B-25

B-25 Mitchell
U.S. Army Air Force B-25B
TypeMedium bomber
ManufacturerNorth American Aviation
Designed byJohn Leland "Lee" Atwood
Maiden flight19 August 1940
Introduction1941
Retired1979 (Indonesia)
Primary userUnited States Army Air Forces
Number built9,984


The North American B-25 Mitchell (NA-62) was an American twin-engined medium bomber manufactured by North American Aviation. It was used with devastating effect against German and Japanese targets in every combat theater of World War II. The aircraft was named the "Mitchell" in honor of General Billy Mitchell, an early air power pioneer and advocate of an independent United States Air Force. The B-25 Mitchell is the only American military aircraft named after a specific person. By the end of its production, nearly 10,000 B-25s in numerous models had been built. These included a few limited variations, such as the US Navy's PBJ-1 patrol bomber and the Army Air Forces' F-10 photo reconnaissance aircraft.

Design and development

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Flight Performance School also included work in evaluating the performance of this B-25 Mitchell medium bomber
The B-25 was a descendant of the earlier XB-21 (North American-39) project of the mid-1930s. Experience gained in developing that aircraft was eventually used by North American in designing the B-25 (called the NA-40 by the company). One NA-40 was built, with several modifications later being done to test a number of potential improvements. These improvements included Wright R-2600 radial engines, which would become standard on the later B-25.

In 1939, the modified and improved NA-40B was submitted to the United States Army Air Corps for evaluation. This plane was originally intended to be an attack bomber for export to the United Kingdom and France, both of which had a pressing requirement for such aircraft in the early stages of World War II. However, those countries changed their minds, opting instead for the also-new Douglas A-20 Havoc. Despite this loss of sales, the NA-40B re-entered the spotlight when the Army Air Corps evaluated it for use as a medium bomber. Unfortunately, the NA-40B was destroyed in a crash on 11 April 1939. Nonetheless, the type was ordered into production, along with the Army's other new medium bomber, the Martin B-26 Marauder.

Early production

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Mitchell production in Kansas City in 1942
An improvement of the NA-40B, dubbed the NA-62, was the basis for the first actual B-25. Due to the pressing need for medium bombers by the Army, no experimental or service-test versions were built. Any necessary modifications were made during production runs, or to existing aircraft at field modification centers around the world.

A significant change in the early days of B-25 production was a re-design of the wing. In the first nine aircraft, a constant-dihedral wing was used, in which the wing had a consistent, straight, slight upward angle from the fuselage to the wing tip. This design caused stability problems, and as a result, the dihedral angle was nullified on the outboard wing sections, giving the B-25 its slightly gull wing configuration. Less noticeable changes during this period included an increase in the size of the tail fins and a decrease in their inward cant.

A total of 6,608 B-25s were built at North American's Fairfax Airport plant in Kansas City, Kansas.

A descendant of the B-25 was the XB-28 Dragon, meant to be a high-altitude version of the B-25. Despite this premise, the actual aircraft bore little resemblance to the Mitchell. It had much more in common with the B-26 Marauder.

Operational history

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Lt. Peddy and crew, showing how many people were required to keep a B-25 flying
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B-25Bs on the USS Hornet
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A B-25C being refueled
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B-25 in low-level "skip-bombing" mission in New Guinea
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B-25G Mitchell from the AAF TAC Center, Orlando, Florida, 17 April 1944
The B-25 first gained fame as the bomber used in the April 1942 Doolittle Raid, in which 16 B-25Bs, led by the legendary Lt. Col. Jimmy Doolittle, took off from the carrier USS Hornet and successfully bombed Tokyo and four other Japanese cities without loss to themselves. However, 15 of the planes subsequently crash-landed in Eastern China en route to their recovery fields in that country. These losses were the result of fuel exhaustion, stormy nighttime conditions with zero visibility, and the lack of electronic homing aids at the recovery bases. Only one B-25B landed intact; it came down in the Soviet Union, where its five-man crew was interned and the aircraft confiscated. Fortunately, 71 of the 80 Doolittle Raid crewmen survived their historic mission and eventually made it back to American lines.

Following a number of additional modifications, including the addition of Plexiglas windows for the navigator and radio operator, heavier nose armament, and de-icing and anti-icing equipment, the B-25C version was released to the Army. This was the second mass-produced version of the Mitchell, the first being the lightly-armed B-25B used by the Doolittle Raiders. The B-25C and B-25D were identical, the only difference being their location of manufacture. The B-25C was built in Inglewood, California, while the B-25D was made in Kansas City, Kansas. A total of 3,915 B-25Cs and B-25Ds were built by North American during World War II.

Although the B-25 was originally designed to bomb from medium altitudes in level flight, it was used frequently in the Southwest Pacific theater (SWPA) on treetop-level strafing and parafrag (parachute-retarded fragmentation bombs) missions against Japanese airfields in New Guinea and the Philippines. These heavily-armed Mitchells, field-modified by Major Paul Irving "Pappy" Gunn, were also used on strafing and skip-bombing missions against Japanese shipping trying to re-supply their land-based armies. Under the leadership of Lt. Gen. George C. Kenney, B-25s of the 5th and 13th Air Forces devastated Japanese targets in the SWPA from 1942 to 1945, and played a significant role in pushing the Japanese back to their home islands. B-25s were also used with devastating effect in the Central Pacific, Alaska, North Africa, Mediterranean and China-Burma-India theaters.

Because of the urgent need for hard-hitting strafer aircraft, a version of the B-25 dubbed the B-25G was developed, in which the standard-length transparent nose and the bombardier were replaced by a shorter, solid nose containing two fixed .50-calibre machine guns and a 75 mm M4 cannon. The latter was the largest caliber weapon used in an American bomber of the time. The cannon was manually loaded and serviced by the navigator, who was able to perform these operations without leaving his crew station just behind the pilots. This was possible due to the shorter nose of the G-model and the long length of the M4, which allowed the gun's breech to extend into the navigator's compartment. The B-25G's successor, the B-25H, had even more firepower. The 75mm gun was the lighter T13E1 which had been designed specifically for the B-25H. It also mounted four fixed forward-firing .50-calibre machine guns in the nose, four more fixed ones in forward-firing "blister" mounts on the fuselage sides, two more in the top turret, one each in a pair of new waist positions, and a final two in a new tail gunner's position. Company promotional material bragged that the B-25H could "bring to bear ten machine guns coming and four going, in addition to the 75mm cannon, a brace of eight rockets and 3000 pounds of bombs."[1] Fourteen hundred B-25Gs and B-25Hs were built. The 75mm cannon fired at a muzzle velocity of 2,362 fps, about 720 m/s. Due to its low rate of fire (approximately four shells could be fired in a single strafing run) and relative ineffectiveness against ground targets, the 75mm cannon was sometimes removed from both G and H models and replaced with two additional .50-caliber machine guns as a field modification.[2] The B-25H also featured a redesigned cockpit area, with the top turret moved forward to the navigator's compartment (thus requiring the addition of the waist and tail gun positions), and a heavily modified cockpit designed to be operated by a single pilot, with the co-pilot's station and controls deleted, and the seat cut down and used by the navigator/cannoneer, with the radio operator in the aft compartment operating the waist guns.[3]

The final version of the Mitchell, the B-25J, looked much like the earlier B, C and D models, having reverted to the longer nose section as used in those types. The less-than-successful, 75 mm cannon was deleted on the J model. Instead, 800 of this version were built with a solid nose containing eight .50-caliber machine guns, while other J-models featured the earlier "greenhouse" style nose containing the bombardier's position. Regardless of the nose style used, all J-models also included two .50 caliber guns in a "fuselage package" located directly under the pilot's station, and two more such guns in an identical package just under the co-pilot's compartment. The solid-nose B-25J variant carried an impressive total of 18 .50-caliber guns: eight in the nose, four in under-cockpit packages, two in an upper turret, two in the waist compartment, and a pair in the tail position. No other bomber of World War II carried as many guns. However, the first 555 B-25Js (the B-25J-1-NC production block) were delivered without the fuselage package guns, because it was discovered that muzzle blast from these guns was causing severe stress in the fuselage next to the muzzles; while later production runs returned these guns, they were often removed as a field modification for that same reason.[4] In all, 4,318 B-25Js were built.

The B-25 was a safe and forgiving aircraft to fly. With an engine out, 60° banking turns into the dead engine were possible, and control could be easily maintained down to 145 mph (230 km/h). The tricycle landing gear made for excellent visibility while taxiing. The only significant complaint about the B-25 was the extremely high noise level produced by its engines; as a result, many pilots eventually suffered from various degrees of hearing loss [5].

The Mitchell was also an amazingly sturdy aircraft that could withstand tremendous punishment. One well-known B-25C of the 321st Bomb Group was nicknamed "Patches" because its crew chief painted all the aircraft's flak hole patches with high-visibility zinc chromate paint. By the end of the war, this aircraft had completed over 300 missions, was belly-landed half a dozen times and sported over 400 patched holes. The airframe was so bent that straight-and-level flight required 8° of left aileron trim and 6° of right rudder, causing the aircraft to "crab" sideways across the sky.

An interesting characteristic of the B-25 was that its range could be extended by using one-quarter wing flap settings. Since the aircraft normally cruised in a slightly nose-high attitude, about 40 US gallons (150 l) of fuel was below the fuel pickup point and thus unavailable for use. The flaps-down setting gave the aircraft a more level flight attitude, which resulted in this fuel becoming available, thus slightly extending the plane's range [6].

Empire State Building accident

On Saturday, 28 July 1945, at 9:49 am (while flying in thick fog), a B-25D crashed into the north side of Empire State Building, hitting between the 79th and 80th floor. Fourteen people were killed - 11 in the building, along with Colonel William Smith and the other two occupants of the plane.[7]

Variants

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B-25C Mitchell
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USAAF B-25C/D. Note the early (likely experimental) radar fitted to the nose
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B-25J
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B-25J warbird


B-25
The first version of the B-25 delivered. It was so badly needed that no prototype stages were ordered. The first nine planes were built with constant dihedral angle. Due to low stability, the wing was redesigned so that the dihedral angle was eliminated on the outboard section. (Number made: 24)
B-25A
Version of the B-25 modified to make it combat ready; additions included self-sealing fuel tanks, crew armour, and an improved tail gunner station. No changes were made in the armament. Re designated obsolete (RB-25A designation) in 1942. (Number made: 40)
B-25B
Tail gunner eliminated; dorsal and ventral turrets added, each with a pair of .50-caliber machine guns. The ventral turret was retractable, but the increased drag still reduced the cruise speed by 30 mph (48 km/h). 23 were delivered to the RAF as the Mitchell Mk I. The Doolittle Raiders flew B-25Bs on their famous mission. (Number made: 120)
B-25C
Improved version of the B-25B: upgraded from Wright R-2600-9 radials to R-2600-13 radials; deicing and anti-icing equipment was added; the navigator received a sighting blister; and nose armament was increased to two .50-caliber machine guns, one fixed and one flexible. The B-25C model was the first mass produced B-25 version; it was also used in the United Kingdom as the Mitchell II, and in Canada, China, the Netherlands, and the Soviet Union. First mass-produced B-25. (Number made: 1,625)
ZB-25C
B-25D
Identical to the B-25C. The only difference was that the B-25C was made in Inglewood, California, whereas the B-25D was made in Kansas City, Kansas. First flew on 3 January 1942. (Number made: 2,290)
ZB-25D
XB-25E
Single B-25C modified to test de-icing and anti-icing equipment that circulated exhaust from the engines in chambers in the leading and trailing edges and empennage. The plane was tested for almost two years, beginning in 1942; while the system proved extremely effective, no production models were built that used it before the end of World War II. Many prop planes today use the XB-25E system. (Number made: 1, converted)
ZXB-25E
XB-25F-A
Modified B-25C that tested the use of insulated electrical de-icing coils mounted inside the wing and empennage leading edges as a de-icing system. The hot air de-icing system tested on the XB-25E was more practical. (Number made: 1, converted)
XB-25G
Modified B-25C in which the transparent nose was replaced by a solid one, with two fixed .50-caliber machine guns and a 2.95-inch (75 mm) M4 Cannon, then the largest weapon ever carried on an American bomber. (Number made: 1, converted)
B-25G
To satisfy the dire need for ground-attack and strafing aircraft, the B-25G was made following the success of the prototype XB-25G. The production model featured increased armour and a greater fuel supply than the XB-25G. One B-25G was passed to the British, who gave it the name Mitchell II that had been used for the B-25C. (Number made: 420)
B-25H
An improved version of the B-25G. It featured two more fixed .50-caliber machine guns in the nose, and four in fuselage-mounted pods; the heavy M4 cannon was replaced by a lighter 2.95-inch (75 mm) T13E1. (Number made: 1,000; Number left flying in the world: 1)
B-25J
The last production model of the B-25, often called a cross between the B-25C and the B-25H. It had a transparent nose, but many of the delivered planes were modified to have a solid nose. Most of its 14–18 machine guns were forward-facing for strafing missions. 316 were delivered to the Royal Air Force as the Mitchell III. (Number made: 4,318)
CB-25J
Utility transport version.
VB-25J
A number of B-25s were converted for use as staff and VIP transports. Henry H. Arnold and Dwight D. Eisenhower both used converted B-25Js as their personal transports.

Trainer variants

Most models of the B-25 were used at some point as training aircraft.
TB-25D
Originally designated AT-24A (Advanced Trainer, Model 24, Version A). Trainer modification of B-25D. In total, 60 AT-24s were built.
TB-25G
Originally designated AT-24B. Trainer modification of B-25G.
TB-25C
Originally designated AT-24C. Trainer modification of B-25C.
TB-25J
Originally designated AT-24D. Trainer modification of B-25J. Another 600 B-25Js were modified after the war.
TB-25K
Hughes E1 fire-control radar trainer (Hughes). (Number made: 117)
TB-25L
Hayes pilot-trainer conversion. (Number made: 90)
TB-25M
Hughes E5 fire-control radar trainer. (Number made: 40)
TB-25N
Hayes pilot-trainer conversion. (Number made: 47)

US Navy variants

PBJ-1C
Similar to the B-25C for the US Navy; often fitted with airborne search radar and used in the anti-submarine role.
PBJ-1D
Similar to the B-25D for the US Navy. Differed in having on a single .50 caliber M2 in the tail turret and beam gun positions similar to the B-25H. Often fitted with airborne search radar and used in the anti-submarine role.
PBJ-1G
US Navy designation for the B-25G
PBJ-1H
US Navy designation for the B-25H
PBJ-1J
US Navy designation for the B-25J-NC (Blocks -1 through -35) with improvements in radio and other equipment. Often fitted with "package guns" and wingtip search radar for the anti-shipping/anti-submarine role.

Survivors

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A B-25 Mitchell at a modern airshow
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B-25J-20 Mitchell (Duke of Brabant Air Force)


B-25 "cut-away" display version of the fuselage.
Strategic Air and Space Museum, Ashland, Nebraska


B-25C 41-12634
Southern Museum of Flight in Birmingham, Alabama. Recently recovered from a 1943 crash site at Lake Murray in South Carolina, in the process of being restored.


B-25C-35 43-3634 "Yankee Warrior"
Yankee Air Museum on the grounds of Willow Run Airport in Belleville, Michigan


B-25D 43-3374 displayed as B-25B 40-2344
National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB, near Dayton, Ohio, part of a display commemorating the Doolittle Raid.


B-25D-20
Liberty Park, Overloon, Netherlands. Netherlands Royal Air Force squadron 320, November 1943, retired 1954.


B-25H-1 43-4106 (N5548N) "Barbie III"
Weary Warriors, Rockford, Illinois.


B-25H "Dog Daize"
New England Air Museum, Windsor Locks, Connecticut.


B-25J 43-28147 "Panchito"


B-25J 44-30423 "Photo Fanny"
Planes of Fame Museum, Chino, CA


TB-25J-NC 44-30854 marked as Doolittle's B-25B 40-2344
USAF Armaments Museum, Eglin AFB, Florida. This was the last active B-25 in the USAF inventory, retired in 1959.


B-25J 44-86747
Eden Prairie, Minnesota (??)


B-25J 44-86747 (N8163H) "Mitch The Witch"
Palm Springs Air Museum, Palm Springs, California


B-25J 44-86843 "Passionate Paulette"
Grissom Air Museum, Peru Indiana. Aircraft from the Movie Catch-22.


B-25J "Briefing Time"
Mid-Atlantic Air Museum, Reading, Pennsylvania


B-25J "Miss Mitchell"
Commemorative Air Force, Southern Minnesota Wing, located at Hangar 3, Fleming Field, South Saint Paul, Minnesota.[8]


B-25J "Super Rabbit"
Evergreen Aviation Museum, McMinnville, Oregon. Aircraft delivered to the USAF on 20 June 1945. Converted to a TB-25J trainer and sent to the Royal Canadian Air Force in 1952. On loan to the museum from the private collection of Jim Morgan of Aumsville, Oregon.


B-25J "Grumpy"
Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, Hamilton, Ontario


B-25J
Kalamazoo Aviation History Museum ("Kalamazoo Air Zoo"), Kalamazoo, Michigan. Aircraft with "solid" strafing nose and dragon-styled nose art that covers the entire nose.


B-25J
Militaire Luchtvaart Museum (Museum of military aviation), Soesterberg, Netherlands. Aircraft donated by the Republic of Indonesia, painted in livery of 18sqn Royal Netherlands East Indies Airforce.


B-25J
Alberta Aviation Museum.

Operators

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B-25 Mitchell bombers from No. 18 (NEI) Squadron RAAF on a training flight near Canberra in 1942
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B-25J in 98 RAF Squadron markings
 Australia
 Argentina
 Bolivia
 Brazil
 Canada
 China
 People's Republic of China
The template is . Please use instead.
This usage is deprecated. Please replace it with {{tdeprecated|B-25 Mitchell|Country}}.
'''The template is deprecated. Please use instead.
 People's Republic of China
 Cuba
 Dominican Republic
 France
 Indonesia
 Mexico
 Netherlands
 Peru
 Poland
Spanish State
 Soviet Union
 United Kingdom
 United States
 Uruguay
 Venezuela

Specifications (B-25J)

Data from Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II[9]

General characteristics

* Crew: six (two pilots, navigator/bombardier, turret gunner/engineer, radio operator/waist gunner, tail gunner
  • Length: 52 ft 11 in (16.1 m)* Wingspan: 67 ft 6 in (20.6 m)
  • Height: 17 ft 7 in (4.8 m)* Wing area: 610 ft² (57 m²)* Empty weight: 21,120 lb (9,580 kg)* Loaded weight: 33,510 lb (15,200 kg)* Max takeoff weight: 41,800 lb (19,000 kg
)* Powerplant: 2 Wright R-2600 "Cyclone" radials, 1,850 hp (1,380 kW ) each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 275 mph (239 knots, 442 km/h)* Cruise speed: 230 mph (200 knots, 370 km/h)* Combat radius: 1,350 mi (1,170 nm, 2,170 km)* Ferry range: 2,700 mi (2,300 nm, 4,300 km)* Service ceiling: 25,000 ft (7,600 m)* Rate of climb: 790 ft/min (4 m/s)* Wing loading: 55 lb/ft² (270 kg/m²)* Power/mass: 0.110 hp/lb (182 W/kg
)

Armament

Popular culture

The B-25 is featured in the book Catch-22, and in the movies Thirty Seconds over Tokyo (one pilot's account of the Doolittle Raid), Pearl Harbor, "Hanover Street" and Catch-22, which features a large number of B-25s in flying condition.

References

1. ^ Yenne, Bill, Rockwell: The Heritage of North American. New York: Crescent Books, 1989, p. 40. ISBN 0-517-67252-9.
2. ^ Kinzey, Bert. B-25 Mitchell In Detail. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1999, p. 51, 53. ISBN 1-888974-13-3.
3. ^ Kinzey 1999, p. 52-53.
4. ^ Kinzey 1999, p. 60.
5. ^ Higham 1978
6. ^ Higham 1978
7. ^ Roberts, William. Elevator World, March 1996. [1]Access date: 1 December 2006.
8. ^ CAF Southern Minnesota Wing
9. ^ Jane, Fred T. “The North American Mitchell.” Jane’s Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London: Studio, 1946, p. 249-251. ISBN 1-85170-493-0.
  • Green, William. Famous Bombers of the Second World War. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1975. ISBN 0-385-12467-8.
  • Johnsen, Frederick A. North American B-25 Mitchell. Stillwater, Minnesota: Voyageur Press, 1997. ISBN 0-933424-77-9.
  • Higham, Roy and Williams, Carol, eds. Flying Combat Aircraft of USAAF-USAF (Vol.1). Andrews AFB, Maryland: Air Force Historical Foundation, 1975. ISBN 0-8138-0325-X.
  • _______. Flying Combat Aircraft of USAAF-USAF (Vol.2). Andrews AFB, Maryland: Air Force Historical Foundation, 1978. ISBN 0-8138-0375-6.
  • Scutts, Jerry. North American B-25 Mitchell. Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK: Crowood Press, 2001. ISBN 1-86126-394-5.

External links

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Designation sequence

See also

An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, and/or spacecraft.
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North American Aviation was a major US aircraft manufacturer. The company was responsible for a number of historic aircraft, including the T-6 Texan trainer, the P-51 Mustang fighter, the B-25 Mitchell bomber, the F-86 Sabre jet fighter, and the X-15 rocket plane, as well as Apollo
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The first flight of a new aircraft type is always a historic occasion for the type.
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United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the aviation component of the United States Army primarily during World War II. The title of Army Air Forces succeeded the prior name of Army Air Corps in June 1941 during preparation for expected combat in what came to be known as World
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Motto
"In God We Trust"   (since 1956)
"E Pluribus Unum"   ("From Many, One"; Latin, traditional)
Anthem
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medium bomber is a bomber aircraft designed to operate with medium bombloads over medium distances; primarily to distinguish them from the much larger heavy bombers and smaller light bombers.
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North American Aviation was a major US aircraft manufacturer. The company was responsible for a number of historic aircraft, including the T-6 Texan trainer, the P-51 Mustang fighter, the B-25 Mitchell bomber, the F-86 Sabre jet fighter, and the X-15 rocket plane, as well as Apollo
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The Empire of Japan (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國; Shinjitai: 大日本帝国; pronounced Dai Nippon Teikoku; officially Empire of Greater Japan
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Allied powers:
 Soviet Union
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...et al. Axis powers:
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...et al.
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William Lendrum "Billy" Mitchell (December 28, 1879 – February 19, 1936) was an American general who is regarded as one of the most famous and most controversial figures in American airpower history. He is regarded as the father of the U.S. Air Force.
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United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. Previously part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947.
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United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. The U.S. Navy currently has over 340,000 personnel on active duty and nearly 128,000 in the Navy Reserve.
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United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the aviation component of the United States Army primarily during World War II. The title of Army Air Forces succeeded the prior name of Army Air Corps in June 1941 during preparation for expected combat in what came to be known as World
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The North American XB-21 (North American NA-21) was a prototype bomber aircraft evaluated by the United States Army Air Corps in 1937 but not ordered into production. The North American assigned model number was NA-21.
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The Wright R-2600 Cyclone 14 (also called Twin Cyclone) was an American radial engine developed by Curtiss-Wright and widely used in the 1930s and 1940s aircraft.
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The United States Air Corps (USAC) was the predecessor of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) from 1926 to 1941, which in turn was the forerunner of today's United States Air Force (USAF).
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Motto
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"God and my right"
Anthem
"God Save the Queen" [3]
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Motto
Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
Anthem
"La Marseillaise"


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Type Light bomber
Night fighter
Manufacturer Douglas
Designed by Ed Heinemann
Maiden flight 23 January 1938
Introduced 10 January 1941
Primary users Soviet Air Force
US Army Air Force
Royal Air Force

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medium bomber is a bomber aircraft designed to operate with medium bombloads over medium distances; primarily to distinguish them from the much larger heavy bombers and smaller light bombers.
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Type Medium bomber
Manufacturer Glenn L. Martin Company
Designed by Peyton M. Magruder
Maiden flight 25 November 1940
Introduced 1941
Status Retired
Primary user United States Army Air Force
Produced
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Dihedral is the upward angle from horizontal in a fixed-wing aircraft or bird wing from root to tip, as viewed from directly in front or behind the aircraft. The aeorodynamic stabilising qualities of the dihedral were first described by Sir George Cayley in 1808/09.
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