Battle of Red Cliffs



Battle of Red Cliffs
Part of the wars of the Three Kingdoms
Enlarge picture
Engravings on a cliffside near Chibi City 

Engravings on a cliff-side mark one widely-accepted site of Chìbì, near modern Chibi City, Hubei. The engravings are at least a thousand years old.
DateWinter, 208
LocationDebated. Referred to as Chibi (Red Cliffs), on the southern bank of the Yangtze River
ResultDecisive Sun Quan and Liu Bei victory
Combatants
Sun Quan, Liu BeiCao Cao
Commanders
Zhou Yu, Cheng Pu,
Liu Bei
Cao Cao
Strength
50,000220,000 - 240,000
Casualties
unknownunknown, though described as significant


The Battle of Red Cliffs, otherwise known as the Battle of Chibi, (Traditional Chinese: 赤壁之戰; Pinyin: chìbì zhī zhàn) was a decisive battle immediately prior to the period of the Three Kingdoms in China in the winter of 208 CE between the allied forces of the southern warlords Liu Bei and Sun Quan, and the numerically superior forces of the northern warlord Cao Cao. Liu and Sun successfully frustrated Cao's effort to conquer the land south of the Yangtze River and reunite the former territory of the fallen Han Empire. The allied victory at Red Cliffs ensured the survival of Liu Bei and Sun Quan, gave them control of the Yangtze (de Crespigny 2004:chìbì zhī zhàn), and provided a line of defence that was the basis for the later creation of the two southern kingdoms of Shu () and Wu (). For these reasons, it is considered a decisive battle in Chinese history.

Descriptions of the battle differ widely on details; in fact, even the location of battle is still fiercely debated (de Crespigny 2004:273). Although its precise location remains uncertain, the majority of academic conjectures place it on the south bank of the Yangtze river at some location southwest of present-day Wuhan and northeast of Baqiu (modern Yueyang city in Hunan province). The most detailed account of the battle comes from the biography of Zhou Yu in the 3rd century historical text Sanguo Zhi (Records of Three Kingdoms). An exaggerated and romanticised account is also a central event in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms, one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature.

Background

In the 3rd century CE, the Han Dynasty, which had ruled China for four centuries (albeit with a sixteen year interruption) had crumbled. The Emperor Xian was by that time a figurehead, with no control over the actions of the various warlords controlling their respective territories. The most powerful ruler in northern China was the warlord Cao Cao, who was proclaimed as Imperial Chancellor of Han, a position which gave him unquestioned power over the entire imperial government (de Crespigny 1969:256 78n). By the year 200, Cao Cao had unified northern China and retained absolute control over the North China Plain. He completed a successful campaign against the Wuhuan in the winter of 207, thus securing his northern frontier. Shortly afterward, his army began a Southern Campaign in the autumn of 208.

The Yangtze river in the area of Jing province (roughly modern Hubei and Hunan provinces) was key to the success of this strategy. If Cao Cao were to have any hope of reuniting the sundered Han empire, he had to achieve naval control of the middle Yangtze and the strategic naval base at Jiangling as a means of access to the southern region (de Crespigny 2003:253, 465 6n). Two warlords controlled the area of the Yangtze that was a key objective for Cao Cao: Liu Biao, Governor of Jing province, controlled the river west of the mouth of the Han, roughly in the area of the city of Xiakou and all territory south of that region. Sun Quan controlled the river east of the Han and southeastern territories abutting it (de Crespigny 2007:253, 465 6n). A third combatant, Liu Bei, was living in refuge with Liu Biao at the garrison in Fan (modern Xiangfan), having fled the northeast to the Jing province, following a failed plot to assassinate Cao Cao and restore power to the imperial dynasty (de Crespigny 2007:480; de Crespigny 1969:480).



The initial stages of the campaign were an unqualified success for Cao Cao, as the command of the Jing province had been substantially weakened. The Jing armies had been significantly weakened by conflict with Sun Quan to the south (de Crespigny 2007:486). Factions had arisen in supporting one or the other of Liu Biao's two sons in a struggle for succession. The younger son prevailed, and Liu Biao's dispossessed eldest son, Liu Qi departed to assume a commandery in Jiangxia (de Crespigny 2004:486). Only a few weeks later, Liu Biao died while Cao Cao was approaching from the north. In these circumstances Liu Biao's younger son and successor Liu Cong quickly surrendered. Cao Cao thus captured a sizable fleet and secured the naval base at Jiangling. This gifted him with a key strategic military depot, and a base to harbour his massive fleet of ships.

When Jing fell, Liu Bei quickly fled south, accompanied by a refugee population of civilians and soldiers. This disorganised band was pursued by Cao Cao's elite cavalry, and was surrounded and decisively beaten at the Battle of Changban (near the modern-day city of Dangyang in Hubei). Liu fled further east to Xiakou, where he liaised with Sun Quan's emissary Lu Su. At this point historical accounts are inconsistent; Lu Su may have successfully encouraged Liu Bei to move even further east, to Fankou (樊口).[1] In either case, Liu Bei was later joined by Liu Qi and levies from Jiangxia (de Crespigny 2004:255). Liu's main advisor, Zhuge Liang, was sent to Chaisang (柴桑) to negotiate a mutual front against Cao Cao with the state of Wu (de Crespigny 1969:255).

By the time Liu Bei arrived, Cao Cao had already sent Sun Quan a letter boasting of holding command of 800,000 men and demanding Sun Quan surrender his forces. The faction led by the Chief Clerk Zhang Zhao advocated surrender, citing Cao Cao's overwhelming numerical advantage. However, on separate occasions, Lu Su, Zhuge Liang and Wu's chief commander, Zhou Yu, all presented arguments to persuade Sun Quan to agree with the alliance against the northerners. Sun Quan finally decided on war and chopped a corner of his desk during an assembly, saying: "Anyone who still dares argue for surrender will be the same as this desk." He then assigned Zhou Yu, Cheng Pu, and Lu Su with 30,000 men to aid Liu Bei against Cao Cao (de Crespigny 1996:263).

Although Cao Cao boasted a troop strength of 800,000 men, Zhou Yu estimated Cao Cao's full troop strength to be closer to 220,000 — however, this total included 70,000 troops from the armies of the recently defeated Liu Biao, and so the loyalty and morale of a large number of Cao Cao's force was uncertain (Eikenberry 1994:263). With the 20,000 soldiers that Liu Bei gathered, the alliance consisted of approximately 50,000 marines trained and prepared for battle.

Battle

The Battle of Red Cliffs unfolded in three stages: an initial skirmish at Red Cliffs followed by a retreat to the Wulin battlefields on the northwestern bank of the Yangtze, a decisive naval engagement, and Cao Cao's disastrous retreat through Huarong.

The combined Sun-Liu force sailed upstream from either Xiakou or Fankou to Red Cliffs, where they encountered Cao Cao's vanguard force. Plagued by disease and low morale due to the series of forced marches they had undertaken on the prolonged Southern Campaign (de Crespigny 2003:253, 465 6n), Cao Cao's men could not gain an advantage after the mild skirmish which ensued, so Cao Cao retreated to Wulin (north of the Yangtze River) and the allies pulled back to the south.

Cao Cao had moored his ships from stem to stern, possibly to reduce seasickness in his navy, which comprised mostly northerners who were not used to living on ships. Observing this, divisional commander Huang Gai sent Cao Cao a letter feigning surrender and prepared a squadron[2] of capital ships described as mengchong doujian (蒙衝鬥艦).[3] The ships had been converted into fire ships by filling them with bundles of kindling, dry reeds, and fatty oil. As Huang Gai's "defecting" squadron sailed midriver, the sailors applied flame to the ships and took to small boats. The unmanned fire ships, carried by the southeastern wind, sped towards Cao Cao's fleet and set it aflame. In a short time smoke and flames stretched across the sky, and a large number of men and horses were either burned or drowned to death (Chen c. 280:268).

Following the initial shock, Zhou Yu and the allies led a lightly armed force to follow up the assault. The northern army was thrown into confusion and was utterly smashed. Seeing the situation was hopeless, Cao Cao then issued a general order of retreat, and destroyed a number of the remaining ships before withdrawing (Chen c. 280:54.1262-63).

When Cao Cao's retreating army reached Huarong road, heavy rains had reduced the track to a thick mire, making the road so impassable that many of the sick soldiers had to fill the road with grass on their backs to allow the horsemen to cross. Many of these soldiers drowned in the mud or were trampled to death in the effort. To the misery of Cao Cao's army, the allies led by Zhou Yu and Liu Bei gave chase over land and water until they reached Nan Commandery (南郡). This, adding to famine and disease, decimated much of Cao Cao's remaining forces. Cao Cao then retreated north to his home base of Ye, leaving Cao Ren and Xu Huang to guard Jiangling, Yue Jin in Xiangyang, and Man Chong in Dangyang (Chen c. 280:54.1262-63).

The allied counterattack might have vanquished Cao Cao and his forces entirely. However, the crossing of the Yangtze River erupted into chaos as the armies converged on the riverbank and fought over the limited number of ferries. To restore order, a detachment led by Gan Ning established a bridgehead in Yiling to the north, and only a staunch rearguard action by Cao Ren prevented further catastrophe (Eikenberry 1994:54.1262-63; de Crespigny 2007:60).

Analysis

A combination of Cao Cao's strategic errors and the effectiveness of Huang Gai's ruse had resulted in the allied victory at the Battle of Red Cliffs. Zhuge Liang had previously observed that Cao Cao's generals and soldiers comprised mostly cavalry and infantry, and few had any experience in naval warfare. Cao also held little support among the people of Jing province, and so lacked a secure forward base of operations (Eikenberry 1994:263). Despite the strategic acumen Cao Cao had displayed in earlier campaigns and battles, in this case he had simply assumed that numerical superiority would eventually defeat the Sun and Liu navy (the ratio of the naval forces are estimated as 220,000 for Cao Cao, opposed by 50,000 for the Sun/Liu alliance). He converted his massive army of infantry and cavalry into a marine corps and navy, which was his first tactical mistake. With only a few days of drills before the battle, Cao Cao's troops were already ravaged by sea-sickness and lack of experience on water, and many of his "fresh" crew could not even swim. Tropical diseases, to which southerners had long been immune, also plagued the soldiers of the north, and the debilitating effects of sickness were rampant in Cao Cao's camps. Although numerous, Cao Cao's men were already worn down and exhausted by the unfamiliar environment and the extended southern campaign - as Zhuge Liang observed: "even a powerful arrow at the end of its flight cannot penetrate a silk cloth" (Military Documents 1979:193).

The uncharacteristically poor preparation and key miscalculations that plagued Cao Cao may partly have been due to the recent death of his strategist and advisor Guo Jia. Cao Cao himself had commented: "Had Guo Jia been with us, I would never have got into such trouble" (Chen c. 280:239). Another key advisor, Jia Xu, had recommended after the surrender of Liu Cong that the overtaxed armies be given time to rest and replenish before engaging the armies of Sun Quan and Liu Bei, but Cao Cao disregarded the advice (Eikenberry 1994:60). Cao Cao's own thoughts regarding his failure at Red Cliffs suggest that he held his own actions and misfortunes responsible for the defeat, rather than the strategies utilised by his enemy during the battle: "...it was only because of the sickness that I burnt my ships and retreated. It is out of all reason for Zhou Yu to take the credit for himself." (Chen c. 280:60)

Aftermath

By the end of 209, the command Cao Cao had established at Jiangling fell to Zhou Yu. The borders of the land under Cao Cao's control contracted about 160 kilometres, to the area around Xiangyang (de Crespigny 2004:54:1265). Liu Bei, on the other hand, had gained territory by taking over the four commanderies south of the Yangtze River. Sun Quan's troops had suffered far greater casualties than Liu Bei's in the extended conflict against Cao Ren following the Battle of Red Cliffs (de Crespigny 2004:291), and the effect of the death of Zhou Yu in 210 C.E. drastically weakened Sun Quan's strength in the Jing province (de Crespigny 2004:291–292). Liu Bei also occupied the Jing province that Cao Cao had recently lost — a strategic and naturally fortified area on the Yangtze River that Wu claimed for itself. The control of Jing provided Liu Bei with virtually unlimited access to the passage into Shu, important waterways into Wu, as well as dominion of the southern Yangtze River.

Never again would Cao Cao command so large a fleet as he had at Jiangling, nor would a similar opportunity to destroy his southern rivals again present itself (de Crespigny 2007:37). The Battle of Red Cliffs and the capture of Jing province by Liu Bei confirmed the separation of Southern China from the northern heartland of the Yellow River valley, and also foreshadowed a north-south axis of hostility which would resonate for centuries (de Crespigny 2004:37).

Location of Red Cliffs

The precise location of the Red Cliffs battlefield has long been the subject of both popular and academic debates, but has never been conclusively established.[4] Scholarly debates have been going on for at least 1,350 years (Zhang 2006:260), and a number of arguments in favour of alternative sites have been brought forward. There are clear grounds for rejecting at least some of these proposals, but four alternative locations are still advocated. According to Zhang (2006:215), many of the current debates stem from the fact that the course and length of the the Yangtze river between Wuli and Wuhan has changed since the Sui and Tang dynasties (Zhang 2006:215). The modern-day debate is also complicated by the fact that the names of some of the key locations have changed over the following centuries. For example, although modern Huarong city is located in Hunan south of the Yangtze, in the third century the city of that name was due east of Jiangling, considerably north of the Yangtze (Zhang 2006:225; de Crespigny 2004:229. Moreover, one candidate site, Puqi (蒲圻), was renamed "Chibi City" (赤壁市) in 1998 as a direct attempt to tie this location to the historical battlefield.[5]

Historical records state that Cao Cao's forces retreated north across the Yangtze after the initial engagement at Red Cliffs, unequivocally placing the battle site on the south bank of the Yangtze. For this reason a number of sites on the north bank have been discounted by historians and geographers as being infeasible candidates. Historical accounts also establish east and west boundaries for a stretch of the Yangtze which encompasses all possible sites for the battlefield. The allied forces travelled upstream from either Fankou or Xiakou. Since the Yangtze flows roughly eastward towards the ocean (with northeast and southeast meanders), Red Cliffs must at least be west of Fankou, which is farther downstream. The westernmost boundary is also clear, since Cao Cao's eastern advance from Jiangling included passing Baqiu (modern Yueyang city in Hunan province) on the shore of Dongting Lake. The battle must also have been downstream (northeast) of that location (de Crespigny 2004:256 78n}; Zhang 2006:256–257).

One popularly theorised candidate for the battle site is Chibi Hill in Huangzhou, sometimes referred to as "Su Dongpo's Red Cliffs" or the "Literary Red Cliffs" (文赤壁). Support for this conjecture arises largely due to the famous eleventh-century poem "First Rhapsody on the Red Cliffs," which equates the Huangzhou hill with the battlefield location. The pinyin Romanization of this cliff's name is "Chibi," the same as the pinyin for Red Cliffs. However the Chinese characters are completely different (赤鼻) as is their meaning ("Red Nose Hill"). This site is also on the north bank of the Yangtze, and is directly across from Fankou rather than upstream from it (Zhang 2006:260). Moreover, if the allied Sun/Liu forces left from Xiakou rather than Fankou, as the oldest historical sources suggest,[1] then the hill in Huangzhou would have been downstream from the point of departure, a possibility which cannot be reconciled with historical sources.

Puqi, now named Chibi City, is perhaps the most widely accepted candidate. To differentiate from Su Dongpo's Red Cliffs, the site is also referred to as the "Military Red Cliffs" (武赤壁). It is directly across the Yangtze from Wulin. This argument was first proposed in the early Tang Dynasty (Zhang 2006:217). There are also characters engraved in the cliffs (see image atop this page) suggesting that this is the site of the battle. The origin of the engraving can be dated to between the Tang and Song dynasties, making it at least one thousand years old (Zhang 2006:217).

Some sources mention the south banks of the Yangtze in Jiayu County (嘉鱼县) in the prefecture-level city of Xianning in Hubei province as a possible location. This would place the battlefield downstream from Puqi (Chibi City), a view that is supported by scholars of Chinese history such as Rafe de Crespigny, Wang Li and Zhu Dongrun, following the Qing Dynasty historical document Shui Jing Zhu (de Crespigny 2004:219;228).

Another candidate is Wuhan, which straddles the Yangtze at the confluence of the Yangtze and Han rivers. It is east of both Wulin (and Chibi City across the river) and Jiayu. This metropolis was incorporated by joining three cities. There is a local belief in Wuhan that the battle was fought at the junction of the rivers, southwest of the former Wuchang city, which is now part of Wuhan (de Crespigny 2004:256). Zhang (2006:256 n 78) asserts that the Chibi battlefield was one of a set of hills in Wuchang that were razed to the ground in the 1930s for stone exploitation.[6] Citing several historical-geographic studies, Zhang (2006:215) shows that earlier accounts place the battlefield in Wuchang. Sheng Honzhi's fifth-century Jingzhou ji in particular places the Chibi battlefield a distance of 160 li (approximately 80 kilometres) downstream from Wulin, but since the Paizhou and Luxikou meanders increased the length of the Yangtze River between Wuli and Wuchang by 100 li (approximately 50 kilometres; see map) some time in the Sui and Tang dynasties (Zhang 2006:215), later works do not regard Wuchang as a possible site.

Fictionalised account

The romantic tradition that originated with the Romance of the Three Kingdoms differs in many details from historical accounts. For example, Cao Cao's army strength was exaggerated to over 800,000 men. This may be attributed to the ethos of later times, particularly of the Southern Song Dynasty (de Crespigny 2007:90; 92–93). In particular, the Shu kingdom was viewed by later literati as the "legitimate" successors to the Han empire, so fictionalised accounts assign greater prominence to the roles of Liu Bei, Zhuge Liang and other heroes from Shu than historical records warrant. This is generally accomplished by minimising the importance of Wu commanders and advisors such as Zhou Yu and Lu Su (de Crespigny 2004:xi). While historical accounts describe Lu Su as a sensible advisor and Zhou Yu as an eminent military leader and "generous, sensible and courageous" man, the novel depicts Lu Su as unremarkable and Zhou Yu as cruel and cynical (de Crespigny 2004:xi). Both are depicted as being inferior to Zhuge Liang in every respect.

Wholly fictional incidents were added to the historical accounts and repeated in popular plays and operas. Examples from the Romance of the Three Kingdoms include Zhuge Liang using magic to call forth favourable winds for the fire ship attack, his strategy of using straw boats to borrow arrows, and Guan Yu capturing and releasing Cao Cao at Huarong road. The fictionalised account also names Zhuge Liang as a military commander in the combined forces, which is not historically accurate.

Modern and cultural impact

Modern day Chibi City in Hubei province was formerly named "Puqi." In 1998 the Chinese State Council approved the renaming of the city in celebration of the battle at Red Cliffs. Cultural festivals held by the city have strongly increased tourism and boosted business and investment in the region. (Xinhua 1997). In 1983, a statue of prominent Song Dynasty poet, Su Shi, was erected at the Huangzhou site of 'Su Dongpo's Red Cliffs' in tribute to his writings regarding Red Cliff.

Popular video games based around the Three Kingdoms era (such as the Dynasty Warriors series, Sangokushi Koumeiden, Destiny of an Emperor and Kessen II) have scenarios that include the battle. Other games take the Battle of Red Cliffs as their central focus. These include titles popular in Asia, such as the original Japanese version of Warriors of Fate and . Many Asian-developed video games are now imported into foreign markets.

A 2008 film, directed by John Woo and entitled Red Cliff, will serve to showcase the Red Cliff legacy to foreign audiences in the lead up to the 2008 Summer Olympics being hosted by China.

Notes

1. ^ Chen Shou's Records of the Three Kingdoms repeatedly asserts that Liu Bei was at Xiakou. Other historical accounts support this version as well. Annotations to the text of the Records of the Three Kingdoms made nearly two centuries later by Pei Songzhi support the Fankou version, thus Xiakou appears in the main text and Fankou in the annotations. This discrepancy is later reflected in contradictory passages in the Zizhi Tongjian by Sima Guang (and its English translation, de Crespigny (2004:241)), which has Liu Bei "quartered at Fankou" at the same time as Zhou Yu is requesting to send troops to Xiakou, and Liu Bei "waits anxiously" in Xiakou for the reinforcements. For a detailed discussion, see Zhang (2006:248).
2. ^ The number of vessels in the squadron is unclear. As de Crespigny observes, "Firstly, Sanguo Zhi states that the number of vessels in Huang Gai's squadron was 'several tens,' but the parallel passage in Zizhi tongjian... allocates Huang Gai only ten ships" (de Crespigny 2004:60).
3. ^ The exact nature of these vessels is unclear. Zhang (2006:265) refers to them as "leather-covered assault warships," but the reference is parenthetical, as this issue is peripheral to the topic of Zhang's paper. In a lengthier discussion, de Crespigny (2004:218) separates the two terms, describing mengchong as "...covered with some form of protective material... used to break the enemy line of battle and perhaps to damage their ships and men with a ram or by projectiles" and doujian as "...fighting platforms for spearmen and archers to engage in close combat..." (de Crespigny 2004:266–268). He concludes that mengchong doujian is a "general description for vessels of war" (de Crespigny 2004:60).
4. ^ This discussion is largely drawn from (Zhang 2006:260).
5. ^ See http://www.chibi.com.cn
6. ^ C.P. Fitzgerald described the location in 1926: "But there was the... two rivers, the Han and the... Yangtze, across them, respectively, Hanyang and Wuchang... The confluence of the Han... and the Yangtze... made Wuhan... a key strategic centre. Hanyang is backed by a long low hill, called Tortoise Mountain, which faces the hill on the eastern slope of which Wuchang is built. The two hills narrow the Yangtze at this point by perhaps as much as a third of its width above and below them. The passage is dominated by a high bluff, called Chi Bi, "The Red Cliff," the scene of a famous naval battle in the fourth [sic] century. It is at this point that the great bridge, carrying railway and road, has been constructed in the fledgling years of the Peoples' Republic of China (Fitzgerald 1985:215;223).

References

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Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
Coordinates:
The Three Kingdoms era (Traditional Chinese: 三國; Simplified Chinese: 三国; Pinyin: Sānguo
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Chibi City (赤壁市) is a Chinese city of about 133,000 in Hubei province. The city was originally named Puqi (蒲圻) until 11 June 1998, when the State Council approved the renaming to "Chibi" to tie the city to the famous historical Battle of
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湖北省
Húběi Shěng

Abbreviations: ?  (Pinyin: È)

Origin of name 湖 hú - lake
北 běi - north
"north of Lake Dongting"
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3rd century - 4th century
170s  180s  190s  - 200s -  210s  220s  230s
205 206 207 - 208 - 209 210 211
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Basin countries China
Length 6,300 km (3,915 mi)[1]
Source elevation 5,042 m (16,542 ft)

Avg. discharge 31,900 m³/s (1,127,000 ft³/s)
Basin area 1,800,000 km² (695,000 mi²) The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang
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Sun Quan (Traditional Chinese: 孫權; Simplified Chinese: 孙权
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Liú Bèi (Chinese: 劉備; Pinyin: Liú Bèi) (161 – 223 AD), Chinese style name Xuándé
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Cáo Cāo (155 – March 15, 220[1], pronounced Ts'au Ts'au) was a regional warlord and the penultimate Chancellor of the Eastern Han Dynasty who rose to great power during its final years in ancient China.
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Zhou Yu (175 - 210) was a famous military strategist for Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms era of China.

Life

Early life

Zhou Yu was born in Lujiang District.
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Cheng Pu was a veteran warrior who served the Sun family for three generations in the Kingdoms of Wu during the Three Kingdoms era of China. He was skilled in wielding his serpent spear as a weapon.
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The Three Kingdoms era (Traditional Chinese: 三國; Simplified Chinese: 三国; Pinyin: Sānguo
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Yellow Turban Rebellion, sometimes also translated as the Yellow Scarves Rebellion, (Traditional Chinese: 黃巾之亂; Simplified Chinese:
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Campaign against Dong Zhuo (董卓討伐戰) in 190 was initiated by a coalition of regional officials hoping to end Chancellor Dong Zhuo's influence in the ailing Han court in China.
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Battle of Jieqiao or Battle of Jie Bridge (Chinese: 界橋之戰, pinyin: Jièqiáo zhi zhàn) was a military engagement fought between Yuan Shao and Gongsun Zan in 191, at the beginning of the civil wars in China leading up to the fall of the Han Dynasty.
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Part of the wars of the Three Kingdoms

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Part of the wars of the Three Kingdoms

Date 198
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Background

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Part of the wars of the Three Kingdoms

Date 214 A.D.
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Part of the wars of the Three Kingdoms

Date 217 A.D.
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Part of the wars of the Three Kingdoms
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Battle of Xiaoting (猇亭之戰), also known as the Battle of Yiling (夷陵之戰), is a battle in 222 during the Three Kingdoms period in China. It was fought between the Kingdom of Shu and the Kingdom of Wu in the plains of Yiling.
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