Battle of Ningyuan

Battle of Ningyuan
Part of the Manchu conquest
Date1626
LocationXingcheng, Liaoning
ResultMing victory
Combatants
Later JinMing Dynasty
Commanders
NurhaciYuan Chonghuan
Strength
130,000- 200,0003000-10,000


The Battle of Ningyuan (寧遠之戰) was a battle between the Han Chinese Ming Dynasty and the Manchurian Later Jin in 1626. The Ming won this battle. This battle marks the temporary resurgence of the Imperial Ming army after a long series of defeats.

Before 1626, the Imperial Ming army has been very badly defeated by the Manchus. Part of the Imperial Ming army's new strategy of defense after defeat was to develop Ningyuan into a military stronghold. Yuan Chonghuan, with the support of Sun Chengzong (孫承宗), was seriously strengthening the defense of Ningyuan in anticipation of a Manchu attack.

After Sun Chengzong (孫承宗) was replaced by a new commander, the new commander was a coward and ordered all Ming Forces outside the Great Wall to retreat inside and abandon all land outside Shanhai Pass. Yuan Chonghuan objected stronglly and was thus left to command a lone army guarding Ningyuan (modern-day Xingcheng, Liaoning).

In 1626 Kundulun Khan Nurhaci, seeing all Ming forces leaving, decided to advance towards Ningyuan, personally leading a force of 130,000 (some say 200,000).

Yuan Chonghuan had only 10,000 men under his command. He burnt everything outside Ningyuan and wrote an essay of defiance against Jin in his own blood; he also sent orders to guards at the Great Wall to execute any deserters from Ningyuan, thus greatly boosting City's morale.

20 days later, the Jin army arrived and immediately attacked the City. However, after two days of intense fighting, the citizens and soldiers of Ningyuan inflicted heavy losses on the Jin forces and Nurhaci himself was wounded by cannon fire and decided to retreat.

While retreating, Yuan Chonghuan chased the other and inflicted even more losses on the Jin army. Nurhaci retreated back to Mukden and died from his wounds. His eighth son or the fourth Beilei (lord) Hung Taiji assumed the title of the Great Khan of the Later Jin Khanate. The Imperial Ming army adopted the same strategy of developing Jinzhou, which is further north of Ningyuan, into another military stronghold. Ningyuan became the headquarters of the Imperial Ming army with Yuan Chonghuan stationed there. Hung Taiji, like his father, was defeated in the Second Battle of Ningyuan about one year later. (Note added by a reader: The second Battle of Ningyuan was actually a very long and fierce battle involving both Ningyuan and Jinzhou. It was a great tactical and strategic defeat for the Manchus.) Then Hung Taiji plotted the death of Yuan Chonghuan. Please read the web page on Yuan Chonghuan for completeness.

On the whole, the Manchus did not manage to break the defense of the Ningyuan garrison even after the death of Yuan Chonghuan. However, in 1644, the Ming emperor ordered the Ningyuan garrison to give up Ningyuan and come to Beijing to fight a very strong rebel army. Before the Ningyuan garrison arrived, Beijing fell to the rebel army and the Ming emperor committed suicide. Subsequently, the Manchus defeated the rebel army and then after many more years of war conquered the whole China. The new Manchu empire was toppled by a revolution in 1911.
Manchu conquest. His troops forced their way into Fushun and obtained the surrender of the city's commander Li Yongfang (d. 1634).

In retaliation, a year later, a Ming punitive force of about 100,000 men, which included Korean and Yehe troops, approached Nurhaci's Manchus
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8th century - 9th century - 10th century
850s  860s  870s  - 880s -  890s  900s  910s
885 886 887 - 888 - 889 890 891

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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Xingcheng (兴城) is a Chinese city with more than 100,000 inhabitants, in the province of Liaoning.
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辽宁省
Liáoníng Shěng

Abbreviations: ?  (Pinyin: Liáo)

Origin of name 辽 liáo - Liaoyang
宁 níng - Ningyuan (now Xingcheng)

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Jin Dynasty may refer to a number of ruling families in China, or the periods of their rule:
  • Jin Dynasty (265-420) (Simplified Chinese: 晋朝; Traditional Chinese:

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History of China
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2070–1600 BCE
Shang Dynasty 1600–1046 BCE
Zhou Dynasty
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Nurhaci (Chinese: 努爾哈赤 [Nǔ'ěrhāchì] or 努爾哈齊 [Nǔ'ěrhāqí]; Manchu: ) is considered to be the founding father of the Manchu state in China.
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Yuan Chonghuan (袁崇煥; style name: Yuansu 元素 and Ziru 自如; June 6, 1584 – September 22, 1630) was a famed patriot and military commander of the Ming Dynasty who battled the Manchus in Liaoning.
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Majority populations
 People's Republic of China [https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ch.html#People]
-  Hong Kong [https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/hk.html#People]
-  Macau [https://www.cia.
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History of China
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2070–1600 BCE
Shang Dynasty 1600–1046 BCE
Zhou Dynasty
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Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: 满族; Traditional Chinese: 滿族; Pinyin: Mǎnzú
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Jin Dynasty may refer to a number of ruling families in China, or the periods of their rule:
  • Jin Dynasty (265-420) (Simplified Chinese: 晋朝; Traditional Chinese:

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8th century - 9th century - 10th century
850s  860s  870s  - 880s -  890s  900s  910s
885 886 887 - 888 - 889 890 891

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
..... Click the link for more information.
Yuan Chonghuan (袁崇煥; style name: Yuansu 元素 and Ziru 自如; June 6, 1584 – September 22, 1630) was a famed patriot and military commander of the Ming Dynasty who battled the Manchus in Liaoning.
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State Party China
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii, iv, vi
Reference 438
Region Asia-Pacific

Inscription History
Inscription 1987  (11th Session)
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Shanhaiguan or Shanhai Pass (Simplified Chinese: 山海关; Traditional Chinese: 山海關; Pinyin:
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Yuan Chonghuan (袁崇煥; style name: Yuansu 元素 and Ziru 自如; June 6, 1584 – September 22, 1630) was a famed patriot and military commander of the Ming Dynasty who battled the Manchus in Liaoning.
..... Click the link for more information.
Xingcheng (兴城) is a Chinese city with more than 100,000 inhabitants, in the province of Liaoning.
..... Click the link for more information.
辽宁省
Liáoníng Shěng

Abbreviations: ?  (Pinyin: Liáo)

Origin of name 辽 liáo - Liaoyang
宁 níng - Ningyuan (now Xingcheng)

..... Click the link for more information.
Nurhaci (Chinese: 努爾哈赤 [Nǔ'ěrhāchì] or 努爾哈齊 [Nǔ'ěrhāqí]; Manchu: ) is considered to be the founding father of the Manchu state in China.
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cannon is any large tubular firearm designed to fire a heavy projectile over a long distance. They were first used in China, and were the archetypal form of artillery. The first cannon in Europe probably appeared in Islamic and Christian Spain.
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Shenyang (沈阳, in Chinese), or Mukden (in Manchu), is the capital city of Liaoning province in Northeast China. It is a sub-provincial city with a population of 7.2 million within its administrative area of 12,924 km².
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Huang Taiji (1592 – September 21 1643; reigned 1626 – 1643), also transliterated as Hung Taiji based on the Manchu language, was the first Emperor of the Qing Dynasty in China.
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Khanate or Chanat is a Turkish origined word used to describe a political entity ruled by a Khan. In Modern Turkish the word used is hanlık. This political entity is typical for people from the Euroasian Steppe and it can be equivalent to tribal chiefdom,
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For the city in Hebei province, see Jinzhou, Hebei.


Jinzhou (Simplified Chinese: 锦州; Traditional Chinese: 錦州
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Yuan Chonghuan (袁崇煥; style name: Yuansu 元素 and Ziru 自如; June 6, 1584 – September 22, 1630) was a famed patriot and military commander of the Ming Dynasty who battled the Manchus in Liaoning.
..... Click the link for more information.
Huang Taiji (1592 – September 21 1643; reigned 1626 – 1643), also transliterated as Hung Taiji based on the Manchu language, was the first Emperor of the Qing Dynasty in China.
..... Click the link for more information.
For the city in Hebei province, see Jinzhou, Hebei.


Jinzhou (Simplified Chinese: 锦州; Traditional Chinese: 錦州
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Huang Taiji (1592 – September 21 1643; reigned 1626 – 1643), also transliterated as Hung Taiji based on the Manchu language, was the first Emperor of the Qing Dynasty in China.
..... Click the link for more information.
Yuan Chonghuan (袁崇煥; style name: Yuansu 元素 and Ziru 自如; June 6, 1584 – September 22, 1630) was a famed patriot and military commander of the Ming Dynasty who battled the Manchus in Liaoning.
..... Click the link for more information.


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