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Basava (also known as Basaveshwara (Kannada:ಬಸವೇಶ್ವರ) or Basavanna(ಬಸವಣ್ಣ) 11341196) was a philosopher and a social reformer. He fought against practice of caste system and rituals in Hinduism. He is also called as "Vishwa-guru". His teachings and preachings go beyond all boundaries and are universal and eternal. He was a great humanitarian. Basava advocated a new way of life wherein the divine experience was the center of life giving equal opportunity to all aspirants regardless of the gender, caste, and social status. The cornerstone behind his movement was the firm belief in a universal concept of God. Basava has a proponent of monotheistic concept of formless God.

A true visionary with ideas ahead of his time, he envisioned a society that flourished enriching one and all. In addition to being a great mystic, Basava was the Prime Minister of the Southern Kalachuri Empire in South India and originated a literary revolution by introducing Vachana Sahitya. Basava is said to have been a mystic by temperament, an idealist by choice, a statesman by profession, a man of letters by taste, a humanist by sympathy, and a social reformer by conviction. Many great yogis and mystics of the time joined his movement enriching it with the essence of divine experience in the form of Vachanas (Lit. sayings - sacred hymns in Kannada) that define a new way of looking at God and life.

Basava's path later gave birth to a new religion (or "Sampradaya") called Lingavanta Dharma or Lingayata. Other synonyms for lingayata are: Basava Dharma, Sharana Dharma, Vachana Dharma.

Early life

It is believed that Basava was born into a Brahmin family residing in the small town of Ingeleshwar in the Bijapur district of northern Karnataka, India in 1134, Basava grew up in a strict, religious household where he was made to wear a sacred thread known as the Janivara. He did not accept the Janivara. He rejected the religion based on agamas, shastras, and puranas which were written in Sanskrit and was not reachable to common people. He did not accept the ritual rites. But Vachanas are basically essence of Vedas written in simple spoken Kannada language. Common people could easily understand the content of any Vachanas.

The Great Religious Development

He left Bagewadi and spent the next 12 years studying Sangameshwara, at the then-Shaivite stronghold of Kudala Sangama. There, he conversed with scholars and developed his spiritual and religious views in association with his societal understanding. His views included believing there is only one true, perfect God; additionally, he created people who perform social services like removal of untouchabilty, superstitiousness, confusions, temple culture, and priesthoodness. He believed people who were in search of a false god needed to be shown the right way. He preached equality among humankind and condemned all barriers of caste, creed and sex, fighting against the caste system. He is also known as Krantikari (revolutionary) Basavanna for his revolution in the social system of the 12th century.
Enlarge picture
Basava Statue in Bangalore
Basava started his career as an accountant at Mangalaveda in the court of Kalachuri king Bijjala, a feudatory of the Kalyani Chalukya. When Bijjala acquired the power at Basavakalyana, by overpowering Tailapa IV(the garandson of Vikaramaditya VI, the great Chalukya king), Basavanna also went to Kalyana. With his honesty, hardwork and visionary mission, Basava rose to the position of Prime Minister in the court of king Bijjala, who ruled from 11571196 at Kalyana (presently renamed as Basavakalyana). There, he established the Anubhava Mantapa, a spiritual parliament to openly discuss Lingayatism, which attracted many saints from throughout India. He believed in the principle 'Work is heaven'; kayakave kailas one step ahead of Ravindranath Tagore's 'work is worship'. It was at this time that the Vachanas, simple and easy-to-understand poetic writings which contained essential teachings, were written. Below is one of the thousands of Vachanas that were produced:

The power of knowledge destroys ignorance;
The power of light dissipates darkness;
The power of truth is foe of all untruth;
The sharana's experience of god is the sole cure of worldliness;
:: - Lord Kudala Sangamadeva

Basava created much controversy by actively ignoring the societal rules associated with the caste system, which he wished to abolish. By allowing untouchables to have lunch at his residence and praising the historic marriage of a Brahmin woman and an untouchable man, Basava caused orthodox members of King Bijjala's court to go to the King with such stories, some true and some false. Bijjala, afraid of a possible uprising in orthodox society, ordered the newly married couple to be harshly punished. Before punishing the couple Bijjala asked Basava to agree with caste system; but Basava strongly opposed caste system and said, both Haralayya and Madhuvaras were lingayats and the rules of caste system of Vaidika Dharma are not applicable to them. With Vaidik influence, Bijjala did not agree Basavanna's ideas; and asked Basavanna to be silent and accept the punishment to couple or leave Kalyana. The "Being punished" Danda-gonda Basavanna left Kalyana with heavy heart and marched towards Kudala Sangama. He left Kalyana in 1195 A.D. for Kudala Sangama and en route to Kudala sangama, he preache the people about the humanity, morality, honesty, simplicity, and the dignity of labour, equality among all human beings, human rights etc. Being a perfect yogi he released the bonds of the body and soul and took nirvana (Lingaikya) in the year 1196 in response to the call from Almighty.


Enlarge picture
Tha aikya linga of Basava at Kudalasangama
Basava said that the roots of social life are embedded not in the cream of the society but in the scum of the society. It is his witty saying that the cow does not give milk to him who sits on its back, but it gives milk to him who squats at its feet. With his wide sympathy, he admitted high and low alike into his fold. The Anubhava Mantapa established by Basava laid down the foundation of social democracy. Basava believed that man becomes great not by his birth but by his worth to the society. This means faith in the dignity of man and the belief that a common man is as good a part of society as a man of status.

He proclaimed that all members of the state are labourers: some may be intellectual labourers and others may be manual labourers. He placed practice before precept and his own life was of rigid . Basava brought home to his countrymen the lesson of self-purification. He tried to raise the moral level of the public life in the country, and he insisted that the same rules of conduct applied to the administrators as to the individual members of the society. He also taught the dignity of manual labour by insisting on work as worship. Every kind of manual labour, which was looked down upon by people of high caste, should be looked upon with love and reverence, he argued. Thus arts and crafts flourished, and a new foundation was laid down in the history of the economics of the land.

Basava formed people's committees representing various vocations such as agriculture, horticulture, tailoring, weaving, dyeing, and carpentry. All vocations were regarded as of equal value and the members belonged to all sorts of vocations. Thus Jedara Dasimayya was a weaver, Shankar Dasimayya a tailor, Madival Machayya a washerman, Myadar Ketayya a basket-maker, Kinnari Bommayya a goldsmith, Vakkalmuddayya a farmer, Hadap Appanna a barber, Jedar Madanna a soldier, Ganada Kannappa an oilman, Dohar Kakkayya a tanner, Mydar Channayya a cobbler, and Ambigara Chowdayya a ferryman. There were women followers such as Satyakka, Ramavve, and Somavve with their respective vocations. The curious thing was that all these and many more have sung the Vachanas (sayings) regarding their vocations in a very suggestive imagery.

Basavanna's Vachanas

  • ullavaru shivalaya maaduvaru naanena maadali badavanayya,
enna kaale kamba dehave degula shirave honna kalashavayya
Koodala Sangama Deva kelayya sthavarakkalivuntu jangamakalivilla

The rich will make temples for Shiva.What shall I, a poor man, do?
My legs are pillars,The body the shrine,The head a cupola of gold.
Listen, O lord of the meeting rivers,Things standing shall fall,But the moving ever shall stay.

The Lord of meeting rivers - his insignia of all his vachanas - Kudalasangamadeva in Kannada.

Views on Basaveshwara today

The Times of India in its issue dated May 17, 1918 paid a glowing tribute to Basava:

"It was the distinctive feature of his mission that while illustrious religious and social reformers in India before him had each laid his emphasis on one or other items of religion and social reform, either subordinating more or less other items to it or ignoring them altogether, Basava sketched and boldly tried to work out a large and comprehensive programme of social reform with the elevation and independence of womanhood as its guiding point. Neither social conferences which are usually held in these days in several parts of India, nor Indian social reformers, can improve upon that programme as to the essentials. The present day social reformer in India is but speaking the language and seeking to enforce the mind of Basava."

The movement initiated by Basava through Anubhava Mantapa became the basis of a sect of love and faith. It gave rise to a system of ethics and education at once simple and exalted. It sought to inspire ideals of social and religious freedom, such as no previous faith of India had done. In the medieval age which was characterized by inter-communal jealousy, it helped to shed a ray of light and faith on the homes and hearts of people. But the spirit soon disappeared after the intermarriage that Basava facilitated came to an abrupt end when the couple were punished for the same by the King. The dream of the classless society was shaken and Basava soon realised the meek picture and left for Kudala Sangama and a year later died. Many believe that it was through self-annihilation, because of the agony caused by the failure.

The movement gave a literature of considerable value in the vernacular language of the country, the literature which attained the dignity of a classical tongue. Its aim was the elimination of the barriers of caste and to remove untouchability, raising the untouchable to the equal of the high born. The sanctity of family relations and the improvement in the status of womanhood were striven for while at the same time the importance of rites and rituals, of fasts and pilgrimages was reduced. It encouraged learning and contemplation of God by means of love and faith. The excesses of polytheism were deplored and the idea of monotheism was encouraged. The movement tended, in many ways, to raise the nation generally to a higher level of capacity both in thought and action. However, the sect failed to bring about a completely classless society.


  1. Prophets of Veershaivism by His Holiness Mahatapasvi Shri Kumarswami.


Taledanda translated in hindi by Ram Gopal Bajaj and performed by E.Alkaji(NSD rep)and Arvind Gaur (Asmita theatre group,1995)

See also

External links

Lingayatism or Veerashaivism is a Hindu religious sect in India. The adherents of this faith are known as Lingayats or Veerashaivas. The term is derived from Lingavantha in Kannada.
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According to popular view, and one backed by historical and literary evidence, the Lingayat or Veerashaiva sect was founded by Basavanna in the 12th century. There is however, a school of thought that holds that the faith was founded by the Panchacharyas or the
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Basava (also known as Basaveshwara (Kannada:ಬಸವೇಶ್ವರ) or Basavanna(ಬಸವಣ್ಣ) 1134–1196) was a philosopher and a social reformer.
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Akka Mahadevi (ಅಕ್ಕ ಮಹಾದೇವಿ) Born to Nirmala and Sumati in Udatadi (or Udugani) near the ancient city of Banavasi (in Shikaripura taluk Shimoga district) in a Shiva temple was a prominent figure of the Veerashaiva
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Channabasavanna was Basavanna's nephew and one of the foremost Shivasharanas of the 12th century. He along with Basavanna, Allama Prabhu and Akka Mahadevi played a pivotal role in the propagation of the Veerashaiva faith.
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In Lingayat theosophy, the Ashtavaranas refer to the eight virtues that act as shields or coverings protecting the devotee from extraneous distractions and influences of Maya. Ashta means 'eight' and Avarana means 'covering'.
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Shatsthala The concept of Shatsthala or six Phases/States/Paths is pivotal to the Lingayat philosophy. Shatsthala is a conflation of Shat and Sthala
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Karana Hasuge by Channabasavanna is one of the most important works of the Veerashaiva faith. Channabasavanna was a contemporary of Basavanna, the founder of Veerashaiva faith.
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Mantra Gopya is a work by Veerashaiva saint and mystic Allama Prabhu. It forms an important part of Veerashaiva scriptures.
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Shunyasampadane are collected works of various Veerashaiva saints. It forms an important part of the holy works of Veerashaivism.

Written in the form of conversation, the Shoonya Sampadane is a collection of vachanas of the important vacanakaras of the 12th century.
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Vachana sahitya (Kannada:ವಚನ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ) is a form of writing in Kannada (also see, Kannada poetry), which evolved in the 12th Century C.E., as a part of the Veerashaiva 'movement'.
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Kashi may refer to:
  • Varanasi (Also known as Kāśi), a city in India
  • Kashi Company, U.S. manufacturer of natural foods such as breakfast cereal, crackers, and cereal bars

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Coordinates: Ujjain pronunciation   (Hindi:उज्जैन) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini,
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The name Kedar is a common hindu name which represents god shiva and the hindu priest who was very sacred. in hindu religion it is believed that if you pronounce the word KEDAR for hundred times than all yours sins are forgiven.

KedarNath is one of the name of Loard Shiva.
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Kudala Sangama in India is an important center of pilgrimage for people of the Lingayat faith. It is located about 15 km from the Almatti dam site in Bagalkot district of Karnataka state.
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Coordinates: Basavakalyan is a town in Bidar District of the state of Karnataka, India. Known historically as Kalyani, it was the regal capital the Western Chalukya dynasty from 1050 to 1195. Prior to this Manyakheta was their capital.
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Ingaleshwara is a town in Bijapur district of Karnataka state, India. It is a center of pilgrimage for people of the Lingayat faith as it happens to be the place where Basavanna's mother hailed from. Some, like Dr.
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Ulavi is a town about 75 km from Karwar (via Kumbarawada) in Karnataka state, India. It is an important center of pilgrimage for people of the Lingayat faith. The Samadhi of Channabasavanna, one of the most revered saints of the Lingayat faith lies here.
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Yedeyur is a town in Tumkur district of Karnataka state, India. It is an important center of pilgrimage for people of the Lingayat faith. The Samadhi or tomb of Siddalinga Shivayogi, a great Lingayat saint of the 15th century and also a temple dedicated to him is located here.
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Basavana Bagewadi in India is an important center of pilgrimage for people of the Lingayat faith. It is located in Bijapur district of Karnataka state. This is the birth place of Basavanna, the founder of the Lingayat and is therefore an important center of pilgrimage for Lingayats.
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Solapur (Marathi: सोलापूर))(Kannada: ಸೊಲ್ಲಾಪೂರ್
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Some of the information in this article or section may not be verified by . It should be checked for inaccuracies and modified to cite reliable sources.

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Lingam (also, Linga, Shiva linga Sanskrit लिङ्गं
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Anubhava Mantapa (Kannada: ಅನುಭವ ಮಂಟಪ) was an academy of mystics, saints and philosophers of the Veerashaiva faith in the 12th century.
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The Indian caste system describes the social stratification and social restrictions in the Indian Subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous, hereditary groups often termed as jātis or castes.
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Official status
Official language of:  India (Karnataka)
Regulated by: Various academies and the Government of Karnataka
Language codes
ISO 639-1: kn
ISO 639-2: kan
ISO 639-3: kan

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