Battle of Tirad Pass

Battle of Tirad Pass
Part of the Philippine-American War
DateDecember 2, 1899
LocationPhilippines
ResultSuccessful Filipino delaying action; ultimately American victory.
Combatants
United StatesPhilippines
Commanders
Major P.C. MarchGeneral Gregorio del Pilar?
Strength
50060
Casualties
2 dead and 9 wounded52 dead and wounded
The Battle of Tirad Pass, sometimes referred to as the "Philippine Thermopylae", was a battle in the Philippine-American War fought on December 2, 1899, in northern Luzon in the Philippines, in which a 60-man Filipino rearguard commanded by Brigadier General Gregorio del Pilar succumbed to 500 Americans of the 33rd Infantry regiment under Major P.C. March, while delaying the American advance to ensure Emilio Aguinaldo's escape.

Background

The retreat of Aguinaldo through the mountainous terrain of which the pass provided a strategic bottleneck was protected by a rear guard under Gen. Gregorio del Pilar who had advance knowledge of the terrain of Tirad Pass (Pasong Tirad), and hunkered down to defend it while Aguinaldo made good his escape through the mountains. The hand-picked force of Filipinos constructed several sets of trenches and stone barricades, all of which dominated the narrow trail that zigzagged up towards the pass.

Battle

At about 0630 on December 2, the Americans advanced up the trail and were met with a steady volley of fire, leading to several U.S. casualties. The Americans abandoned the idea of a frontal assault, instead sending elements of their force to outflank the determined defenders. Texan sharpshooters stationed themselves on a hill overlooking the trenches and proceeded to whittle down the Philippine rearguard with measured volleys, who held their ground, utilizing focused volley fire that repelled other advances by the Americans.

With the help of local villager Januario Galut, another group of Americans were led up a trail by which they could emerge to the rear of the Filipinos.

Finally, over five hours after the battle had started, Americans fell upon the flank and rear of the outnumbered defenders, killing or wounding some 52 of the 60 Filipinos. Among the dead was General del Pilar, shot through the neck at the height or end of the struggle (depending which eye-witness accounts are to be believed). The Americans lost 2 dead and 9 wounded, most of which coming from the repelled frontal assault. Despite nearly total annihilation, however, the Filipinos held off the Americans long enough for Aguinaldo to escape.

Aftermath

A diary belonging to Gen. del Pilar, who was known as the "boy general of the Filipinos," was recovered, among the possessions appropriated by the victorious Americans, who had stripped him bare of his military decorations, his uniform and his personal belongings, leaving him, as the eyewitness, the correspondent Richard Henry Little wrote, "only his glory." Its poignant final entry, written on the night of December 1, read:

The General has given me the pick of all the men that can be spared and ordered me to defend the Pass. I realize what a terrible task has been given me. And yet I feel that this is the most glorious moment of my life. What I do is done for my beloved country. No sacrifice can be too great.


The body of Gen. del Pilar lay unburied for days. Lt. Dennis Quinlan later buried his body and left a plaque, "Gen. Gregorio del Pilar, Died December 2, 1899, Commanding Aguinaldo's Rear Guard, An Officer and a Gentleman."

In honor of Gen. Del Pilar's heroism, the Philippine Military Academy was named Fort Del Pilar and a historical marker placed at the site of the battle.

The Battle of Tirad Pass and the death of General Del Pilar was also commemorated during World War II when the Japanese-backed government of President Jose P. Laurel sought to kindle anti-American sentiment by reviving memories of the Philippine War of Independence with the creation of the Tirad Pass Medal. The design of the obverse (front) of the medal included a bust of General Del Pilar and a view of Tirad Pass. The design of the reverse (back) includes the date 1944. The Tirad Pass Medal was the only military medal or decoration issued by the Laurel government during the Japanese occupation. [See: Basso, Aldo P., Coins, Medals and Tokens of the Philippines 1728-1974, 2nd edition, Bookman Printing House, Quezon City, the Philippines, 1975]
Philippine-American War[7] was an armed military conflict between the United States of America and the First Philippine Republic, fought between 1899 to at least 1902, which occurred from a Filipino political struggle against U.S. occupation of the Philippines.
..... Click the link for more information.
December 2 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events

  • 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens.

..... Click the link for more information.
18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1860s  1870s  1880s  - 1890s -  1900s  1910s  1920s
1896 1897 1898 - 1899 - 1900 1901 1902

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
..... Click the link for more information.
Editing of this page by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled due to vandalism.
If you are prevented from editing this page, and you wish to make a change, please discuss changes on the talk page, request unprotection, log in, or .
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
"In God We Trust"   (since 1956)
"E Pluribus Unum"   ("From Many, One"; Latin, traditional)
Anthem
..... Click the link for more information.
Editing of this page by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled due to vandalism.
If you are prevented from editing this page, and you wish to make a change, please discuss changes on the talk page, request unprotection, log in, or .
..... Click the link for more information.
Gregorio del Pilar (November 14, 1875—December 2, 1899) was the youngest and the most picturesque general in the Philippine Revolutionary Forces during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine-American War. He was called the "boy general" because of his youth.
..... Click the link for more information.
Philippine-American War[7] was an armed military conflict between the United States of America and the First Philippine Republic, fought between 1899 to at least 1902, which occurred from a Filipino political struggle against U.S. occupation of the Philippines.
..... Click the link for more information.
Battle of Manila was fought on February 4 and February 5 1899, during the Philippine-American War, between 12,000 Americans and 15,000 Filipinos. It was the first and largest battle fought during the war.
..... Click the link for more information.
Battle of Santa Cruz was a battle fought in the early stages of the Philippine-American War during General Henry W. Lawton's .

Background

After defeating the Filipino nationalists at the second battle of Manila, General Elwell S.
..... Click the link for more information.
Battle of Pagsanjan was a small skirmish between the 1st Battalion of Sharpshooters, under the command of Brigadier General Charles King, and Philippine Nationalists during the Laguna Campaign of the Philippine-American War.
..... Click the link for more information.
Battle of Paete was a small battle fought between American forces, commanded by General Henry W. Lawton, and Philippine Nationalists on April 12, 1899, during the Philippine-American War.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Battle of Quingua was fought on April 23, 1899, in Quingua (now Plaridel) Bulacan, Philippines, during the Philippine-American War. It was a two-part battle. The first phase was a brief victory for the young Filipino general Gregorio del Pilar over the American Cavalry led by
..... Click the link for more information.
Battle of Zapote Bridge, also known as the Battle of Zapote River, was fought on June 13, 1899 between 3,000 American soldiers and 5,000 Filipinos. It was the largest battle of the Philippine-American War.
..... Click the link for more information.
Battle of San Jacinto was a battle during the Philippine-American War fought on November 11, 1899, in San Jacinto, Pangasinan, Philippines, between the Filipinos and the United States.

Background

During the fall of 1899, General Elwell S.
..... Click the link for more information.
cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by citing reliable sources.
* It is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. may be able to help recruit one.
* It may need to be to meet Wikipedia's quality standards.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Battle of Catubig

Siege of Catubig
Part of Philippine American War

Date April 15,-April 19, 1900
Location Catubig, Philippines

Result Filipino Victory

Commanders
unknown unknown
Strength
300+ 36
Casualties
~150 killed 21-31 killed,
..... Click the link for more information.
The Battle of Pulang Lupa was an engagement fought on September 13, 1900, during the Philippine-American War between the forces of Colonel Maximo Abad and Devereux Shields, in which Abad's men annihilated the American force.
..... Click the link for more information.
"Balangiga massacre" was an incident in 1901 during the Philippine-American War where many American soldiers were killed in a surprise guerilla attack in the town of Balangiga on Samar island.
..... Click the link for more information.
Battle of Mabitac was an engagement in the Philippine-American War, when on September 17, 1900, Filipinos under General Juan Cailles defeated an American force commanded by Colonel Benjamin F. Cheatham, Jr.
..... Click the link for more information.
The term Moro Rebellion refers to United States military operations in Moroland, Philippines, from the declared end of the Spanish-American War to the hand-over of control of the Moro Province to American civil authorities in 1913 with the actual end of the extended
..... Click the link for more information.
Lonoy massacre in 1901 was a bloody American surprise attack launched on Filipino insurgents that killed over 400 in the Philippine-American War. It was fought in Lonoy on Bohol Island.
..... Click the link for more information.
Battle of Delores was a battle fought during the Philippine-American War.

In December 1904, the 38th Philippine Constabulary Scouts, under Lieutenant Stephen Hayt, were on patrol along the Dolores River in an attempt to link up with the 37th Constabulary Scouts and another
..... Click the link for more information.
First Battle of Bud Dajo, also known as the Battle of Mt. Dajo, was a counter insurgency action fought by American soldiers against native Moros in March 1906, during the Moro Rebellion phase of the Philippine-American War.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Battle of Bud Bagsak was a battle during the Moro Rebellion phase of the Philippine-American War fought between June 11 and June 15, 1913. The defending Moro resistance fighters were fortified at the top of Mount Bagsak.
..... Click the link for more information.
Editing of this page by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled due to vandalism.
If you are prevented from editing this page, and you wish to make a change, please discuss changes on the talk page, request unprotection, log in, or .
..... Click the link for more information.
Battle of Thermopylae of 480 BC, an alliance of Greek city-states fought the invading Persian Empire at the pass of Thermopylae in central Greece. Vastly outnumbered, the Greeks held back the Persians for three days in one of history's most famous last stands.
..... Click the link for more information.
Philippine-American War[7] was an armed military conflict between the United States of America and the First Philippine Republic, fought between 1899 to at least 1902, which occurred from a Filipino political struggle against U.S. occupation of the Philippines.
..... Click the link for more information.
December 2 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events

  • 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens.

..... Click the link for more information.
18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1860s  1870s  1880s  - 1890s -  1900s  1910s  1920s
1896 1897 1898 - 1899 - 1900 1901 1902

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.