Bandwagon effect

The bandwagon effect is the observation that people often do (or believe) things because many other people do (or believe) the same. The effect is often pejoratively referred to as herding instinct, particularly as applied to adolescents. Without examining the merits of the particular thing, people tend to “follow the crowd”. The bandwagon effect is the reason for the bandwagon fallacy's success.

Origin of the Phrase

Literally, a bandwagon is a wagon which carries the band in a parade, circus or other entertainment.[1] The phrase 'jump on the bandwagon' was first used in American Politics in 1848 as a result of Dan Rice, 'President Lincoln's Court Jester.[2] Campaigning for Zachary Taylor, Dan Rice, a professional circus clown, used his bandwagon for Taylor's appearances, gaining attention by way of the music. As Taylor's campaign became more successful, more politicians strove for a seat on the bandwagon, hoping to be associated with the success. Later, during the time of William Jennings Bryan's 1900 presidential campaign, bandwagons had become a standard fixture of campaigns,[3] and 'jump on the bandwagon' was used as a derogatory term, implying that people were associating themselves with the success without considering what they associated themselves with.

Use in Politics

The bandwagon effect can be observed in voting: some people vote for those candidates or parties who are likely to succeed (or are proclaimed as such by the media), thus increasing their chances of being on the 'winner's side' in the end.[4]

Bandwagon effect has been labeled to situations involving majority opinion, such as political outcomes, where people alter their opinions to the majority view (McAllister and Studlar 721).

During elections, poll results are broadcasted in the eastern parts of the United States while polls are still open in the west. Due to this trend, behavior of voters in western United States has been previously investigated. In 1980, NBC News declared Ronald Reagan to be the winner of the presidential race on the basis of the exit polls several hours before the voting booths closed in the west, which led Reagan to defeat his Democratic opponent Jimmy Carter (McAllister and Studlar 721, 722).

Several studies have been done in order to test this theory of how the bandwagon effect and politics tie together. In 1994, a study was done by Robert K. Goidel and Todd G. Shields, which was published in The Journal of Politics. At the University of Kentucky, 180 students were randomly assigned to nine groups where they were asked questions about certain election scenarios. The scenarios presented to each group were identical, although about 70% of subjects received knowledge concerning the expected winner (Goidel and Shields 807). Independents, which are those who do not vote based on the endorsement of any party and are ultimately neutral, were extremely influenced and tended to lean towards the person expected to win (Goidel and Shields 807-808). Expectations played a significant role throughout the study. It was found that independents are twice as likely to vote for the Republican candidate when the Republican is expected to win. From the results, it was also found that when the Democrat was expected to win, independent Republicans and weak Republicans were more likely to vote for the Democratic candidate (Goidel and Shields 808).

A study by Albert Mehrabian, Ph.D., reported in The Journal of Applied Social Psychology (1998), tested the relative importance of the bandwagon (rally around the winner) effect versus the underdog (empathic support for those trailing) effect. Bogus poll results presented to voters prior to the 1996 Republican primary clearly showed the bandwagon effect to predominate on balance. Indeed, approximately 6% of the variance in the vote was explained in terms of the bogus polls, showing that poll results (whether accurate or inaccurate) can significantly influence election results in closely-contested elections. In particular, assuming that one candidate "is an initial favorite by a slim margin, reports of polls showing that candidate as the leader in the race will increase his or her favorable margin" (Mehrabian, 1998, p. 2128). Thus, as poll results are repeatedly reported, the bandwagon effect will tend to snowball and become a powerful aid to leading candidates.

During the 1992 U.S. presidential election, Vicki G. Morwitz and Carol Pluzinski conducted a study, which was published in The Journal of Consumer Research. At a large northeastern university, 214 volunteered business students were given actual student poll results that had been done from the previous week. Of the 214 volunteers, 188 were U.S. citizens. Comparable results were also given to them from a large-scale national poll. Both the student and the national polls indicated that Clinton was in the lead for the majority of the study. Ninety-six subjects were randomly assigned to the poll-exposure condition, which meant they were given a summary of the results from both the student polls and the recently published national poll. The remaining 92 subjects were assigned to the no-exposure condition, meaning none of the polls were revealed to these subjects. The analysis of the study was limited to Bush and Clinton supporters, due to the lack of Perot supporters. It was found that several of those exposed to the polls changed their preference. Since the polls indicated that Clinton was ahead in the election, many Bush intenders ended up changing their preferences after reviewing the polls. The proportion of Bush intenders who expected Clinton to win was lower with exposure to polls (78.6 percent) compared to those not exposed to the polls (93.8 percent). This means that the number of subjects who were planning on voting for Bush actually changed their minds,compared to the 93.8 percent that actually voted for him without being shown the student and national polls. It proves that those who had intended on voting for Bush had altered opinions of the election due to exposure of the polls (Morwitz and Pluzinski 58-64).

Internationally, British polls have shown an increase to public exposure. Sixty-eight percent of voters had heard of the general election campaign results of the opinion poll in 1979. In 1987, this number of voters aware of the results increased to 74% (McAllister and Studlar 725). According to British studies, there is a consistent pattern of apparent bandwagon effects for the leading party.

Use in Microeconomics

In microeconomics, bandwagon effect is a term for an interaction of demand and preference.[5] The bandwagon effect arises when people's preference for a commodity increases as the number of people buying it increases. This interaction potentially disturbs the normal results of the theory of supply and demand, which assumes that consumers make buying decisions solely based on price and their own personal preference. See network effect and Veblen good.

Use in the Music Industry

In music, bandwagon effect is a term for people who are fond of a musical group based on how popular the artist is at the time. For instance, certain people appreciate a song only once it is well-known.

Use in Sports

In sports, bandwagon effect is a term for people who begin flocking to a team after they have achieved success.

The Ottawa Senators are an NHL franchise in Eastern Ontario that became popular only following the mid-1990s decline of more traditional teams Toronto Maple Leafs and Montreal Canadiens. Citizens jump on the Senators bandwagon, including non-hockey fans, whenever the Sens win a playoff series. When the Senators fail to advance in the playoffs and then 'fans' jump off the bandwagon, and either return to their original teams or forget about hockey altogether.

References

1. ^ Bandwagon. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
2. ^ Dan Rice (1823-1901) — President Lincoln's Court Jester. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
3. ^ Bandwagon Effect. Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
4. ^ New Evidence About the Existence of a Bandwagon Effect in the Opinion Formation Process. International Political Science Review, Vol. 14, No. 2, 203-213 (1993). Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
5. ^ Harvey Leibenstein, “Bandwagon, Snob, and Veblen Effects in the Theory of Consumers’ Demand,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics (May 1950).


Goidel, Robert K., and Todd G. Shields. "The Vanishing Marginals, the Bandwagon, and the Mass Media." The Journal of Politics 56 (1994): 802-810. 11 Apr. 2007 <http://www.jstor.org/view/00223816/di976651/97p03825/0>.

McAllister, Ian, and Donley T. Studlar. "Bandwagon, Underdog, or Projection? Opinion Polls and Electoral Choice in Britain, 1979-1987." The Journal of Politics 53 (1991): 720-740. 9 Apr. 2007 <http://www.ebsohost.com>.

Mehrabian, Albert. "Effects of Poll Reports on Voter Preferences." Journal of Applied Social Psychology 28 (1998): 2119-2130. 11 Apr. 2007 <http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/results/results_common.jhtml?nn=4>.

Morwitz, Vicki G., and Carol Pluzinski. "Do Polls Reflect Opinions or Do Opinions Reflect Polls?" Journal of Consumer Research os 23 (1996): 53-65. 8 Apr. 2007 <http://www.ebsohost.com>.

See also

A word is a term of derision, or a phrase is pejorative, if it implies contempt or disapproval. The adjective pejorative is synonymous with derogatory, derisive, and dyslogistic.
..... Click the link for more information.
Herd behaviour describes how individuals in a group can act together without planned direction. The term pertains to the behaviour of animals in herds, flocks, and schools, and to human conduct during activities such as stock market bubbles and crashes, street demonstrations,
..... Click the link for more information.
An argumentum ad populum (Latin: "appeal to the people"), in logic, is a fallacious argument that concludes a proposition to be true because many or all people believe it; it alleges that "If many believe so, it is so.
..... Click the link for more information.
Dan Rice (January 23, 1823 – February 22, 1900), was an American entertainer of many talents, most famously as a clown, who was pre-eminent before the Civil War. During the height of his career Rice was more of a household name than Abraham Lincoln or Mark Twain.
..... Click the link for more information.
Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850)[1] was an American military leader and the twelfth President of the United States. Known as "Old Rough and Ready," Taylor had a 40-year military career in the U.S.
..... Click the link for more information.
William Jennings Bryan (March 19, 1860 – July 26, 1925) was an American lawyer, statesman, and politician. He was a three-time Democratic Party nominee for President of the United States.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Journal of Politics is a leading peer-reviewed international general journal of political science founded in 1939 and published quarterly (February, May, August and November) by Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the Southern Political Science Association.
..... Click the link for more information.
Microeconomics (or price theory) is a branch of economics that studies how individuals, households, and firms make decisions to allocate limited resources,[1] typically in markets where goods or services are being bought and sold.
..... Click the link for more information.
supply and demand describe market relations between prospective sellers and buyers of a good. The supply and demand model determines price and quantity sold in the market.
..... Click the link for more information.
A network effect is a characteristic that causes a good or service to have a value to a potential customer which depends on the number of other customers who own the good or are users of the service.
..... Click the link for more information.
Veblen goods if people's preference for buying them increases as a direct function of their price.

It is claimed that some types of high-status goods, such as expensive wines or perfumes, are Veblen goods, in that decreasing their prices decreases
..... Click the link for more information.
Editing of this page by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled due to vandalism.
If you are prevented from editing this page, and you wish to make a change, please discuss changes on the talk page, request unprotection, log in, or .
..... Click the link for more information.
Editing of this page by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled due to vandalism.
If you are prevented from editing this page, and you wish to make a change, please discuss changes on the talk page, request unprotection, log in, or .
..... Click the link for more information.
Ottawa Senators

Conference Eastern
Division Northeast
Founded 1991
History Ottawa Senators
1992-present
Home Arena Scotiabank Place
City Ottawa, Ontario
Colours''' Red, Black, White and Gold
Media A-Channel
..... Click the link for more information.
Sport Ice hockey
Founded 1917
No. of teams 30
Country(ies)  Canada
 United States

Most recent champion(s) Anaheim Ducks

TV partner(s) CAN: CBC, TSN, RDS, RIS, RSN (regional)
USA:
..... Click the link for more information.
Toronto Maple Leafs

Conference Eastern
Division Northeast
Founded 1917
History Toronto 1917–18
Toronto Arenas 1918–19
Toronto St.
..... Click the link for more information.
Montreal Canadiens


Conference Eastern
Division Northeast
Founded December 4, 1909
History Montreal Canadiens
1917-present (NHL)
1909-1917 (NHA)
Home Arena Bell Centre (Centre Bell)
City Montreal, Quebec
..... Click the link for more information.
fan, aficionado, or supporter is someone who has an intense, occasionally overwhelming liking of a sporting club, person, group of persons, company, product, work of art, idea, or trend. Fans of a particular thing constitute its fanbase or fandom.
..... Click the link for more information.
Editing of this page by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled due to vandalism.
If you are prevented from editing this page, and you wish to make a change, please discuss changes on the talk page, request unprotection, log in, or .
..... Click the link for more information.
Harvey Leibenstein (1922 – 1994) was an American economist. He introduced the term X-efficiency.

The X-efficiency describes the costs of monopolies when they lack competitors.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Journal of Politics is a leading peer-reviewed international general journal of political science founded in 1939 and published quarterly (February, May, August and November) by Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the Southern Political Science Association.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Journal of Politics is a leading peer-reviewed international general journal of political science founded in 1939 and published quarterly (February, May, August and November) by Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the Southern Political Science Association.
..... Click the link for more information.
Bandwagon may refer to:
  • Bandwagon effect, "copycat" behaviour
  • argumentum ad numerum, or the bandwagon fallacy: "If many believe so, it is so"
  • bandwagon fan, supporter of a sports team only during a period of success

..... Click the link for more information.
A bandwagon fan is a phrase used among sports fans and sports writers to describe a fan that only roots for popular and successful sports franchises, then when they fall and are unpopular they switch to the new team.
..... Click the link for more information.
In realist theories of international relations, bandwagoning refers to the act of weaker states joining a stronger power or coalition within balance of power politics. The term is opposed to balancing, and unlike balancing, is a relatively new term.
..... Click the link for more information.
The term "collective behavior" was first used by Robert E. Park, and employed definitively by Herbert Blumer, to refer to social processes and events which do not reflect existing social structure (laws, conventions, and institutions), but which emerge in a "spontaneous" way.
..... Click the link for more information.
Collective consciousness refers to the shared beliefs and moral attitudes which operate as a unifying force within society.[1] This term was used by the French social theorist Émile Durkheim (1858-1917) in his books The Division of Labour (1893),
..... Click the link for more information.
Collective effervescence (CE) is a perceived energy formed by a gathering of people as might be experienced at a sporting event, a carnival, a rave, or a riot. This energy can cause people to act differently than in their everyday life.
..... Click the link for more information.
Collective intelligence is a form of intelligence that emerges from the collaboration and competition of many individuals. Collective intelligence appears in a wide variety of forms of consensus decision making in bacteria, animals, humans, and computers.
..... Click the link for more information.
Communal reinforcement is a social phenomenon in which a concept or idea is repeatedly asserted in a community, regardless of whether sufficient empirical evidence has been presented to support it.
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.