Baltimore, MD

City of Baltimore
Downtown Baltimore

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Nickname: Charm City,[1] Mob Town,[2][3] B-more, Crabtown, The City of Firsts,[4][5] Monument City,[6] B-Town[7]
Motto: "The Greatest City in America",[8]
"Get in on it."[9]
(formerly "The City That Reads")''
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Location of Baltimore in Maryland
Location of Baltimore in Maryland
Coordinates:
Country United States
State Maryland
Founded 1729
Incorporated 1796
Government
 - Mayor Sheila Dixon (D)
Area
 - City  92.1 sq mi (238.5 km)
 - Land  80.8 sq mi (209.3 km)
 - Water  11.3 sq mi (29.2 km)
Elevation  33 ft (10 m)
Population (2006)[10]
 - City 640,961
 - Density 8,058.4/sq mi (3039/km)
 - Urban 2,178,000
 - Metro 2,658,405
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 410, 443
FIPS code 24-04000
GNIS feature ID 0597040
Website: www.baltimorecity.gov
Baltimore is an independent city located in the state of Maryland in the United States. As of 2006, the population of Baltimore City was 640,961.[10] The city is a major U.S. seaport, situated closer to major Midwestern markets than any other major seaport on the East Coast. Once an industrial town with an economic base in manufacturing, Baltimore's economy has now shifted primarily to a service sector-oriented, with its largest employer no longer Bethlehem Steel but The Johns Hopkins University and The Johns Hopkins Hospital.

The Baltimore Metropolitan Area, which includes the city's surrounding suburbs, has approximately 2.6 million residents. Baltimore is also part of the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area (CMSA) of approximately 8.1 million residents. Baltimore is the largest city in Maryland, and its metropolitan area is the 20th largest in the country.

The city is named after the founding proprietor of the Maryland Colony, Lord Baltimore in the Irish House of Lords. Baltimore himself took his title from a place named Baltimore in Ireland, which is the English transliteration of the Irish language Baile an Tí Mhoir, or "Town of The Big House".[11] Baltimore in County Cork was the seat of Lord Baltimore. [12]

Baltimore became the second leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States during the 1800s.

Because there is also a Baltimore County surrounding (but not including) the city, it is sometimes referred to as Baltimore City when a clear distinction is desired.

History

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Battle Monument with Washington Monument in background
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Great Baltimore Fire of 1904, looking West from Pratt and Gay Streets.
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Same view in 1906, 2 years after the fire
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Downtown Baltimore as seen from the Inner Harbor in 2005
During the 17th century, various towns called "Baltimore" were founded as commercial ports at various locations on the upper Chesapeake Bay. The Maryland colonial General Assembly created the port (at Locust Point) in 1706 as a tobacco port of entry. The present city dates from July 30, 1729, and is named after,Cæcilius Calvert, Lord Baltimore, who was the first Proprietary Governor of the Province of Maryland. Like many early U.S. cities, this name came from a place in Europe. Cæcilius Calvert was a son of George Calvert who was awarded the Barony of Baltimore in County Cork Ireland in 1625 by King James I of England. George Calvert hence became the first Lord Baltimore.[13]

Baltimore grew swiftly in the mid- to late 18th century as a granary for sugar-producing colonies in the Caribbean. The profit from sugar encouraged the cultivation of cane and the importation of food. Baltimore's shorter distance from the Caribbean, compared to other large port cities such as New York City and Boston, reduced transportation time and minimized the spoilage of flour.

Baltimore played a key part in events leading to and including the American Revolution. City leaders such as Jonathan Plowman Jr. moved the city to join the resistance to British taxation. Baltimore joined other cities in protesting Boston's punishment by the British by banding together the merchants to sign agreements to not import from or export to Britain. Dr. John Stevenson and Jonathan Plowman Jr. made Baltimore a center for importation of indentured servants from England during the 1750s and 60's. Baltimore in 1773 was also the place where a Customs officer Robert Moreton was chased out of town for trying to seize the ship Speedwell and its cargo. The story is that Mr. Moreton had ordered the captain to wait on offloading till after he came back. The merchants demanded their cargo and started off loading. When Mr. Moreton returned he declared the ship seized and went to Annapolis to file the paperwork. Upon his return the local merchants chased him and tarred and feathered two men who worked for him. Fearing for his life he first fled to Annapolis and later to Boston.

During the War of 1812, the British declared Baltimore a "nest of Pirates."[14] The city's Fort McHenry came under attack by British forces near the harbor after the British had burned Washington, D.C. Known today as the Battle of Baltimore, American forces won by repulsing joint land and naval attacks.

In the years that followed, Baltimore's population grew explosively, due to increased commerce not only abroad but more importantly with points west in the interior of the United States. The construction of the federally funded National Road, now Pulaski Highway, also known as U.S. Route 40 and the privately funded Baltimore & Ohio Railroad made Baltimore a major shipping and manufacturing center. As fortunes were made, the city's distinctive local culture started taking shape, and it started to develop a unique skyline peppered with churches and monuments. On an 1827 visit to the city, John Quincy Adams purportedly nicknamed it "Monument City"--a moniker that remained popular for well over a century.

Baltimore became an independent city in 1851, being separated from Baltimore County at that time.

Though it was a slave-holding state, Maryland did not secede but remained part of the Union during the Civil War. Slavery was outlawed in Maryland by the state Constitution of 1864. Pro-Southern sentiment led to the Baltimore riot of 1861, when Union soldiers marched through the city. After the riot, Union troops occupied Baltimore, and Maryland came under direct federal administration — in part, to prevent the state from seceding — until the end of the war in April 1865. This was considered a necessary move by the Union to prevent Washington, D.C., from being completely surrounded by seceded Confederate territory. The case Ex parte Merryman, written by Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger Taney (himself a Marylander), dealt with the habeas corpus rights of Marylanders jailed by the Abraham Lincoln Administration and strongly rebuked Lincoln for his actions.

The Great Baltimore Fire on February 7, 1904, destroyed over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours and forced most of the city to rebuild. Immediately afterward, Mayor Robert McLane was quoted in the Baltimore News as saying, "To suppose that the spirit of our people will not rise to the occasion is to suppose that our people are not genuine Americans. We shall make the fire of 1904 a landmark not of decline but of progress." He then refused assistance, stating "As head of this municipality, I cannot help but feel gratified by the sympathy and the offers of practical assistance which have been tendered to us. To them I have in general terms replied, 'Baltimore will take care of its own, thank you.'" (McLane committed suicide on May 30.) Two years later, on September 10, 1906, the Baltimore-American reported that the city had risen from the ashes and "one of the great disasters of modern time had been converted into a blessing."

Baltimore's population peaked at 949,708 in the 1950 Census, which ranked it as the sixth-largest city in the country, behind Detroit, and ahead of Cleveland. For the next five decades, the city's population declined while its suburbs grew dramatically, bottoming out in 2000 at 636,251. In the 21st century, the city's population has stabilized and is again rising, mostly due to revitalization efforts in many city neighborhoods. The mid-July 2006 Census estimate was 640,961.[15]

In recent years, efforts to redevelop the downtown area have led to a revitalization of the Inner Harbor. Up until the late 1970s, the harbor had been merely abandoned warehouses full of rats and rotting piers. In Baltimore's early days, the harbor was the landing destination for boats and ships bringing cargo such as bananas, sugar, cocoa, and the like from all over the world. The Baltimore Convention Center was opened in 1979 and was renovated and expanded in 1996. Harborplace, a modern urban retail and restaurant complex, was opened on the waterfront in 1980, followed by the National Aquarium in Baltimore, Maryland's largest tourist destination, and another cultural venue, the Baltimore Museum of Industry in 1981. In 1992, the Baltimore Orioles of Major League Baseball moved from Memorial Stadium to Oriole Park at Camden Yards downtown, and six years later the Baltimore Ravens of the National Football League moved next door into PSINet Stadium (later renamed M&T Bank Stadium following PSINet's bankruptcy).

On October 2, 1996, Baltimore became the first city in the United States to adopt 311 as a non-emergency "hot line" telephone number, in order to reserve the use of 911 for genuine emergencies. The concept has been highly successful, and numerous other American municipalities have since implemented the practice.

In 2003, the Baltimore Development Corporation announced that three hotel projects were being reviewed. As of September 2006, the 756-room, $305 million Hilton hotel project is currently under construction west of the Baltimore Convention Center. The City of Baltimore hopes to have it finished and opened by August 2008. (See Baltimore Convention Center Hotel Project for more details regarding the convention center hotel.)

Also in 2003, Baltimore was affected by Hurricane Isabel from flooding as a result of tidal surge, affecting primarily the Fells Point community and the Inner Harbor and surrounding low areas. Many places were flooded, including the sports center ESPN Zone, the Baltimore World Trade Center (which remained closed for approximately a month during cleanup efforts), and most of the Inner Harbor. Water levels rose some 20 feet (6 m) in areas, flooding underground parking garages and displacing thousands of cubic yards of trash and debris.

Beginning in the early part of the 21st century, Baltimore has undergone a major building spree in the downtown area, specifically in the Inner Harbor East district. The skyline has extended and will continue to do so well into the next decade. ARC Wheeler, a Philadelphia-based developer has been approved to build a new hotel/condominium complex that will be the city's new tallest building, dubbed "10 Inner Harbor," approved at 60 stories and over 700 ft tall. Other proposals for downtown skyscrapers are twin 65-story towers at sites on E. Saratoga Street and Guilford Avenue, an 800 ft (240 m)+ tower and complex located on the banks of the Patapsco River's middle branch area, and a 40-story condo and hotel tower at 300 E. Pratt Street.

On January 17, 2007, Sheila Dixon became the first woman to hold the office of Mayor of Baltimore.[16] The city's charter states that if the Mayor resigns, as Martin O'Malley did that day to become Governor of Maryland, the President of the City Council shall assume the remainder of the term. Thus, Dixon will serve as mayor through December 2007. With her win over Democratic challengers in a primary election on September 11, 2007, Dixon will also most likely be the next elected Mayor of Baltimore.[17][18]
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A nighttime panorama of Baltimore's Inner Harbor from Federal Hill

Geography

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City plan of Baltimore (1852) by Lucas, Fielding Jr. of Baltimore.

Topography

Baltimore is in the north central part of the state of Maryland, on the Patapsco River, 40 miles (60 km) northeast of Washington DC, very close to the Chesapeake Bay. The fall line of the Piedmont Plateau where it meets the western edge of the Atlantic Coastal Plain cuts through the western portion of the city, with low hills rising in the western and northern parts of the city. Baltimore's City Hall lies approximately 34 feet (10.4 m) above sea level, with elevations in the city ranging from sea level to over 400 feet. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 238.5 km² (92.1 mi²). 209.3 km² (80.8 mi²) of it is land and 29.2 km² (11.3 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 12.240 percent water.

Baltimore's climate, with plentiful precipitation and a relatively long growing season, supports the presence of many different types of trees. Many species of trees thrive here and can be spotted throughout the city, including white oak, elm, maple, sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), bradford pear, poplar, southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), several species of Hardy palms[19][20] and crepe myrtle. The city lies mostly in Plant Hardiness Zone 8, with a small portion of the northern and western city in zone 7.[21] The average date of first freeze in Baltimore is November 13th, and the average last freeze is April 2nd.[22]

The Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area is the 4th largest Combined Statistical Area in the United States, with an estimated population of 8,052,496. The Baltimore-Towson Metropolitan Statistical Area is the 19th largest MSA, with a population of 2,655,675.
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1888 German map of Baltimore
 

Climate

Baltimore has a humid subtropical climate, according to the Köppen classification, due to a moderating influence from its relative proximity to the ocean. It gets relatively hot, humid summers and cool, moist winters.

July is typically the hottest month of the year, with an average high temperature of 88 °F (31 °C) and an average low of 67 °F (19 °C). Summer is also a season of very high humidity in the Baltimore area, with afternoon thunderstorms occurring regularly. The record high for Baltimore is 108 °F (42 °C), set in 1985. January is the coldest month, with an average high of 41 °F (5 °C) and an average low of 24 °F (-4 °C). However, winter warm fronts can bring periods of springlike weather, and Arctic fronts can drop nighttime low temperatures into the teens. The record low temperature for Baltimore is -7 °F (-22 °C), set in 1934. Baltimore rarely experiences temperatures below 5 °F or above 100 °F. Due to an urban heat island effect in the city proper and a moderating effect of the Chesapeake Bay, the outlying, inland, and higher elevation parts of the Baltimore metro area are usually several degrees cooler than the city proper and the coastal towns.

As is typical in most East Coast cities, precipitation is generous, and very evenly spread throughout the year. Every month usually brings 3-4 inches of precipitation, averaging around 43 inches annually. Spring, summer, and fall bring frequent showers and thunderstorms, with an average of 105 sunny days a year. Winter often brings lighter rain showers of longer duration, and generally less sunshine and more clouds. Light to moderate snowfall occurs occasionally in the winter, with the average annual snowfall around 21 inches (53 cm). In the northern and western suburbs, the climate begins to change to a continental, and thus winter snowfall amounts are usually higher, with many towns annually receiving 24-36 inches (61-91 cm).[23] Freezing rain occurs a few times each winter in Baltimore, but major ice storms are very rare.

The city lies in between two peculiar physical features that protect it from extreme weather and account for the relatively tempered seasons. The Appalachian Mountains protect central Maryland from much of the harsh northern winds and accompanying lake effect weather that bring subfreezing temperatures and heavy snows to the Great Lakes region, and the Delmarva Peninsula protects Baltimore from many of the tropical storms that affect the immediate coast.

::::Average Monthly Temperatures and Precipitation for Baltimore, MD
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Avg high °F (°C) 41 (5)44 (7)53 (12)65 (18)74 (23)83 (28)88 (31)85 (29)79 (26)68 (20)56 (13)45 (7)
65 (18)
Avg low °F (°C) 24 (-4)26 (-3)34 (1)43 (6)53 (12)62 (17)67 (19)66 (19)58 (14)46 (8)37 (3)28 (-3)
45 (7)
Rainfall inches (mm) 3.48 (88.4)3.07 (78.0)4.12 (104.6)3.06 (77.7)4.18 (106.2)3.28 (83.3)3.96 (100.6)4.05 (102.9)4.06 (103.1)3.19 (81.0)3.45 (87.6)3.60 (93.7)
43.59 (1107.1)
Source: Weatherbase[24]

Cityscape

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Inner Harbor of Baltimore
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Baltimore is the home of the National Aquarium, one of the world's largest.
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A view of downtown from the Northeast

Architecture

Baltimore possesses samples from every period of architecture for over two centuries, and work from many famous architects such as Benjamin Latrobe, John Russell Pope, Mies Van Der Rohe and I.M. Pei.

The city has architecturally important buildings in a variety of styles. The Baltimore Basilica (1806-1821) is a neoclassical design by Benjamin Latrobe, and also the oldest Catholic Cathedral in the United States. In 1813 Robert Cary Long, Sr. built for Rembrandt Peale the first substantial structure in the United States designed expressly as a museum. Restored, it is now the Municipal Museum of Baltimore, or popularly the “Peale Museum”.The McKim Free School founded and endowed by John McKim, although the building was erected by his son Isaac in 1822 after a design by William Howard and William Small. It reflects the popular interest in Greece when the nation was securing its independence, as well as a scholarly interest in recently published drawings of Athenian antiquities.The Phoenix Shot Tower (1828), at 215 feet (65.5 m) tall, was the tallest building in the United States until the time of the Civil war. It was constructed without the use of exterior scaffolding. The Sun Iron Building designed by R.C. Hatfield in 1851, was city’s first iron-front building and it was a model for a whole generation of downtown buildings. The Johns Hopkins Hospital, designed by Lt. Col. John S. Billings in 1876 was a considerable achievement for its day in functional arrangement and fire proofing.

I.M.Pei's World Trade Center (1977) is the tallest equilateral pentagonal building in the world at 405 feet (123.4 m) tall.

Future contributions to Baltimore's skyline include plans for a 717 foot (218.5 m) tall structure known as "10 Inner Harbor". The building was recently approved by Baltimore's design panel and will be completed around the year 2010. It will include luxury condominiums, a hotel, restaurants, and shopping centers.

The streets of Baltimore are organized in a grid pattern. The streets are lined with tens of thousands of brick faced rowhouses. Many consider the rowhouse the architectural form most closely associated to the city. Some rowhouses are dated as far back as the 1790s.

Oriole Park at Camden Yards is considered by many to be the most beautiful ball park in Major League Baseball, and has inspired many other cities to build their own versions of this Retro-Style Ballpark.

Camden Yards along with the National Aquarium have helped revive the Inner Harbor from what once was an Industrial zone full of dilapidated warehouses, into a bustling commercial district full of bars, restaurants and retail establishments.

Neighborhoods

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Downtown Baltimore from the northwest
:Further information: List of Baltimore neighborhoods

Baltimore is divided into nine geographical regions-Northern, Northwestern, Northeastern, Western, Central, Eastern, Southern, Southwestern, and Southeastern all patrolled by a respective Baltimore Police Department district. However, it is not uncommon for locals to divide the city simply by East or West Baltimore, using Charles Street, North and South are divided by Baltimore Street, I-83 and the Downtown area as dividing lines.

The Central region of the city is the Downtown area and location of Baltimore's main commercial area. Home to Harborplace, The Camden Yards Sports Complex (Oriole Park at Camden Yards and M&T Bank Stadium), the Convention Center, and the National Aquarium in Baltimore, the area also includes many nightclubs bars and restaurants, shopping centers and other attractions. It is also serves as the home to many of Baltimore's key business such as Legg Mason. The area, especially in the downtown core, has mainly served as a commercial district with limited residential opportunities. However since 2002 the population in the downtown has doubled to 10,000 residents with a projection of 7,400 additional housing units coming available by 2012.[25]

The Northern region of the city lies directly north of downtown and is bounded on the East by The Alameda and on the West by Pimlico Road is a suburban residential area home to many of the city's upper class residents in neighborhoods such as the Roland Park-Homewood-Guilford area. The Northern region is home to many of Baltimore's notable universities such as Loyola College and The Johns Hopkins University.

The Southern Region of the city, a mixed industrial and residential area, consists primarily of the area of the city below the Inner Harbor east of the B&O railroad tracks. It is a mixed socio-economic region comprised of working class ethnically mixed neighborhoods such as Locust Point; the now gentrified Federal Hill and Canton areas, home to many working professionals, pubs and restaurants; and low-income residential areas such as Cherry Hill.

The Eastern part of the city consists of the Northeastern, Eastern, and Southeastern regions of the city. Northeastern Baltimore is primarily a residential neighborhood home to Morgan State University bounded by the city line on its Northern and Eastern boundaries, Sinclair Lane, Erdman Avenue, and Pulaski Highway on its southern boundaries and The Alameda on its western boundaries. It has undergone demographic shifts over many years and remains a diverse but predominantly African American region of the city. The Eastern region is the heart of what is considered "East Baltimore" and is home to Johns Hopkins Hospital. Located below Erdman Avenue and Sinclair Lane above Orleans Street, it is almost an exclusively African American area home to low-income residential neighborhoods, several of which constitute as many of Baltimore's high crime areas. The Southeastern region of the city located below Orleans Street bordering the Inner Harbor on its western boundary and the city line on its eastern boundaries and the Baltimore harbor on its southern boundaries is a mixed industrial and residential area. Home to many young professionals and working class people, It is an ethnically rich section of Baltimore home to many Polish Americans, Greek Americans, Italian Americans, African Americans and is also the center of the city's steadily growing Hispanic population.

The Western part of the city consists of the Northwestern, Western, and Southwestern regions of Baltimore. The Northwestern region of the city bounded by the county line on its northern and western boundaries, Gwynns Falls Parkway on the south and Pimlico Road on the East is a predominantly residential area home to Pimlico Race Course, Sinai Hospital and several of Baltimore's Synagogues. Once the center of Baltimore's Jewish community, it has undergone white flight since the 1960s and has became an almost exclusively African American area. It is home to many suburban residential areas primarily located above Northern Parkway and several lower-income areas below Northern parkway. The Western region of the city located west of downtown is the heart of "West Baltimore" bounded by Gwynns Falls Parkway, Fremont Avenue, and Baltimore Street. Home to Coppin State University and Pennsylvania Avenue, it has been the center of Baltimore's African American culture for years home to many of the city's historical African American neighborhoods and landmarks. Once home to many middle to upper class African Americans, over the years, the more affluent African American residents have since left migrating to other sections of the city in addition to areas such as Randallstown and Owings Mills in Baltimore County and Columbia in Howard County. The area now constitutes a deprived socio-economic group of African American residents and like "East Baltimore", it is known for its high crime rates. Many of the television series concerning Baltimore's crime problems have been based upon events that have taken place in West Baltimore. The Southwestern region of the city is bounded by Baltimore County to the west, Baltimore Street to the north, and downtown and the B&O railroad to the east. A mixed industrial and residential area, it has gradually shifted from having a predominantly White to a predominantly African American majority.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Baltimore
Historically a working-class port town, Baltimore has sometimes been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods," with over 300 identified districts[26] traditionally occupied by distinct ethnic groups. Most notable today are three downtown areas along the port: the Inner Harbor, frequented by tourists due to its hotels, shops, and museums; Fells Point, once a favorite entertainment spot for sailors but now refurbished and gentrified (and featured in the movie Sleepless in Seattle); and Little Italy, located between the other two, where Baltimore's Italian-American community was based–and where current U.S. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi grew up. Further inland, Mt. Vernon is the traditional center of cultural and artistic life of the city; it is home to a distinctive Washington Monument, set atop a hill in a 19th century urban square, that predates the monument in Washington, D.C. by several decades.

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Washington Monument, in the Mt. Vernon neighborhood of Baltimore


The traditional local accent has long been noted and celebrated as "Baltimorese" or "Bawlmorese." One thing outsiders quickly notice is that the locals refer to their city as "Bawlmer" or "Ballmer," dropping with the "t" for the most part. The dialect is similar to that of many Marylanders and Pennsylvanians; it may reflect the region's roots in Cornwall and the English West Country, as many of the original settlers of the Chesapeake Bay area came from this area in colonial times. (Traditionally, many Marylanders call their state "Merlin"--and likewise, many Pennsylvanians call their state "Pennsavania," dropping the "l".) However, Baltimore's local accent also reflects the rich mix of ethnic groups from Ireland, Germany, and southern and eastern Europe who immigrated to the city during the industrial era. (For a more in-depth discussion of the Maryland dialect, click the "Culture of Baltimore" link above.)

As Baltimore's demographics have changed since World War Two, its cultural flavor and accents have evolved as well. Today, after decades of out-migration to suburbs beyond its corporate limits and significant in-migration of African-Americans from Georgia and the Carolinas, Baltimore has become a majority African-American city with a significantly changed, but still regionally distinctive, dialect and culture. Recently, neighborhoods such as Federal Hill and Canton have undergone extensive gentrification and have proven to be popular places for young professionals and college students to reside. In addition, new immigrants from Latin America are making their mark, notably in neighborhoods near Fells Point.

Much of Baltimore's African-American culture has roots that long predate the 20th century "Great Migration" from the Deep South. Like Atlanta, Georgia and Washington, D.C., Baltimore has been home to a successful African-American middle class and professional community for centuries. Before the Civil War, Baltimore had one of the largest concentrations of free African-Americans among American cities. In the twentieth century, Baltimore-born Thurgood Marshall became the first African-American justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Baltimore's culture has been famously celebrated in the movies of Barry Levinson, who grew up in the city's Jewish neighborhoods. His movies Diner, Tin Men, Avalon, and Liberty Heights are inspired to varying degrees by his life in the city.

Baltimore native John Waters parodies the city extensively in his films, including the 1972 cult classic Pink Flamingos. His film Hairspray and its musical remake are also set in Baltimore.

Performing arts

The Baltimore Symphony Orchestra is an internationally-renowned orchestra, founded in 1916 as a publicly-funded municipal organization. Its current Music Director is Marin Alsop, a protégé of Leonard Bernstein. Center Stage is the premier theater company in the city and a regionally well-respected group. The Baltimore Opera is an important regional opera company, and The Baltimore Consort has been a leading early music ensemble for over twenty-five years. The France-Merrick Performing Arts Center, home of the restored Thomas Lamb-designed Hippodrome Theatre, has afforded Baltimore the opportunity to become a major regional player in the area of touring Broadway and other performing arts presentations.

Baltimore also boasts an array of professional (non-touring) and community theater groups. Aside from Center Stage, resident troupes in the city include Everyman Theatre and Baltimore Theatre Festival. Community theaters in the city include Fells Point Community Theatre and the Arena Players, which is the nation's oldest continuously operating African American community theater. [27]

Economy

Once an industrial town, with an economic base focused on steel processing, shipping, auto manufacturing, and transportation, Baltimore is now a modern service economy. Although deindustrialization took its toll on the city, costing residents many low-skill, high-wage jobs, the city is a growing financial, business, and health service base for the southern Mid-Atlantic region.

The city is home to only one Fortune 500 Company, Constellation Energy, and its suburbs are home to two more--Grace Chemicals, in Columbia, and Black & Decker in Towson. However, many other companies call Baltimore home, including asset manager Legg Mason, investment advisories T. Rowe Price and Brown Advisory, Alex Brown, a subsidiary of Deutsche Bank (of Baltimore origin, and at the time of its acquisition, the oldest continuously-running investment bank in the United States), FTI Consulting, Vertis, Thomson Prometric, Performax, Sylvan Learning/Laureate Education, Under Armour, DAP, 180°, Old Mutual Financial Network, and Advertising.com. Spice giant McCormick & Company was founded in Baltimore, and is currently headquartered in suburban Hunt Valley.

The city is also home to the Johns Hopkins Hospital, which will serve as the center of a new biotechnology park. The park, one of two such projects currently under construction in the city, will provide room for medical/technology upstarts as well as industry giants to tap into the wealth of knowledge in Baltimore. Baltimore is widely regarded as one of the world's most important depositories of medical knowledge.

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.%
179013,503
180026,5140%
181046,5550%
182062,7380%
183080,6200%
1840102,3130%
1850169,0540%
1860212,4180%
1870267,3540%
1880332,3130%
1890434,4390%
1900508,9570%
1910558,4850%
1920733,8260%
1930804,8740%
1940859,1000%
1950949,7080%
1960939,0240%
1970905,7590%
1980786,7750%
1990736,0140%
2000636,2510%


After New York City, Baltimore was the second city in the United States to reach a population of 100,000, (followed by New Orleans, Philadelphia, Boston).[28] Baltimore was the second largest city in the nation until 1860, when it was surpassed by Philadelphia. In the 1830, 1840, and 1850 censuses of the United States of America, Baltimore was the second-largest city in population. It was among the top 10 cities in population in the United States in every census up to the 1980 census. The city and metropolitan area currently rank in the top 20 in terms of population. Recently, a 2005 census estimate projected that Baltimore was the city with the largest population drop alongside Detroit and Washington D.C., losing over 84,000 residents between 1990 and 2000.[29]

As of 2006, the population was 640,961. The Baltimore–Towson metropolitan area, as of 2004, was estimated to have a population of 2.6 million.[30] The population density was 3,111.5/km² (8,058.4/mi²). There were 300,477 housing units at an average density of 1,435.8/km² (3,718.6/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 64.34% Black or African American, 31.63% White, 0.32% Native American, 1.53% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.67% from other races, and 1.47% from two or more races. 1.70% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. This census however does not accurately represent the city's Latino population however which over the past few years has been steadily increasing. This growth is mainly seen in the southeastern neighborhoods around Fells Point, Patterson Park, and Highlandtown and in the city's Northwestern neighborhoods such as Fallstaff, and various neighborhoods of Northeastern Baltimore. [31] 6.2% of the population were of German ancestry according to Census 2000.

There were 257,996 households out of which 25.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.7% were married couples living together, 25.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 43.0% were non-families. 34.9% of all households are made up of individuals, and 11.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42, and the average family size was 3.16.

In the city the population was spread out with 24.8% under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 21.2% from 45 to 64, and 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 87.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $30,078, and the median income for a family was $35,438. Males had a median income of $31,767 versus $26,832 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,978. About 18.8% of families and 22.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.6% of those under age 18 and 18.0% of those age 65 or over.

Law and government

Baltimore is an independent city — not part of any county. For most governmental purposes under Maryland law, Baltimore City is treated as a "county"-level entity. The United States Census Bureau uses counties as the basic unit for presentation of statistical information in the United States, and treats Baltimore as a county equivalent for those purposes.

Baltimore has been a Democratic stronghold for over 150 years, with Democrats dominating every level of government.

Mayor

For a full list of mayors that served the city, see List of Baltimore Mayors.


In November of 2006, Martin O'Malley, who had been mayor since 1999, was elected Governor of Maryland. He took office on January 17, 2007. Per the city's charter, City Council President Sheila Dixon, will finish out the last year of O'Malley's second term. On September 11, 2007, Mayor Dixon defeated other mayoral candidates in the Democratic Primary election. Because Democrats outnumber Republicans in Baltimore 9 to 1, the winner of the Democratic primary is expected to easily win the general election.

Baltimore City Council

Grassroots pressure for reform, voiced as Question P, restructured the city council in November of 2002, against the will of the mayor, the council president, and the majority of the council. A coalition of union and community groups, organized by ACORN, backed the effort.

The Baltimore City Council is now made up of 14 single member districts and one elected at-large council president. Stephanie Rawlings Blake is the council's president and Robert W. Curran is the Vice President.

State Government

See also: Baltimore City Delegation


Prior to 1969, some considered Baltimore and its suburbs to be particularly underrepresented in the Maryland General Assembly, while rural areas were heavily overrepresented. Since Baker v. Carr in 1962, Baltimore and its suburbs account for a substantial majority of seats in the state legislature; this has caused some to argue that rural areas are now underrepresented. Baltimore's steady loss of population, however, has resulted in a loss of seats in the Maryland General Assembly. Since 1980, Baltimore has lost four senators from the 47-member Maryland State Senate and twelve delegates from the 141-member Maryland House of Delegates.

Federal Government

Three of the state's eight congressional districts include portions of Baltimore--the 2nd, represented by Dutch Ruppersberger; the 3rd, represented by John Sarbanes; and the 7th, represented by Elijah Cummings. All three are Democrats; a Republican has not represented a significant portion of Baltimore since 1931 and has not represented any of Baltimore since 2003.

Both of Maryland's Senators, Ben Cardin and Barbara Mikulski, are from Baltimore. Coincidentally, both represented the 3rd District before being elected to the Senate. Mikulski represented the 3rd from 1977 to 1987, and was succeeded by Cardin, who held the seat until his election and inauguration to the Senate in 2007.

Crime

CNN/Morgan Quitno "Most Dangerous City" Rankings (2006) ranks Baltimore as the 12th most dangerous American city.[32] Baltimore is second only to Detroit among cities with a population over 500,000.[33]

According to crime statistics there were 269 homicides in Baltimore in 2005,[34] giving it the highest homicide rate per 100,000 of all U.S. cities of 250,000 or more population. [33] Though this is significantly lower than the record-high 353 homicides in 1993, the homicide rate in Baltimore is nearly seven times the national rate, six times the rate of New York City, and three times the rate of Los Angeles. In addition, other categories of crime in Baltimore have also been declining, although overall crime rates are still high compared to the national average. The rate of forcible rapes has fallen below the national average in recent years; however, Baltimore still has much higher-than-average rates of aggravated assault, burglary, robbery, and theft.[35]

Though the crime situation in Baltimore is considered one of the worst in the nation, city officials have pointed out that most violent crimes, particularly homicides, are committed by people who know their victims and who are often associated with the illegal drug trade.[36]

City officials have, however, come under scrutiny from Maryland legislators regarding the veracity of crime statistics reported by the Baltimore City Police Department.[37] For 2003 the FBI identified irregularities in the number of rapes reported, which was confirmed by the Mayor. 2005's homicide numbers appeared to exhibit discrepancies as well[38] The former Commissioner of Police stated upon interview that the administration suppressed corrections of its reported crime.[39] However, many of these charges seem to be, at least partially, politically motivated.[40] Nonetheless, experts indicate that the city's reporting practices merit an independent audit, with which the administration has not cooperated, despite requests from members of City Council and the City's auditor.[41]

At the same time however, a largely African American police force and correctional officer staff is present. Currently, the department is administered by Commissioner Frederick H. Bealefeld III and Deputy Commissioner of Administration Deborah A. Owens both of whom are white and Deputy Commissioner of Operations Anthony Barksdale who is African American.

The ACLU has filed a suit in respect of systematic civil rights abuses by the current administration.[42] While police officials and their critics disagree about exact figures, it is nonetheless clear that approximately 25% of the roughly 100,000 arrests each year are made in the absence of a chargeable offense. [43]

Criminal intimidation has also been reported as a problem in the city.[44] In an infamous case, community activist Angela Dawson and her family were murdered by firebomb in their Baltimore home on October 16, 2002, in retaliation for Dawson's reporting of criminal activity. In a separate incident, another public safety activist, Edna McAbier, was also targeted. Though she survived, she has fled her neighborhood, where she cannot be protected by city police. In 2005, three men were sentenced to life in prison for their involvement in the latter case.

In 1988, journalist David Simon spent a year with the homicide unit of the Baltimore Police Department. His experiences were chronicled in the critically acclaimed book, . His nonfiction account was the basis for the TV series .

Transportation

Highway Network

The interstate highways serving Baltimore are I-70, I-83 (the Jones Falls Expressway), I-95 (the John F. Kennedy Memorial Highway), I-395, I-695 (the Baltimore Beltway), I-795 (the Northwest Expressway), I-895 (the Harbor Tunnel Thruway), and I-97. Several of the city's interstate highways, e.g. I-95, I-83, and I-70 are not directly connected to each other, and in the case of I-70 end just outside city limits at the Baltimore Beltway, because of freeway revolts in the City of Baltimore. These revolts were led by Barbara Mikulski, which resulted in the abandonment of the original plan. U.S. highways that run through downtown Baltimore include U.S. Route 1, U.S. Route 40 National Road, and the Baltimore-Washington Parkway. There are two tunnels traversing the Baltimore harbor within the city limits: the four-bore Fort McHenry Tunnel (served by I-95) and the two-bore Harbor Tunnel (served by I-895). The Baltimore Beltway crosses south of Baltimore harbor over the Francis Scott Key Bridge.

Enlarge picture
Downtown Northbound on I-95
Enlarge picture
A Street in Baltimore

Passenger rail

Baltimore is a top destination for Amtrak along the Northeast Corridor. Baltimore's Penn Station is one of the busiest in the country. In 2005, it ranked 8th in the United States with a total ridership of 910,523.[45] Just outside the city, Baltimore/Washington International (BWI) Thurgood Marshall Airport Rail Station is another popular stop. Amtrak's Acela Express, Palmetto, Carolinian, Silver Star, Silver Meteor, Vermonter, Crescent, and Regional trains are the scheduled passenger train services that stop in the city. Additionally, MARC commuter rail service connects the city's two main intercity rail stations, Camden Station and Penn Station with Washington, D.C.'s Union Station as well as stops in between.

Public transit

Public transit in Baltimore City is provided by the Maryland Transit Administration. The city has a comprehensive bus network, a small light rail network connecting Hunt Valley in the north to BWI airport and Cromwell in the south, and a subway line between Owings Mills and Johns Hopkins Hospital.[46] A proposed bus rapid transit or rail line, known as the Red Line, which would link the Social Security Administration to Fells Point and perhaps the Canton and Dundalk communities, is under study as of 2007; a proposal to extend Baltimore's existing subway line to Morgan State University, known as the Green Line, is in the planning stage.[47]

Airports

Baltimore is served by Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, generally known as "BWI," which lies to the south in neighboring Anne Arundel County, and by Martin State Airport, a general aviation facility, to the north in Baltimore County. BWI and Martin State airports are operated by the Maryland Aviation Administration which is part of the Maryland Department of Transportation.[48] In terms of passengers, BWI airport is the top 26th airport in the United States.[49] Downtown Baltimore is connected to BWI airport by two major highways (I-95 and the Baltimore-Washington Parkway via Interstate 195), the Baltimore Light Rail, and Amtrak and MARC commuter rail service between Baltimore's Penn Station and BWI Rail Station. Martin State Airport is linked to downtown Baltimore by two major highways, I-95 and U.S. Route 40, and MARC commuter rail service between Baltimore's Penn Station and its nearby Martin State Airport MARC Train stop.

Port of Baltimore

Main article: Port of Baltimore
Enlarge picture
Baltimore harbor in 1849 with the prominent Washington monument in the background North of the city
The port was founded 1706, preceding the founding of Baltimore. The Maryland colonial legislature made the area near Locust Point as the port of entry for the tobacco trade with England. Fells Point, the deepest point in the natural harbor, soon became the colony's main ship building center, later a on becoming leader in the construction of clipper ships. [50] After the founding of Baltimore, mills were built behind the wharves. The California Gold Rush led to many orders for fast vessels; many overland pioneers also relied upon canned goods from Baltimore. After the civil war, a coffee ship was designed here for trade with Brazil. At the end of the nineteenth century, European ship lines had terminals for immigrants. The Baltimore and Ohio railroad made the port a major transhipment point.

Currently the port has major roll-on roll-off facilities, as well as bulk facilities, especially steel handling. [51] Water taxis also operate in the Inner Harbor. Governor Erlich participated in naming the port after Helen Delich Bentley during the 300th anniversary of the port. [52]

Education

Colleges and universities

Baltimore is the home of several places of higher learning, both public and private. Among them are:

Private

Public

As well as those located within the city, several are located in the suburbs that surround the city. Major ones include:

Primary and secondary schools

The city's public schools are operated by the Baltimore City Public School System and include Baltimore City College, the third oldest public high school in the country, and Western High School, the oldest public all girls school in the nation.

Private schools

Some private schools are located in the nearby suburbs

Parochial schools

Media

Although Baltimore is only 45 minutes north of Washington by automobile, it is a major media market in its own right. Its main newspaper, The Baltimore Sun, was sold by its Baltimore owners in 1988 to the Times Mirror Company, which has since been bought by Tribune Company. Baltimore is the 24th-largest television market and 21st-largest radio market in the country.

Newspapers

Television

Radio

Museums and attractions

Sports teams

Defunct (or moved) sports teams

Baseball

Football

Basketball

Soccer

Hockey

Lacrosse

Sister cities

Baltimore has eleven sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI):

Baltimore in fiction

Main article: Baltimore in Fiction

See also

References

1. ^ Popik, Barry. "Charm City (summary)". The Big Apple. Nicknames of Other Places. March 25 2005. URL retrieved on May 5 2007.
2. ^ Connery, William. "Maryland’s Mob Town Supplied Links Through Rail and Fort". May 2002. URL retrieved on January 27, 2007.
3. ^ Smith, Van. "Mob Rules". Baltimore City Paper. October 6, 2004. URL retrieved on January 27, 2007.
4. ^ Baltimore; The City of Firsts. City of Baltimore, Maryland. Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
5. ^ Baltimore City Heritage Area. Maryland Historical Trust. Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
6. ^ Best Monument. 2005 Baltimore Living Winners. Baltimore City Paper (2005-09-21). Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
7. ^ Best Hook. 2006 Baltimore Arts and Entertainment Winners. Baltimore City Paper (2006-09-20). Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
8. ^ O'Mara, Richard. "Backstory: Baltimore - 'Home of 1,000 Slogans'". The Christian Science Monitor. January 5, 2006. URL retrieved on January 27, 2007.
9. ^ Get in on it. Baltimore Area Convention and Visitors Association (BACVA). URL retrieved on January 27, 2007.
10. ^ Population Estimates for the 25 Largest U.S. Cities based on July 1, 2007 Population Estimates (PDF). US Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-06-28.
11. ^ Placenames. Northern Ireland. Genealogy. URL retrieved March 29 2007.
12. ^ [1] History of Baltimore County]
13. ^ Baltimore, West Cork, Ireland. BBC h2g2 (2004-03-19). Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
14. ^ "The Chesapeake Campaign". Pride of Baltimore II. Baltimore Clipper History. URL retrieved on January 27, 2007.
15. ^ Siegel, Eric (2005-12-22). Baltimore's population decline reversed. as published 2005-11-17 in The Baltimore Sun. Wired New York Forum. Retrieved on 2007-06-23.
16. ^ Fritze, John. "Dixon Takes Oath". The Baltimore Sun. January 19, 2007. URL retrieved on January 20, 2007.
17. ^ Baltimore City, Mayor - D Primary, Our Campaigns. URL retrieved on January 20, 2007.
18. ^ 2007 Baltimore Democratic Primary Results. Retrieved on September 12th, 2007.
19. ^ Hardy Palms in and Around Baltimore, MD. Flickr. Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
20. ^ Hardy Palm and Subtropical Board. Boardhost. Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
21. ^ What is my arborday.org hardiness zone?. National Arbor Day Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-09-11.
22. ^ US National Normal First Freeze. The Weather Channel. Retrieved on 2007-09-11.
23. ^ NOAA, "Maryland Average Annual Snowfall Map".
24. ^ Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America (English). Weatherbase (2007). Retrieved on 2007-10-17.
25. ^ Mirabella, Lorraine. "Downtown jobs, housing boom", The Baltimore Sun, January 30, 2007
26. ^ Baltimore Neighborhoods. City of Baltimore, Maryland. Retrieved on 2007-06-14.
27. ^ [2]
28. ^ United States census data for 1830, 1840, and 1850
29. ^ "Top 50 Cities in the U.S. by Population and Rank (2005 Census)". infoplease.com. 2005. Retrieved August 1 2006
30. ^ Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2004 (CBSA-EST2004-01)
31. ^ Baltimore city QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-04-30.
32. ^ CNN/Morgan Quitno's America's Safest Cities, "Top 25: Most dangerous and safest cites".
33. ^ Morgan Quitno's America's Safest Cities, "City Crime Rankings by Population Group".
34. ^ Anna Ditkoff, "Murder Ink"., Baltimore City Paper (January 11, 2006)
35. ^ "Baltimore Maryland Crime Statistics and Data Resources"., AreaConnect
36. ^ "Promising Strategies To Reduce Gun Violence"., Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (1998)
37. ^ "State Lawmaker Calls For Investigation Into Police"., WBAL-TV (February 14, 2006)
38. ^ "Homicide Rate, Police Procedures Questioned"., WBAL-TV (February 14, 2006)
39. ^ "Ex-Commish Raised Questions During Tenure"., WBAL-TV (February 22, 2006)
40. ^ John Wagner and Tim Craig, "Duncan Rebukes O'Malley Over Crime"., Washington Post (February 14, 2006)
41. ^ "Criminologists Express Doubt About O'Malley's Crime Statistics"., The Associated Press (February 12, 2006)
42. ^ "ACLU, NAACP Sue Baltimore Over Illegal Arrests"., The Associated Press (June 15, 2006)
43. ^ "O'Malley Is Booed At Hearing on Police", Washington Post, 2006-01-05. Retrieved on 2007-04-30. 
44. ^ Gary Gately, "Baltimore struggles to battle witness intimidation"., The Boston Globe (February 12, 2005)
45. ^ 25 Busiest stations in 2005. Inside Amtrak. Government Affairs. Amtrak Information. URL retrieved April 1 2007.
46. ^ Maryland Transit Administration. URL retrieved April 5 2007.
47. ^ Baltimore Region Rail System Plan. URL retrieved April 5 2007.
48. ^ Maryland Aviation Administration. URL retrieved April 5 2007.
49. ^ General Statistics. Baltimore/Washington International Airport. URL retrieved April 5 2007.
50. ^ History of the Port of Baltimore, Port of Baltimore Tricentennial Committee.
51. ^ The Port of Baltimore's Cargo, Maryland Port Administration].
52. ^ Governor Ehrlich Names Port Of Baltimore After Helen Delich Bentley, Tesla Memorial Society of New York.

External links

* Baltimore Harbor # 12281
* Chesapeake Bay Approaches to Baltimore Harbor # 12278
  • Chapter 15 Baltimore to Head of Chesapeake Bay, Coast Pilot 3, 40th Edition, 2007, Office of Coastal Survey, NOAA.

Preceded by
Philadelphia
Capital of the United States of America
1776–1777
Succeeded by
Philadelphia
Baltimore County is a county located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Maryland. In 2004, its population was estimated to be 763,181. [1] . Its county seat is Towson.
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Baltimore can refer to:

Places

United States

  • The city of Baltimore, Maryland
  • Baltimore County, Maryland
  • Baltimore, Ohio, a suburb of Columbus
  • Baltimore, Vermont
  • Baltimore, Indiana, a now-extinct 19th century town

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Downtown Baltimore is the section of Baltimore traditionally bounded by Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard to the west, Mt. Royal Avenue to the north, President Street to the east and the Inner Harbor area to the south.
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The flag of the City of Baltimore features the Battle Monument, a local monument to veterans of the War of 1812 which is also the central motif on the city seal. The field is Calvert family colors, which also serve as half of the Maryland state flag.
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The Seal of Baltimore is the official government emblem of the City of Baltimore, Maryland in the United States. The current seal was adopted for use in 1827. The seal is in the shape of an ellipse with the image of the Battle Monument featured in its centre.
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Coat of arms elements
A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization.
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State of Maryland

Flag of Maryland Seal
Nickname(s): Old Line State; Free State
Motto(s): Fatti maschii, parole femine
(Manly deeds, womanly words)


Official language(s) None (English, de facto
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country, state, and nation can have various meanings. Therefore, diverse lists of these entities are possible. Wikipedia offers the following lists:

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Motto
"In God We Trust"   (since 1956)
"E Pluribus Unum"   ("From Many, One"; Latin, traditional)
Anthem
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United States of America

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the United States




Federal government
Constitution
Taxation

President Vice President
Cabinet


Congress
Senate
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State of Maryland

Flag of Maryland Seal
Nickname(s): Old Line State; Free State
Motto(s): Fatti maschii, parole femine
(Manly deeds, womanly words)


Official language(s) None (English, de facto
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A municipal corporation is a legal definition for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs.
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A municipal corporation is a legal definition for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs.
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A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "larger", "greater") is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer.

In many systems, the mayor is an elected politician who serves as chief executive and/or ceremonial official of many types of
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Sheila A. Dixon is an American politician who is the 48th Mayor of Baltimore, Maryland. When former Mayor Martin O'Malley was sworn in as Governor on January 17, 2007, Dixon became mayor and will serve out the remaining year of O'Malley's term.
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United States of America

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the United States




Federal government
Constitution
Taxation

President Vice President
Cabinet


Congress
Senate
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Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. The term Surface area is the summation of the areas of the exposed sides of an object.

Units

Units for measuring surface area include:
square metre = SI derived unit

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city is an urban settlement with a particularly important status which differentiates it from a town.

City is primarily used to designate an urban settlement with a large population. However, city may also indicate a special administrative, legal, or historical status.
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square mile is an imperial and US unit of area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. It should not be confused with the archaic miles square, which refers to the number of miles on each side squared.
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elevation of a geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point, often the mean sea level. Elevation, or geometric height, is mainly used when referring to points on the Earth's surface, while altitude or geopotential height
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1 foot =
SI units
0 m 0 mm
US customary / Imperial units
0 yd 0 in
A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes,
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1 metre =
SI units
1000 mm 0 cm
US customary / Imperial units
0 ft 0 in
The metre or meter[1](symbol: m) is the fundamental unit of length in the International System of Units (SI).
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city is an urban settlement with a particularly important status which differentiates it from a town.

City is primarily used to designate an urban settlement with a large population. However, city may also indicate a special administrative, legal, or historical status.
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Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, humans in particular.

Biological population densities


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An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. This term is at one end of the spectrum of suburban and rural areas. An urban area is more frequently called a city or town.
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metropolitan area is a large population centre consisting of a large metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence, or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central cities and their zone of influence.
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time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. Most adjacent time zones are exactly one hour apart, and by convention compute their local time as an offset from UTC (see also Greenwich Mean Time).
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Eastern Time Zone (ET) of the Western Hemisphere falls mostly along the east coast of Northern America and the west coast of South America. Its time offset is UTC-5 during standard time and UTC-4 during daylight saving time.
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UTC−5 is the time offset used in the North American Central Time Zone during Daylight Saving Time.

For North America see also Eastern Standard Time and Central Daylight Time.
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Daylight saving time (DST; also summer time in British English) is the convention of advancing clocks so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less.
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