi and 100 km from Peshawar, and 10 km from the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, Kamra. Attock is a place of contrast offering the best life with the peace of most beautiful countryside.

Attock city is neither certainly static nor backward looking and is continuously at the forefront of development and change. Its location has helped it to become a competitive business area. District Attock has a population of more than one million people. Most of the population belongs to the profession of agriculture but the development and advancement in various walks of life has paved the path to understanding the importance of education in the lives of people as an individual and as a nation.

Geography and Climate

Attock is located at 33° 46' 20N Latitude and 72° 22' 6E Longitude. It has an altitude of 348 metres (1145 feet). The average annual rainfall in the district is 783mm (30.83 inches).[2]

Attock District has a climate with very hot summers and very cold winters. The maximum temperature reaches 40°C. The northern part is more humid with a relatively moderate climate as compared to the southern part.

The river Indus flows on the western and northern sides of the district; the Haro River comes from Haripur and passes through the Attock tehsil on the north of the Kala Chitta Range. The land is mainly hills, plateaus, and dissected plains. The area north of the Haro River is a flood plain with fertile soil.

Population

The once vibrant Urdu speaking population of this city has declined gradually and now only a few hundred native speakers of Urdu reside here.

History

Ancient history

Attock Khurd (the old city) has a rich history. The great mathematician and grammarian Pāṇini (पाणिन), who wrote Aṣṭādhyāyī, the oldest surviving Sanskrit grammar, was born near Attock in Shalātura, modern Lahur, on the right bank of Indus River in the ancient Kambojan/Gandharan territory in 520 B.C.E.. In those days Attock was located on the high road, the Uttarapatha, the principal route of international commerce and communication between Persia and China.

Attock then finds its name in the history books dating to the rule of Chandragupta's grandson Ashoka, the Buddhist Emperor of upper India, who had converted to the Buddhist faith. In the Edicts of Ashoka, set in stone, some of them written in Greek, it is declared that Greek populations within his realm also had converted to Buddhism:

"Here in the king's domain among the Greeks, the Kambojas, the Nabhakas, the Nabhapamkits, the Bhojas, the Pitinikas, the Andhras and the Palidas, everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in Dharma."
:—Rock Edict Nb13 (S. Dhammika).


In the spring of 326 B.C.E. Alexander III of Macedon passed into the Punjab (at Ohind, 16 m. above Attock), using a bridge over the Indus constructed by Perdiccas and Hephaestion[3]. The region became part of the Kingdom of Ederatides the Greek or Indo-Greek Kingdom, who extended his power over western Punjab. The Indo-Greek kings held the country after him (until about 80 B.C.E.) until its invasion by the Indo-scythians.

When the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visited the district in 630 C.E. and again in 643 C.E., Buddhism was rapidly declining. The Brahman revival, to which India owes its present form of Hinduism, had already set in the early years of the fifth century, and must have been at its height in the days of Hiuen Tsang. From that time the light afforded by the records of the Chinese pilgrims fades. A long period of darkness swallows up the years that intervened before the Muslim invasions and the beginning of continuous history.

The country was under the dominion of the Hindu kings of Kashmir, and remained so till the end of the 9th century. After that, the district became part of the Kingdom of the rulers of Kabul, Samanta Deva and his successors (more accurately designated as the "Hindu Shahis of Kabul"), who remained in possession till the times of Mahmud Ghaznavi. With the passage of time, the Gakhars became strong in the hills to the east, but their dominion never extended beyond the Margalla pass and the Khari Moorat.

Mughal and Sikh rule

Akbar the Great built Attock Fort from 1581 - 1583 under the supervision of Khawaja Shamsuddin Khawafi. It saw countless battles and skirmishes between the Sikhs and the Afghans in later years. When Ranjit Singh sought to include the Sikh states south of the Sutlej within his jurisdiction, in 1808 the heads of these states sought and obtained the protection of the British, whose territories had now extended to their neighbourhood. The British sought alliances with Lahore as well as with Kabul, for protection against supposed French designs on India. A British envoy, Charles Metcalfe, was received by Ranjit at Kasur in 1809 and the alliance was formed. In 1813 Ranjit Singh secured Attock Fort as well as the Koh-i-Noor diamond[4], consolidating his control over the Punjab.

British rule

Attock District was constituted in 1904. The district was named Campbellpur (Campbell town) - after Sir Campbell who laid the foundation stone of Campbellpur City in 1908 a few kilometres south-east of old Attock Khurd town. In 1857 at the village of Kisran 143 people were killed during the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

After independence

Although Pakistan had become independent from Britain in 1947 it wasn't until 1978 that the name Attock was adopted for the city.

Attock's first oil well was drilled in Khore in 1946. It has an oil and gas field Dakhini near Jand. One-third of Pakistan's oil is produced .Many companies have come to pakistan and visited different sites to search for oil and gas. here[5].

Organisation

Attock district covers an area of 6857 square kilometres and is divided into six tehsils (sub-districts).
  1. Attock
  2. Jand
  3. Fateh Jang
  4. Pindi Gheb
  5. Hassanabdal
  6. Hazro


Prominent areas in the district are Attock, Jand, Fatehjang, Pindigheb, Hasanabdal, Hazro, Chach, Chhachh, Ghorghushti, Kamra, Sanjwal, Daurdad, Attock Khurd, Attock Fort, Kala Chitta, Attock Cantt, Shadi Khan, Mukhad, Sarwana, Malhoo, Nartopa, Bangi, Daman,Kund National Park, Thatta, Mithail, Mansar, Haji Shah, Basal.

See also

References

Coordinates:
geographic coordinate system enables every location on the earth to be specified by the three coordinates of a spherical coordinate system aligned with the spin axis of the Earth.
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country, state, and nation can have various meanings. Therefore, diverse lists of these entities are possible. Wikipedia offers the following lists:

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Motto
اتحاد، تنظيم، يقين محکم
Ittehad, Tanzim, Yaqeen-e-Muhkam   (Urdu)
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Pakistan

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Pakistan




  • Constitution
  • Government
  • President
  • Pervez Musharraf

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Punjab or Panjab (Urdu: پنجاب  ) province of Pakistan is the country's most populous region and is home to the Punjabis and various other
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19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1870s  1880s  1890s  - 1900s -  1910s  1920s  1930s
1901 1902 1903 - 1904 - 1905 1906 1907

Year 1904 (MCMIV
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A municipal corporation is a legal definition for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs.
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19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1940s  1950s  1960s  - 1970s -  1980s  1990s  2000s
1975 1976 1977 - 1978 - 1979 1980 1981

Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII
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Nazim (Urdu: ناظم )

The Coordinator of cities and towns in Pakistan. Nazim is the title in Urdu of the chief elected official of a local government in Pakistan, such as a District, Tehsil, Union Council, or Village Council.

The "Chief Nazim" a.
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Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. The term Surface area is the summation of the areas of the exposed sides of an object.

Units

Units for measuring surface area include:
square metre = SI derived unit

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Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of surface area, the square metre, one of the SI derived units. 1 km² is equal to:
  • 1,000,000 m²
  • 100 ha (hectare)
Conversely:
  • 1 m² = 0.

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square mile is an imperial and US unit of area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. It should not be confused with the archaic miles square, which refers to the number of miles on each side squared.
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elevation of a geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point, often the mean sea level. Elevation, or geometric height, is mainly used when referring to points on the Earth's surface, while altitude or geopotential height
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1 metre =
SI units
1000 mm 0 cm
US customary / Imperial units
0 ft 0 in
The metre or meter[1](symbol: m) is the fundamental unit of length in the International System of Units (SI).
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1 foot =
SI units
0 m 0 mm
US customary / Imperial units
0 yd 0 in
A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes,
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An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. This term is at one end of the spectrum of suburban and rural areas. An urban area is more frequently called a city or town.
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metropolitan area is a large population centre consisting of a large metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence, or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central cities and their zone of influence.
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time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. Most adjacent time zones are exactly one hour apart, and by convention compute their local time as an offset from UTC (see also Greenwich Mean Time).
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Pakistan Standard Time (PST) is the time zone for Pakistan. It is 5 hours ahead of GMT/UTC (UTC+5).

Daylight Saving Time

In 2002, the government cabinet decided that "in order to make maximum use of daylight and to save energy", they would adopt the Daylight Saving
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UTC+5 is the timezone for:
  • Pakistan Standard Time
  • West Asia Standard Time.
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  • Generic UTC+5 in other countries.

Single zone countries without DST

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The following is the list of some of the Postal Codes in Pakistan. For details see the link below to Pakistan Postal Code

Town Postal Code District Province Description
Abbottabad 22010
Attock 43600
Badin 72220
Bagh (A.J.
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Urdu}}} 
Writing system: Urdu alphabet (Nasta'liq script) 
Official status
Official language of:  Pakistan ;
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Punjab or Panjab (Urdu: پنجاب  ) province of Pakistan is the country's most populous region and is home to the Punjabis and various other
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Motto
اتحاد، تنظيم، يقين محکم
Ittehad, Tanzim, Yaqeen-e-Muhkam   (Urdu)
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Indus
Sindh, Sindhu, Hindu, Abasin, Sengge Chu
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Kabul River or Kabal River (Persian: دریای کابل) is a river that rises in the Sanglakh Range of Afghanistan, separated from the watershed of the Helmand by the Unai Pass.
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Indus
Sindh, Sindhu, Hindu, Abasin, Sengge Chu
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Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. Though various definitions of its exact composition exist, no one definition is universally accepted. Despite this uncertainty in defining borders, it does have some important overall characteristics.
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Indus
Sindh, Sindhu, Hindu, Abasin, Sengge Chu
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Rawalpindi   (Urdu: راولپنڈی
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