Babendil

The babendil is a single, narrow-rimmed Philippine gong[1] used primary as the “timekeeper” of the Maguindanao kulintang ensemble.[2]

Description

The babendil usually has a diameter of roughly one foot making it larger than the largest kulintang gong and comparable to the diameter of the agung or gandingan. However, unlike the gandingan or the agung, the babendil has a sunken boss which makes the boss relatively non-functional.[3] Because of their sunken boss, babendils are stuck instead either at the flange or the rim, using either bamboo betays or a strip of rattan producing a sharp, distinctive metallic clang[2] and are sometimes considered “false gongs.” In fact, this distinction makes the babendil classified as a bell in the Hornbostel-Sachs classification (if it were struck at the boss, it would be considered a gong.)[3]

Babendils are normally made out of bronze but due to the scarcity of this metal in Mindanao, most gongs, including the babendil are made out of more common metal such as brass, iron and even tin-can.[1]

Enlarge picture
Student demonstrating the proper way to use the babendil

Technique

The babendil could be played while standing[2] or when seated with the babendil hung half a foot from the floor.[3] Proper technique requires the player to hold the babendil vertically, angled away from the body, with the gong held at the rim between their thumb and four fingers. With their thumb parallel to the rim of the gong, the players strikes the rim of the gong using their betay[2] to play fundamental patterns that are similar to the drum pattern on the dabakan or the beat of the lower-picthed agung.[3]

Uses

Enlarge picture
The babendil
The babendil traditionally could be played by either sexes.[4] In wooden kulintang ensembles, the kagul is usually substituted for the babendil part.[1] Among the Tausug, the Samal and the Yakan, their babendil-type instrument generally has gone into disuse (Instead, tempo is kept in check using the highest gong on the kulintangan . Solembat is term used by the Samal for the ostinato beat while the Yakan call that same beat, nulanting.)[2] while among the Tagbanua, the babandil is used not only to keep the rhythm of pieces but also as a song accompaniment as well.[5]

Origins

The origins of the word "babendil" could either be traced from the Middle East or the Indian Subcontinent[3]. Scholars suggest the name babendil is derived from the Arabic word, bandair, meaning, “circular-type, pan-Arabic, tambourine or frame drum.[6]" Others suggests that since the babendil is closely related to the Javanese bebende or bende (a gong with similar characteristics and uses in the colotomic gamelan ensemble), it perhaps has relations with an ancient Indian kettle drum, behri, where ancient Sanskrit indicated the bende was the bronze equivalent of the behri.[7]

Other Derivative Names

Also called: babendir, (Maguindanao) babndir (Maranao), bandil, babandil, babindil, bapindil, (Other Southern Philippine Groups)[3], babandir (Tagbanua, Batak, Palaw’an)[5], banendir[8], tungtung, (Tausug), salimbal (Samal) and the mapindil (Yakan)[2].

References

1. ^ Benitez, Kristina. The Maguindanaon Kulintang: Musical Innovation, Transformation and the Concept of Binalig. Ann Harbor, MI: University of Michigan, 2005.
2. ^ Mercurio, Philip Dominguez (2006). Traditional Music of the Southern Philippines (html). PnoyAndTheCity: A center for Kulintang - A home for Pasikings. Retrieved on February 25, 2006.
3. ^ Cadar, Usopay Hamdag (1971). The Maranao Kolintang Music: An Analysis of the Instruments, Musical Organization, Ethmologies, and Historical Documents. Seattle, WA: University of Washington.
4. ^ Butocan, Aga M. (2006). Gandingan/Babendil (html). Kulintang and the Maguindanaos. Retrieved on August 23, 2006.
5. ^ Fernandaz, Fe Tria (2000). Palawan Culture: Rich, colorful, fascinating (html). Philippines Today. Retrieved on August 23, 2006.
6. ^ Farmer, Herny G.. Historical Facts for the Arabian Musical Influence. London: William Reeves, 1930.
7. ^ McPhee, Colin. Music in Bali. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1996.
8. ^ Cruz, Gray (2006). Musicians - Rondalla and Percussionists (html). Likha Pilipino Folk Ensemble. Retrieved on August 23, 2006.



Traditional instruments of the Southern Philippines
Maguindanao Kulintang Ensemble
Kulintang - Agung - Gandingan - Babendil - Dabakan
Other non-ensemble instruments
Kulintang a Kayo - Gandingan a Kayo - Kulintang a Tiniok - Kubing - Luntang - Agung a TamlangKagulPalendagTumpongSuling - Kutiyapi
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The Maguindanao are part of the wider Moro ethnic group, who constitute the sixth largest Filipino ethnic group. Their name means “people of the plains”.

History

Pre-Spanish


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Kulintang is a modern term for an instrumental form of music composed on a row of small, horizontally-laid gongs that function melodically, accompanied by larger, suspended gongs and drums.
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agung is a Philippine set of two, wide-rimmed, vertically-suspended gongs used by the Maguindanao, Maranao and Tausug as a supportive instrument in their kulintang ensemble.
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The gandingan is a Philippine set of four, large hanging gongs used specifically by the Maguindanao as part of their kulintang ensemble. When integrated into the ensemble, it functions as a secondary melodic instrument after the main melodic instrument, the kulintang.
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A bell is a simple sound-making device. The bell is a percussion instrument and an idiophone. Its form is usually an open-ended hollow drum which resonates upon being struck.
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Hornbostel-Sachs (or Sachs-Hornbostel) is a system of musical instrument classification devised by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs, and first published in the Zeitschrift für Ethnologie in 1914.
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GONG is an IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) channel, accessible throughout Europe and North America, entirely dedicated to Anime[1].

GONG sets out to show, via Web, mobile telephony, Video on demand, and streaming media, productions from Japanese studios.
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Mindanao<nowiki />

Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao

Geography <nowiki/>
Location South East Asia <nowiki />
Archipelago
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kagul is a type of Philippine bamboo scraper gong/slit drum of the Maguindanaon with a jagged edge on one side, played with two beaters, one scarping the jagged edge and the other one making a beat.
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Sulook.
The Tausūg or Suluk people are an ethnic group of the Philippines and Malaysia. The term Tausūg was derived from two words tau and sūg (or suluk
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  • The ethnic groups that speak this language (including the Banguingui)

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The Maguindanao are part of the wider Moro ethnic group, who constitute the sixth largest Filipino ethnic group. Their name means “people of the plains”.

History

Pre-Spanish


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Maranao is the term used for the people of Lanao, a predominantly Muslim region in the Philippine island of Mindanao. They are famous for their artwork, sophisticated weaving, wood and metal craft, and their epic literature.
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Tagbanua tribes can be found in the central and northern Palawan, Philippines. Shifting cultivation of upland rice is part of their cultural and economic practices. Rice is considered a divine gift and are fermented to make rice wine, which they use in Pagdiwata, or rice wine
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Region: MIMAROPA (Region IV-B); (Ordered transferred to Western Visayas (Region VI) by Executive Order No. 429, May 23, 2005; implementation of EO429 held in abeyance by Administrative Order 129, August 19, 2005.
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Sulook.
The Tausūg or Suluk people are an ethnic group of the Philippines and Malaysia. The term Tausūg was derived from two words tau and sūg (or suluk
..... Click the link for more information.
Samal may refer to:
  • cultures
  • The Sama languages of the Sulu Archipelago in island Southeast Asia
  • The ethnic groups that speak this language (including the Banguingui)

..... Click the link for more information.
B. chinensis

Binomial name
Belamcanda chinensis
(L.) DC.

Belamcanda chinensis (Blackberry lily, Leopard flower, Leopard lily; syn.
..... Click the link for more information.
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