Baltica

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Baltica in 550 mya (green)
Baltica is a Late Proterozoic-Early Palaeozoic continent that now includes the East European craton of northwestern Eurasia. Baltica was created as an entity not earlier than 1.8 Ga. Before this time, the three segments/continents that now make up the East European craton were in different places on the globe. Baltica rode on top a tectonic plate, known as the Baltic Plate. This is a brief history of Baltica:

Partial history of Baltica in chronological order

  • ~1.8 billion years ago, Baltica was part of the major supercontinent Columbia.
  • ~1.5 billion years ago, Baltica along with Arctica and East Antarctica were part of the minor supercontinent Nena.
  • ~1.1 billion years ago, Baltica was part of the major supercontinent Rodinia.
  • ~750 million years ago, Baltica was part of the minor supercontinent Protolaurasia.
  • ~600 million years ago, Baltica was part of the major supercontinent Pannotia.
  • ~Cambrian, Baltica was an independent continent.
  • ~late Ordovician, Baltica collided with Avalonia (most of modern Western Europe)
  • ~Devonian, Baltica collided against Laurentia, forming the minor supercontinent Euramerica.
  • ~Permian, all major continents collide against each other for forming the major supercontinent Pangaea.
  • ~Jurassic, Pangaea rifted into two minor supercontinents: Laurasia and Gondwana. Baltica was part of the minor supercontinent Laurasia.
  • ~Cretaceous, Baltica was part of the minor supercontinent Eurasia.
  • ~Present, Baltica is part of the forming minor supercontinent Eurafrasia.

See also

Proterozoic (IPA: /ˌprəʊt(ə)rəˈzəʊɪk/) is a geological eon representing a period before the first abundant complex life on Earth. The Proterozoic Eon extended from 2500 Ma to 542.
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The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, "old" and zoion, "animals", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon.
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continent is one of several large landmasses on Earth. They are generally identified by convention rather than any strict criteria, but seven areas are commonly regarded as continents – they are (from largest in size to smallest): Asia, Africa, North America, South America,
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The East European craton is the core of the Baltica proto-plate and consists of three crustal regions/segments: Fennoscandia to the northwest, Volgo-Uralia to the east, and Sarmatia to the south.
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Eurasia is an immense landmass covering about 53,990,000 km² (or about 10.6%) of the Earth's surface. Often reckoned as a single continent, Eurasia comprises the traditional continents of Europe and Asia, concepts which date back to classical antiquity and the borders for which are
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Plate tectonics (from Greek τέκτων, tektōn "builder" or "mason") is a theory of geology that has been developed to explain the observed evidence for large scale motions of the Earth's lithosphere.
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The Baltic Plate was an ancient tectonic plate that existed from the Cambrian period to the Carboniferous period. The Baltic Plate collided against Eurasia, to form the Ural Mountains about 500 million years ago.
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In geology, a supercontinent is a land mass comprising more than one continental core, or craton. The assembly of cratons and accreted terranes that form Eurasia[1] qualifies as a supercontinent today.
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Columbia (also known as Nuna and, more recently, Hudsonland or Hudsonia) is the name of one of the Earth's earliest posited supercontinents, which existed approximately 1.8 to 1.5 billion years (Ga) ago in the Paleoproterozoic Era.
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Arctica was an ancient continent which formed approximately 2.5 billion years ago in the Neoarchean era. It consisted of the Canadian and Siberian shields, and is now roughly situated in the Arctic around the current North Pole.
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East Antarctic craton is an ancient craton that forms most of Antarctica. It was part of the Nena supercontinent 1.8 billion years ago. During the early Paleozoic Era East Antarctica joined the Gondwana supercontinent.
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Nena was an ancient supercontinent that consisted of the cratons of Arctica, Baltica, and East Antarctica. Forming about 1.8 billion years ago, the continent was part of the global supercontinent, Columbia. Nena is an acronym that derives from Northern Europe and North America.
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Rodinia (from the Russian родина, or "motherland") refers to one of the oldest known supercontinents, which contained most or all of Earth's then-current landmass.
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Proto-Laurasia ("first Laurasia") was an ancient supercontinent. It has been part of two major supercontinents - Rodinia, and Pannotia. In Rodinia, South China, Baltica, and Siberia were connected to Laurentia (North America) on the eastern side of the craton.
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Pannotia, first described by Ian W. D. Dalziel in 1997, is a hypothetical supercontinent that existed from the Pan-African orogeny about 600 million years ago to the end of the Precambrian about 540 million years ago. It is also known as the Vendian supercontinent.
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The Cambrian is a major division of the geologic timescale that begins about 542 ± 1.0 Ma (million years ago) at the end of the Proterozoic eon and ended about 488.3 ± 1.7 Ma with the beginning of the Ordovician period (ICS, 2004).
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The Ordovician period is the second of the six (seven in North America) periods[1] of the Paleozoic era, and covers the time roughly between 490 to 440 million years ago. It follows the Cambrian period and is followed by the Silurian period.
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Avalonia was an ancient microcontinent or terrane whose history formed much of the older rocks of Western Europe, Atlantic Canada, and parts of the coastal United States. The name is derived from the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland.
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Devonian is a geologic period of the Paleozoic era spanning from roughly 416 to 359 million years ago. It is named after Devon, England, where rocks from this period were first studied.
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Laurentia (also known as the North American craton), like all craton land, was created as continents moved about the surface of the Earth, bumping into other continents and drifting away.
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Euramerica (also known as Laurussia or Old Red Continent) was a minor supercontinent created in the Devonian as the result of a collision between the Laurentian and Baltica cratons (Caledonian orogeny).
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Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299.0 ± 0.8 Ma to 251.0 ± 0.4 Ma (million years before the present; ICS 2004). It is the last period of the Paleozoic Era.
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Pangaea or Pangæa (IPA: /pænˈdʒiːə/[1], from παν, pan, meaning entire, and γαια, gaia, meaning Earth
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The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199.6 ± 0.6 Ma (million years ago) to 145.4 ± 4.0 Ma, the end of the Triassic to the beginning of the Cretaceous.
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Laurasia (IPA: /lɔˈreɪʃiə, lɔˈreɪʃiʒə/[1]) was a supercontinent that most recently existed as a part of the split of the Pangaean supercontinent in the late
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Gondwana (IPA: /ɡɒnˈdwɑːnə/[1], originally Gondwanaland) included most of the landmasses in today's southern hemisphere, including Antarctica, South America, Africa, Madagascar,
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The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i.e. from 145.5 ± 4.0 million years ago (Ma)) to the beginning of the Paleocene epoch of the Tertiary Period (about 65.5 ± 0.3 Ma).
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Eurasiafrica, Eufrasia, Eurafrasia, Eurasica, Africa-Eurasia, or Afro-Eurasia are terms used to describe Eurasia and Africa as one continent. The constituent landmasses contain around 85% of the world population (around 5.7 billion people).
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The Baltic Shield (sometimes referred to as the Fennoscandian Shield) is located in Fennoscandia (Norway, Sweden and Finland), northwest Russia and under the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Shield is defined as the "exposed" Precambrian northwest segment of the East European Craton.
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The Baltic Plate was an ancient tectonic plate that existed from the Cambrian period to the Carboniferous period. The Baltic Plate collided against Eurasia, to form the Ural Mountains about 500 million years ago.
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