Balearic

Catalan, Valencian
Català, Valencià
Spoken in:Spain,
France,
Italy,
Andorra
Region:In Spain:
Catalonia, Valencian Community, Balearic Islands, Aragon (in La Franja), Murcia (in El Carxe).
In France:
Northern Catalonia.
In Italy:
The city of L'Alguer.
In Andorra.
Total speakers:9.1 million 
Ranking:93
Language family:}}}
 Italic
  Romance
   Italo-Western
    Western
     Gallo-Iberian
      Gallo-Romance
       Occitano-Romance
        Catalan, Valencian}}} 
Official status
Official language of:In Spain:
Catalonia, Valencian Community, Balearic Islands.
In Italy:
L'Alguer.
In Andorra.
Regulated by:Institut d'Estudis Catalans
Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua
Language codes
ISO 639-1:ca
ISO 639-2:cat
ISO 639-3:cat — Catalan 
The Catalan-speaking world
Language
Grammar
Phonology and orthography
Institut d'Estudis Catalans
Acadmia Valenciana de la Llengua
History
History of Catalonia · Counts of Barcelona
Crown of Aragon · Military history of Catalonia
Catalan constitutions · Furs of Valencia
Treaty of the Pyrenees · Nueva Planta decrees
Geography
Catalan Countries
Catalonia · Valencia · Balearic Islands
Northern Catalonia · Franja de Ponent
Andorra · L'Alguer · Carxe
Government and Politics
Generalitat de Catalunya
Generalitat Valenciana
Govern de les Illes Balears
Consell General de les Valls (Andorra)
Politics of Catalonia
Catalan nationalism
Traditions
Castells · Correfoc · Falles · Sardana · 
Moros i cristians · Caganer · Ti de Nadal
Myths and legends
Arts
Catalan literature · Antoni Gaud · Modernisme
La Renaixena · Noucentisme
Salvador Dal · Joan Mir · Antoni Tpies
This box:     [ edit]
Catalan IPA: /ˈkætəlæn/ (català IPA: [kə.tə'la] or [ka.ta'la]) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia , and in the city of L'Alguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. It is also spoken, although with no official recognition, in the autonomous communities of Aragon (in La Franja) and Murcia (in El Carxe) in Spain, and in Northern Catalonia, a historical region of Catalonia in southern France, which is more or less equivalent to the département of the Pyrénées-Orientales. Balearic is the name given collectively to the group of Catalan variants spoken in the Balearic Islands, Spain.

Some features of Balearic:
  • Most variants of Balearic preserve a vocalic system of 8 stressed vowels /a/,/ə/,/ɛ/,/e/,/i/,/ɔ/,/o/,/u/:
  • The Majorcan system has 8 stressed vowels /a/ /ə/ /ɛ/ /e/ /i/ /ɔ/ /o/ /u/, reduced to 4 in unstressed position (/a/ /ə/ /ɛ/ /e/ > [ə]), (/ɔ/ /o/ > [o]).
  • The Western Minorcan system has 8 stressed vowels /a/ /ə/ /ɛ/ /e/ /i/ /ɔ/ /o/ /u/, reduced to 3 in unstressed position (/a/ /ə/ /ɛ/ /e/ > [ə]), (/ɔ/ /o/ /u/ > [u]);
  • The Eastern Minorcan and Ibizan system has only 7 stressed vowels /a/ /ɛ/ /e/ /i/ /ɔ/ /o/ /u/ reduced to 3 in unstressed position (/a/ /ɛ/ /e/ > [ə]) (/ɔ/ /o/ /u/ > [u]), just as in Central Catalan. There are differences between the dialect spoken in Ibiza Town (eivissenc de vila) and those of the rest of the island (eivissenc pagès) and Formentera (formenterer).
  • Balearic preserves a phonemic distinction between /v/ and /b/, as do Alguerese and most varieties of Valencian.
  • Balearic is the variant of Catalan that has the strongest tendency not to pronounce historical final r in any context.
  • Balearic preserves the salat definite article (derived from Latin IPSE/IPSA instead of ILLE/ILLA), a feature shared only with Sardinian among extant Romance languages, but which was more common in other Catalan and Gascon areas in ancient times. However, the salat definite article is also preserved along the Costa Brava (Catalonia) and in the Valencian municipalities of Tàrbena and La Vall de Gallinera.
Motto
"Plus Ultra"   (Latin)
"Further Beyond"
Anthem
"Marcha Real" 1
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Motto
Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
Anthem
"La Marseillaise"


..... Click the link for more information.
Anthem
Il Canto degli Italiani
(also known as Fratelli d'Italia)


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Motto
"Virtus Unita Fortior"   (Latin)
"Strength United is Stronger"
Anthem
El Gran Carlemany, Mon Pare
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Motto
"Plus Ultra"   (Latin)
"Further Beyond"
Anthem
"Marcha Real" 1
..... Click the link for more information.
Catalunya
Cataluña
Catalonha
Catalonia


Flag Coat of arms

Anthem:
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Comunitat Valenciana
Valencian Community'''

Flag Coat of arms

Capital Valencia
Official language(s) Valencian and
Spanish
Area
 – Total
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Illes Balears Balearic Islands

Flag Coat of arms

Capital Palma de Mallorca
Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan
Area
 – Total
 – % of Spain Ranked 17th
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Comunidad Autónoma de Aragón
Comunidá Autonoma d'Aragón
Comunitat Autònoma d'Aragó


Flag Coat of arms

Anthem: Himno de Aragón
Capital Zaragoza
Official language(s) Spanish
Area
 – Total
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work in progress translation of the La Franja de Aragon article from Spanish to English. If you are confident enough in your fluency of Spanish and English, please feel free to assist with this translation.
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This article's grammar usage needs improvement. Please edit this article in accordance with Wikipedia's .

Murcia

View from Fuensanta Sanctuary

Flag Coat of Arms
Location

Coordinates
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El Carche (el Carxe in Valencian), is a mountainous, sparsely populated, area in Murcia, Spain, lying between the municipalities Jumilla and Yecla. The mountains reach an altitude of 1,371 metres at the Pico de la Madama
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Motto
Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
Anthem
"La Marseillaise"


..... Click the link for more information.
Northern Catalonia (Catalan: Catalunya del Nord) is a term which is sometimes used, particularly in Catalan writings, to refer to the territory ceded to France by Spain in 1659.
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Anthem
Il Canto degli Italiani
(also known as Fratelli d'Italia)


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city is an urban settlement with a particularly important status which differentiates it from a town.

City is primarily used to designate an urban settlement with a large population. However, city may also indicate a special administrative, legal, or historical status.
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Motto
"Virtus Unita Fortior"   (Latin)
"Strength United is Stronger"
Anthem
El Gran Carlemany, Mon Pare
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This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. Languages are listed for secondary locations only when spoken by more than 1% of the population.
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A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language. As with biological families, the evidence of relationship is observable shared characteristics.
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Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. It includes the Romance languages (including Italian, Catalan, Occitan, French, Corsican, Portuguese, Romanian and Spanish), and a number of extinct languages.
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Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprisies all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire.
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Italo-Western is the largest sub-group of Romance languages. It comprises 38 languages in 2 subsets: Italo-Dalmatian, and Western.
  • Italo-Dalmatian includes Italian, Neapolitan and the extinct Dalmatian.

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Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprisies all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire.
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Gallo-Romance languages

  • Gallo-Italic languages
  • Lombard
  • Western Lombard
  • Eastern Lombard

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Gallo-Romance branch of Romance languages includes French, Catalan, and several other languages spoken in modern France and northern Italy and Spain. The Gallo-Romance languages, along with the Ibero-Romance and Rhaeto-Romance groups, form Western Romance.
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Occitano-Romance branch of Romance languages encompasses the dialects pertaining to the Occitan and the Catalan languages situated in France (Occitania, Northern Catalonia), Spain (Catalonia, Valencian Community, Balearic Islands, La Franja, Carxe), Andorra, Monaco, parts of Italy
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Motto
"Plus Ultra"   (Latin)
"Further Beyond"
Anthem
"Marcha Real" 1
..... Click the link for more information.
Catalunya
Cataluña
Catalonha
Catalonia


Flag Coat of arms

Anthem:
..... Click the link for more information.
Comunitat Valenciana
Valencian Community'''

Flag Coat of arms

Capital Valencia
Official language(s) Valencian and
Spanish
Area
 – Total
..... Click the link for more information.
Illes Balears Balearic Islands

Flag Coat of arms

Capital Palma de Mallorca
Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan
Area
 – Total
 – % of Spain Ranked 17th
..... Click the link for more information.


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