Bengaluru

''
  Bangalore
Bengalūru
Karnataka • India
Vidhana Soudha
Coordinates:
Area
Elevation| | 741 km (0 sq mi)[1]
•  m ( ft)
Region| | Bayaluseeme
District(s)| | Bangalore Urban
Commissioner| style="border-top: 2px dotted #DCDCDC;" | Dr.S. Subramanya
Coordinates: Bangalore (Indian English: ] ), officially Bengaluru (Kannada: ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು, ] ), is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore has an estimated metropolitan population of 65 lakh (6.5 million), making it India's third-most populous city and fifth-largest metropolitan area. Though historically attested at least since 900 CE, recorded history of the city starts from 1537, when Kempe Gowda I, widely regarded as the founder of modern Bangalore, built a mud fort and established it as a province of the Vijayanagara Empire.

During the British Raj, Bangalore developed as a centre for colonial rule in South India. The establishment of the Bangalore Cantonment brought in large numbers of migrants from other parts of the country. Since independence in 1947, Bangalore has developed into one of India's major economic hubs and is today counted among the best places in the world to do business.[2]. It is home to several public sector heavy industries, software companies, aerospace, telecommunications, machine tools, heavy equipment, and defence establishments. Known for a long time as the 'Pensioner's paradise', Bangalore today is commonly referred to as the Silicon valley of India due to its pre-eminent position as India's technology capital.[3][4] Home to prestigious colleges and research institutions, the city has the second-highest literacy rate among the metropolitan cities in the nation. However, as a large and growing metropolis in the developing world, Bangalore continues to struggle with problems such as air pollution, traffic congestion, and crime.

Name

The name Bangalore is an anglicised version of the city's name in the Kannada language, Bengalūru. The earliest reference to the name "Bengaluru" was found in a 9th century Western Ganga Dynasty stone inscription on a "vīra kallu" (literally, "hero stone", a rock edict extolling the virtues of a warrior). In this inscription found in Begur, "Bengaluru" is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890. It states that the place was part of the Ganga kingdom until 1004 and was known as "Bengaval-uru", the "City of Guards" in Old Kannada.[5] An article, published in The Hindu, states:[6]
An inscription, dating back to 890 CE, shows Bengaluru is over 1,000 years old. But it stands neglected at the Parvathi Nageshwara Temple in Begur near the city...written in Hale Kannada (Old Kannada) of the 9th century CE, the epigraph refers to a Bengaluru war in 890 in which Buttanachetty, a servant of Nagatta, died. Though this has been recorded by historian R. Narasimhachar in his Epigraphia of Carnatica (Vol. 10 supplementary), no efforts have been made to preserve it.


A popular anecdote (although one contradicted by historical evidence) recounts that the 11th-century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II, while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came across a poor old woman who served him boiled beans. The grateful king named the place "benda kaal-ooru" (Kannada: ಬೆಂದಕಾಳೂರು) (literally, "town of boiled beans"), which was eventually colloquialised to "Bengalūru".[7][7] There are also theories that the name has a floral origin and is derived from the tree Benga or "Ven-kai", also known as the Indian Kino Tree (Pterocarpus marsupium).[8]

On December 11, 2005, the Government of Karnataka announced that it had accepted a proposal by Jnanpith Award winner U. R. Ananthamurthy to rename Bangalore to Bengaluru, which is its name in Kannada.[9] On September 27, 2006, the Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BMP) passed a resolution to implement the proposed name change,[10] which was accepted by the Government of Karnataka and it was decided to officially implement the name change from November 1, 2006.[11] However, this process has been currently stalled due to delays in getting clearances from the Union Home Ministry.[12]

History

Enlarge picture
South Parade (now Mahatma Gandhi Road) during colonial times.
Main article: History of Bangalore
After centuries of the rule of the Western Gangas, Bangalore was captured by the Cholas in 1024 which later passed on to the Chalukya-cholas in 1070. In 1116 the Hoysala Empire, overthrew the Cholas and extended its rule over Bangalore. Modern Bangalore was founded by a vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, Kempe Gowda I, who built a mud fort and a Nandi Temple in the proximity of modern Bangalore in 1537. Kempe Gowda referred to the new town as his "gandu bhoomi" or "Land of Heroes".[13]

Within the fort, the town was divided into smaller divisions called petes (IPA: [peɪteɪ]). The town had two main streets: Chickkapete Street, which ran east-west, and Doddapete Street, which ran north-south. Their intersection formed the Doddapete Square — the heart of Bangalore. Kempe Gowda's successor, Kempe Gowda II, built four famous towers that marked Bangalore's boundary.[14] During the Vijayanagara rule, Bangalore was also referred to as "Devarāyanagara" and "Kalyānapura" ("Auspicious City"). After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire, Bangalore's rule changed hands several times. In 1638, a large Bijapur army led by Ranadulla Khan and accompanied by Shahji Bhonsle defeated Kempe Gowda III and Bangalore was given to Shahji as a jagir. In 1687, the Mughal general Kasim Khan defeated Ekoji, son of Shahji, and then sold Bangalore to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673–1704) of Mysore for 300,000 rupees.[15][16] After the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II in 1759, Hyder Ali, Commander-in-Chief of the Mysore Army, proclaimed himself the de facto ruler of Mysore. The kingdom later passed to Hyder Ali's son Tippu Sultan, known as the Tiger of Mysore. Bangalore was eventually incorporated into the British East Indian Empire after Tippu Sultan was defeated and killed in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799). The British returned administrative control of the Bangalore "pete" to the Maharaja of Mysore, choosing only to retain the Cantonment under their jurisdiction. The 'Residency' of Mysore State was first established at Mysore in 1799 and later shifted to Bangalore in the year 1804. It was abolished in the year 1843 only to be revived in 1881 at Bangalore and finally to be closed down in 1947 with the departure of the British. The British, found it easier to recruit employees in the Madras Presidency and relocate them to cantonment area during this period. The Kingdom of Mysore relocated its capital from Mysore city to Bangalore in 1831.[17] Two important developments during this period contributed to the rapid growth of the city: the introduction of telegraph connections and a rail connection to Madras in 1864.

In the 19th century, Bangalore essentially became a twin city, with the "pete", whose residents were predominantly Kannadigas, and the "cantonment" created by the Britishers, whose residents were predominantly Tamils. Bangalore was hit by a plague epidemic in 1898 that dramatically reduced its population. New extensions in Malleshwara and Basavanagudi were developed in the north and south of the pete. Telephone lines were laid to help co-ordinate anti-plague operations, and a health officer was appointed to the city in 1898. In 1906, Bangalore became the first city in India to have electricity, powered by the hydroelectric plant situated in Shivanasamudra. Bangalore's reputation as the Garden City of India began in 1927 with the Silver Jubilee celebrations of the rule of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. Several projects such as the construction of parks, public buildings and hospitals were instituted to beautify the city. After Indian independence in August 1947, Bangalore remained in the new Mysore State of which the Maharaja of Mysore was the Rajapramukh. Public sector employment and education provided opportunities for Kannadigas from the rest of the state to migrate to the city. Bangalore experienced rapid growth in the decades 1941–51 and 1971–81 , which saw the arrival of many immigrants from northern Karnataka. By 1961, Bangalore had become the sixth largest city in India, with a population of 1,207,000.[14] In the decades that followed, Bangalore's manufacturing base continued to expand with the establishment of private companies such as Motor Industries Company (MICO; a subsidiary of Robert Bosch GmbH), which set up its manufacturing plant in the city. Bangalore experienced a boom in its real estate market in the 1980s and 1990s, spurred by capital investors from other parts of the country who converted Bangalore's large plots and colonial bungalows to multi-storied apartments.[19] In 1985, Texas Instruments became the first multinational to set up base in Bangalore. Other Information Technology companies followed suit and by the end of the 20th century, Bangalore had firmly established itself as the Silicon Valley of India.

Geography

Enlarge picture
The Hesaraghatta Lake in Bangalore
Bangalore lies in the southeast of the South Indian state of Karnataka. It is in the heart of the Mysore Plateau (a region of the larger Precambrian Deccan Plateau) at an average elevation of 920 m (3,018 feet). It is positioned at and covers an area of 741 km² (286 mi²).[1] The majority of the city of Bangalore lies in the Bangalore Urban district of Karnataka and the surrounding rural areas are a part of the Bangalore Rural district. The Government of Karnataka has carved out the new district of Ramanagaram from the old Bangalore Rural district.

The topology of Bangalore is flat except for a central ridge running NNE-SSW. The highest point is Doddabettahalli, which is 962 m (3,156 ft) and lies on this ridge.[20] No major rivers run through the city, though the Arkavathi and South Pennar cross paths at the Nandi Hills, 60 km (37 mi.) to the north. River Vrishabhavathi, a minor tributary of the Arkavathi, arises within the city at Basavanagudi and flows through the city. The rivers Arkavathi and Vrishabhavathi together carry much of Bangalore's sewage. A sewerage system, constructed in 1922, covers 215 km² (133 mi²) of the city and connects with five sewage treatment centers located in the periphery of Bangalore.[21]

In the 16th century, Kempe Gowda I constructed many lakes to meet the town's water requirements. The Kempambudhi Kere, since overrun by modern development, was prominent among those lakes. In the earlier half of 20th century, the Nandi Hills waterworks was commissioned by Sir Mirza Ismail (Diwan of Mysore, 1926–41 CE) to provide a water supply to the city. Currently, the river Kaveri provides around 80% of the total water supply to the city with the remaining 20% being obtained from the Thippagondanahalli and Hesaraghatta reservoirs of the river Arkavathy.[22] Bangalore receives 800 million litres (211 million US gallons) of water a day, more than any other Indian city.[23] However, Bangalore sometimes does face water shortages, especially during the summer season in the years of low rainfall. A random sampling study of the Air Quality Index (AQI) of twenty stations within the city indicated scores that ranged from 76 to 314, suggesting heavy to severe air pollution around areas of traffic concentration.[24]

Bangalore has a handful of freshwater lakes and water tanks, the largest of which are Madivala tank, Hebbal lake, Ulsoor lake and Sankey Tank. Groundwater occurs in silty to sandy layers of the alluvial sediments. The Peninsular Gneissic Complex (PGC) is the most dominant rock unit in the area and includes granites, gneisses and migmatites, while the soils of Bangalore consist of red laterite and red, fine loamy to clayey soils.[24] Vegetation in the city is primarily in the form of large deciduous canopy and minority coconut trees. Though Bangalore has been classified as a part of the seismic zone II (a stable zone), it has experienced quakes of magnitude as high as 4.5.[26]

Due to its high elevation, Bangalore usually enjoys salubrious climate throughout the year, although freak heat waves can make things very uncomfortable in the summer.[27] A common refrain among Bangaloreans is that summer has gotten progressively hotter over the years. This could be due to the loss of green cover in the city, increased urbanization and the resulting urban heat island effect, as well as possibly climate change. The coolest month is January with an average low temperature of 15.1 °C and the hottest month is April with an average high temperature of 33.6 °C.[28] The highest temperature ever recorded in Bangalore is 41 °C and the lowest ever is 7.8 °C[29] Winter temperatures rarely drop below 12 °C (54 °F), and summer temperatures seldom exceed 36–37 °C (100 °F). Bangalore receives rainfall from both the northeast and the southwest monsoons and the wettest months are September, October and August, in that order.[28] The summer heat is moderated by fairly frequent thunderstorms, which occasionally cause power outages and local flooding. The heaviest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period is 180 mm (7 in) recorded on 1 October 1997.

Civic Administration

Bangalore City officials
AdministratorS. Dilip Rau
Municipal CommissionerDr. S. Subramanya
Police CommissionerN. Achuta Rao
Enlarge picture
The Karnataka High Court is the supreme judicial body in Karnataka and is located in Bangalore.


The Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP, Greater Bangalore Municipal Corporation) is in charge of the civic administration of the city.[30] It was formed in 2007 by merging 100 wards of the erstwhile Bangalore Mahanagara Palike, with the neighbouring 7 City Municipal Councils (CMC), one Town Municipal Council and 110 villages around Bangalore.[30]

Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike is run by a city council. The city council comprises elected representatives, called "corporators", one from each of the wards (localities) of the city. Elections to the council are held once every 5 years, with results being decided by popular vote. A mayor and commissioner of the council are also elected through a quota system from a Scheduled Castes and Tribes candidate or to an Other Backward Class female candidate. Members contesting elections to the council represent one of more of the state's political parties. However, elections to the newly-created body are yet to be held, due to delays in delimitation of wards and finalising voter lists. There are expected to be about 150 wards, up from the 100 wards of the old Bangalore Mahanagara Palike. Elections are tentatively scheduled to be held in early 2008.

Bangalore's rapid growth has created several problems relating to traffic congestion and infrastructural obsolescence that the Bangalore Mahanagara Palike has found challenging to address. A 2003 Battelle Environmental Evaluation System (BEES) evaluation of Bangalore's physical, biological and socioeconomic parameters indicated that Bangalore's water quality and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems were close to ideal, while the city's socioeconomic parameters (traffic, quality of life) scored poorly.[31] The BMP has been criticised by the Karnataka High Court, citizens and corporations for failing to effectively address the crumbling road and traffic infrastructure of Bangalore.[32] The unplanned nature of growth in the city resulted in massive traffic gridlocks that the municipality attempted to ease by constructing a flyover system and by imposing one-way traffic systems.
Enlarge picture
The Public Utility Building on MG Road.


Some of the flyovers and one-ways mitigated the traffic situation moderately but were unable to adequately address the disproportionate growth of city traffic.[32] In 2005 both the Central Government and the State Government allocated considerable portions of their annual budgets to address Bangalore's infrastructure.[33] The Bangalore Mahanagara Palike works with the Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) and the Bangalore Agenda Task Force (BATF) to design and implement civic projects. Bangalore generates about 3,000 tonnes of solid waste per day, of which about 1,139 tonnes are collected and sent to composting units such as the Karnataka Composting Development Corporation. The remaining solid waste collected by the municipality is dumped in open spaces or on roadsides outside the city.[34]

The Bangalore City Police (BCP) is headed by a Police Commissioner, who is an Indian Police Service (IPS) officer. The BCP has six geographic zones, includes the Traffic Police, the City Armed Reserve, the Central Crime Branch and the City Crime Record Bureau and runs 86 police stations, including two all-women police stations.[35] As capital of the state of Karnataka, Bangalore houses important state government facilities such as the Karnataka High Court, the Vidhana Soudha (the home of the Karnataka state legislature) and Raj Bhavan (the residence of the Governor of Karnataka). Bangalore contributes two members to India's lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha, and 24 members to the Karnataka State Assembly.[36] In 2007, the Delimitation Commission of India reorganised the constituencies based on the 2001 census, and thus the number of Assembly and Parliamentary constituencies in Bangalore has been increased to 28 and 3 respectively.[37] These changes will take effect from the next elections. Electricity in Bangalore is regulated through the Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation Limited (KPTCL). Like many cities in India, Bangalore experiences scheduled power cuts, especially over the summer, to allow electricity providers to meet the consumption demands of households as well as corporations.

Economy

Enlarge picture
Infosys Headquarters
Main article: Economy of Bangalore
Bangalore's Rs. 260,260 crore (USD 60.5 billion) economy (2002–03 Net District Income) makes it a major economic centre in India.[38] Indeed, Bangalore is India's fourth largest[39] and fastest growing market.[40] Bangalore's per capita income of Rs. .49,000 (US$ 1,160) is the highest for any Indian city.[40] The city is the third-largest hub for high net worth individuals (HNWI / HNIs), after Mumbai and Delhi. Bangalore is home to over 10,000 individual dollar millionaires and around 60,000 super-rich people who have an investable surplus of Rs. 4.5 crore and Rs. 50 lakh respectively.[41] As of 2001, Bangalore's share of Rs. 1660 crore (US$ 3.7 billion) in Foreign Direct Investment was the third highest for an Indian city.[42] In the 1940s industrial visionaries such as Sir Mirza Ismail and Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya played an important role in the development of Bangalore's strong manufacturing and industrial base. Bangalore is headquarters to several public manufacturing heavy industries such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Bharat Electronics Limited, Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) and Hindustan Machine Tools (HMT). In June 1972 the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was established under the Department of Space and headquartered in the city. Bangalore is called the "Silicon Valley of India" because of the large number of Information Technology companies located in the city which contributed 33% of India's Rs. 144,214 crore (US$ 32 billion) IT exports in 2006-07.[43] Bangalore's IT industry is divided into three main "clusters" — Software Technology Parks of India, Bangalore (STPI); International Technology Park Bangalore (ITPB), formerly International Technology Park Ltd. (ITPL); and Electronics City. Infosys and Wipro, India's second and third largest software companies, have their largest campus in Electronics City. As headquarters to many of the global SEI-CMM Level 5 Companies, Bangalore's place in the global IT map is prominent. The growth of Information Technology has presented the city with unique challenges. Ideological clashes between the city's IT moguls, who demand an addressal of the infrastructural problems of the city, and the state government, whose electoral base is primarily rural Karnataka's agricultural workers, are aplenty. In July 2004 Wipro CEO Azim Premji threatened to pull his company out of the city, stating, "We do not see the situation (state of Bengaluru's infrastructure) improving in the near future".[44] It must be noted, however, that IT companies do not pay any property tax to the state government, depriving it of much needed revenue to improve infrastructure. However, most infrastructural improvements are done only in areas that directly benefit IT companies, leading to the perception that the common people of Karnataka are subsidising the already rich IT industry.

Bangalore is a hub for biotechnology related industry in India and in the year 2005, around 47% of the 265 biotechnology companies in India were located here; including Biocon, India's largest biotechnology company.[45][46]

Transport

Enlarge picture
The HAL Airport has been an issue of contention between successive State and Central governments and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.
Bangalore's HAL Airport (IATA code: BLR) is India's fourth busiest[47][48] and functions as both a domestic and international airport and is well connected to several destinations in the world. Unlike most airports in the country which are controlled by the Airports Authority of India, the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited owns and operates this airport, and also uses it to test and develop fighter aircraft for the Indian Air Force.[49] With the liberalisation of India's economic policies, many domestic carriers such as SpiceJet, Kingfisher Airlines, Jet Airways and Go Air have started servicing the city, which has lead to congestion problems at this airport.[50] This situation is expected to be eased when the new Bangalore International Airport, which is being constructed in Devanahalli in the outskirts of Bangalore, becomes operational. Currently targeted to be inaugurated in April 2008, this airport will have two runways and is being built to handle 11 million passengers per year.[51] Air Deccan and Kingfisher Airlines have their headquarters in Bangalore.[52]

Bangalore is well connected to the rest of the country through the Indian Railways. The Rajdhani Express connects Bangalore to New Delhi, the capital of India. The city is also connected to Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, and Hyderabad, as well as other major cities in Karnataka.[53] An intra-city rapid rail transport system called the Namma Metro is being developed and is expected to be operational in 2011. Once completed, this will encompass a 33 km (20.5 mi) elevated and underground rail network, with 32 stations in Phase I and more being added in Phase II.[54]

Enlarge picture
Autorickshaws are a popular form of public transport
Three-wheeled, black and yellow auto-rickshaws, referred to as autos, are a popular form of transport.[55] They are metered and can accommodate up to three passengers. Taxi service within Bangalore is provided by several operators commonly referred to as Citi taxis which can take in up to four passengers and are usually metered and more expensive than auto-rickshaws.[55]

Buses operated by Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) are the only means of public transport, available in the city.[56] While commuters can buy tickets on boarding these buses, BMTC also provides an option of a bus pass to frequent users. BMTC also runs air-conditioned red-coloured Volvo buses on major routes.[56]

Demographics

Enlarge picture
The Bull temple, one of Bangalore's oldest temples
With an estimated population of 5,281,927 in the year 2007, Bangalore is the third most populous city in India and the 27th most populous city in the world.[57] With a decadal growth rate of 38%, Bangalore was the fastest-growing Indian metropolis after New Delhi for the decade 1991–2001.[42] Residents of Bangalore are referred to as Bangaloreans in English or Bengaloorinavaru in Kannada. While Kannadigas are the majority of the population, the cosmopolitan nature of the city has caused people from other states of India to migrate to Bangalore and settle there.[59] Scheduled Castes and Tribes account for 14.3% of the city's population. Kannada, the official language of the state of Karnataka, is widely spoken in Bangalore.

According to the 2001 census of India, 79.37% of Bangalore's population is Hindu, roughly the same as the national average.[60] Muslims comprise 13.37% of the population, which again is roughly the same as the national average, while Christians and Jains account for 5.79% and 1.05% of the population, respectively, double that of their national averages. Women make up 47.5% of Bangalore's population. Bangalore has the second highest literacy rate (83%) for an Indian metropolis, after Mumbai. Roughly 10% of Bangalore's population lives in slums[61] — a relatively low proportion when compared to other cities in the developing world such as Mumbai (42%) and Nairobi (60%).[62] The 2004 National Crime Records Bureau statistics indicate that Bangalore accounts for 9.2% of the total crimes reported from 35 major cities in India. Delhi and Mumbai accounted for 15.7% and 9.5% respectively.[63] Tensions between one of the minority lingual groups, the Tamils, and the majority Kannadigas have led to numerous altercations.[64] Later the same year, the Karnataka Government, acting upon the directives of the Government of India, agreed to release 205 tmc of water from the river Kaveri to the Government of Tamil Nadu, which resulted in anti-Tamil riots that left 20 people dead.[65] After the demolition of the Babri Masjid in the North Indian city of Ayodhya in 1992, communal violence between Hindus and Muslims spread to Bangalore, during which Muslim houses and huts as well as an Arabic school for Muslim girls were raided and torched.[66]

Culture

Main article: Culture of Bangalore
Enlarge picture
The Lal Bagh Glass House, once famous for its flower shows, is now a heritage monument.


Bangalore is known as the "Garden City of India" [67] because of its climate, greenery and the presence of many public parks, including the Lal Bagh and Cubbon Park. Deepavali, the "Festival of Lights", transcends demographic and religious lines and is celebrated with great vigour. Dussera, a traditional celebratory hallmark of the old Kingdom of Mysore, is another important festival. Other traditional Indian festivals such as Ganesh Chaturthi, Ugadi, Sankranthi, Eid ul-Fitr, and Christmas are also celebrated. Bangalore is home to the Kannada film industry, which churns out about 80 Kannada movies each year. Most Kannada movies are musicals, and their soundtracks are very popular in the city. The popularity of Kannada movies has spawned a new colloquial dialect, Bangalore Kannada, which draws upon youth culture and influences from English and other Indian languages.

The diversity of cuisine available is reflective of the social and economic diversity of Bangalore. Roadside vendors, tea stalls, and South Indian, North Indian, Chinese and Western fast food are all very popular in the city. Udupi restaurants are very popular and serve predominantly vegetarian, regional cuisine.
Enlarge picture
Brigade Road


Bangalore has many clubs and bars, and is sometimes referred to as the "Pub Capital of India". Bangalore also hosts many rock concerts, with Iron Maiden, Aerosmith, Scorpions, Roger Waters, Uriah Heep, Jethro Tull, Joe Satriani, INXS, No Doubt, Safri Duo, Black Eyed Peas, Deep Purple, Mark Knopfler, The Rolling Stones, and Bryan Adams, among others, having performed in the city.

Cricket is the most popular sport in Bangalore. A significant number of national cricketers have come from Bangalore, including former Indian cricket team captain Rahul Dravid. Other cricketing greats from Bangalore are Gundappa Vishwanath, Anil Kumble, E.A.S. Prasanna, Venkatesh Prasad, Bhagwat Chandrasekhar, Syed Kirmani and Roger Binny. Many children play gully cricket on the roads and in the city's many public fields. Bangalore's main international cricket stadium is the M. Chinnaswamy Stadium, which hosted its first match in 1974.[68] Bangalore has a number of elite clubs, like the Bangalore Golf Club, the Bowring Institute and the exclusive Bangalore Club, which counts among its previous members Winston Churchill and the Maharaja of Mysore.[69]

Education

See also: Education in India
Enlarge picture
Indian Institute of Science - the premier institute of science in India
Till the early 19th century, education in Bangalore was mainly undertaken in schools that were run by religious leaders and restricted to pupils of that religion.[70] The western system of education came into vogue during the rule of Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar when two schools were established in Bangalore. This was followed by a school established by the Wesleyan Mission in 1851 and the Bangalore High School which was started by the Government in 1858.[71]

In the present day, schools for young children in Bangalore are mainly based on the kindergarten form of education.[72] Primary and secondary education in Bangalore is offered by various schools which are affiliated to any one of the boards of education like the Karnataka state board, ICSE, CBSE, National Open School (NOS), IGCSE and IB.[73] There are three kinds of schools in Bangalore viz. government (run by the government), aided (financial aid is provided by the government) and un-aided private (no financial aid is provided).[74] After completing their secondary education, students typically enroll in Junior College (also known as Pre-University) in one of three streams — Arts, Commerce or Science.[75] Upon completing the required coursework, students enroll in general or professional degrees.

Bangalore is also the home of the Bangalore University which was established in 1964. Around 500 colleges, having a total student strength of 300 thousand are affiliated to this university. The university has two campuses within Bangalore; Jnanabharathi and Central College.[76]

Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore which was established in 1909 is the premier institute for scientific research and study in India.[77] Bangalore is also the home of colleges like the National Law School of India University (NLSIU) which is one of the most sought after law colleges in India and the Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore which is one of the premier management schools in India.[77]

Media

Enlarge picture
Vijaya Karnataka, the largest circulating Kannada newspaper in Bangalore
The first printing-press was established in Bangalore in the year 1840.[78] In 1859, Bangalore Herald became the first English bi-weekly newspaper to be published in Bangalore[79] and in 1860, Mysore Vrittanta Bodhini became the first Kannada newspaper to be circulated in Bangalore.[78] Currently, Vijaya Karnataka and The Times of India are the most widely circulated Kannada and English newspapers in Bangalore respectively.[80][81]

Bangalore got its first radio station when All India Radio, the official broadcaster for the Indian Government, started broadcasting from it's Bangalore station on November 2, 1955.[82] The radio transmission was AM, till in 2001, Radio City became the first private channel in India to start transmitting FM radio from Bangalore.[83] In recent years, quite a number of FM channels have started broadcasting from Bangalore.[84] The city also has various clubs for HAM radio enthusiasts.[85]

Bangalore got its first look at television when Doordarshan established a relay centre here and started relaying programs from November 1, 1981.[86] A production center was established in the Doordarshan's Bangalore office in 1983, thereby allowing the introduction of a news program in Kannada on November 19, 1983.[86] Doordarshan also launched a Kannada satellite channel on August 15, 1991 which is now christened DD Chandana.[86] The advent of private satellite channels in Bangalore started in September 1991 when Star TV started to broadcast its channels.[87] Though the number of satellite TV channels available for viewing in Bangalore has grown over the years[88], the cable operators play a major role in the availability of these channels, which has led to occasional conflicts.[89] Direct To Home services are also available in Bangalore now.[90]

The first internet service provider in Bangalore was STPI, Bangalore which started offering internet services in early 1990s.[91] This internet service was however restricted for corporates, till VSNL started offering dial-up internet services to the general public at the end of 1995.[92] Currently, Bangalore has the largest number of broadband internet connections in India.[93]

References

Notes


1. ^ The total area of Greater Bangalore has been mentioned in the Karnataka budget of 2007-08 as 741 km². Finance Budget for 2007-08. Government of India. Retrieved on 2007-06-28.
2. ^ Best places to do business in the wired world. CNN. Retrieved on 2007-09-06.
3. ^ [1]
4. ^ Bangalore Crumbling. The Sunday Express. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
5. ^ K. Chandramouli. "The City of Boiled Beans". The Hindu. 2006. The Hindu Group. 25 July 2002
6. ^ "Inscription reveals Bangalore is over 1,000 years old". The Hindu. ḷ2006. The Hindu Group. 20 August 2004
7. ^ Vijesh Kamath. Many miles to go from Bangalore to Bengaluru. Deccan Herald. Retrieved on 2007-07-02.
8. ^ "History of Bangalore". Bangalore Guide 2006. Bangalore Guide
9. ^ "From today, Bangalore becomes Bengalooru". The Times of India. 2006. The Times Group. 1 November 2006
10. ^ "It will be `Bengaluru', resolves BMP", The Hindu, 2006-09-28. Retrieved on 2007-05-16. 
11. ^ "It’ll be ‘Bengaluru’ from Nov 1", Deccan Herald, 2006-10-08. Retrieved on 2007-05-16. 
12. ^ "Bengaluru will have to wait", Times of India epaper:Page 6, 2006-10-17. Retrieved on 2007-05-16. 
13. ^ "About Bangalore - History". Department of IT and Biotechnology. 2006. Government of Karnataka.
14. ^ Vagale, Uday Kumar. "Public Space in Bangalore: Present and Future Projections"PDF (773 KiB). Digital Libraries and Archives. 2006. Virginia Tech. 27 April 2004.
15. ^ S. Srinivas. The bean city. The Hindu. Retrieved on 2007-07-02.
16. ^ "The Mughal Throne", Abraham Eraly, Phoenix, London, Great Britain, 2004 (ISBN 0-7538-1758-6), Incidental Data, page 538.
17. ^ "Mysore (CAPITAL)". Encyclopedia Britannica. 1911 ed.
18. ^ Digital Libraries and Archives
19. ^ Benjamin, Solomon. "Governance, economic settings and poverty in Bangalore"PDF (151 KiB).Environment&Urbanization Vol 12 No 1 2006. United Nations Public Administration. 1 April 2000.
20. ^ "Studyarea- Bangalore". Centre for Ecological Sciences. 2006. Indian Institute of Science.
21. ^ "Each drop of water counts". Deccan Herald. 2006. The Printers (Mysore) Ltd. 11 March 2004
22. ^ FAQ. Retrieved on 2007-07-02.
23. ^ "Thirsty Bangalore seeks divine help". Hindustan Times. 2006. HT Media Ltd. 9 June 2003.
24. ^ "Environmental Impact Analysis"PDF. Bangalore Metropolitan Rapid Transport Corporation Limited.. 2006. Government of Karnataka. 2005.
25. ^ soils
26. ^ Onkar Singh. The Rediff Interview/ Dr S K Srivastav, additional director general, Indian Meteorological Department. [Rediff.com]. Retrieved on 2007-07-02.
27. ^ Rise in temperature `unusual' for Bangalore. The Hindu. Retrieved on 2007-07-02.
28. ^ Bangalore. Government of India. Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
29. ^ [2] Extreme Temperatures Around the world
30. ^ Afshan Yasmeen. Greater Bangalore, but higher tax?. Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2007-01-08. Retrieved on 2007-10-17.
31. ^ "Environmental Impact Analysis"PDF. Bangalore Metropolitan Rapid Transport Corporation Limited.. 2006. Government of Karnataka. 2005. (page 30)
32. ^ "High Court pulls up BMP for bad roads". Deccan Herald. 2006. The Printers (Mysore) Ltd. June 29 2005
33. ^ "Budget to trigger growth of metros: PM". MSN India. 2006. Microsoft India. 12 February 2006.
34. ^ van Beukering, Sehker, et al. "Analysing Urban Solid Waste..."PDF (149 KiB). International Institute for Environment and Development. 2006. March 1999.
35. ^ "Bangalore City Police". Bangalore City Police. 2006. Karnataka State Police.
36. ^ "Members of Karnataka Legislative Assembly". National Informatics Centre. 2006. Government of Karnataka
37. ^ Final Notification and Order. Delimitation Commission of India (2007-07-02). Retrieved on 2007-10-17.
38. ^ "All India figures at a glance"PDF (3.02 MiB). Department of Economics and Statistics. 2006. Government of Karnataka. 16 Dec. 2005.
39. ^ "Bangalore most affluent market". 2006. Business Standard. Business Standard Limited. 23 Aug. 2006
40. ^ "Bangalore market to grow most". 2006. Business Standard. Business Standard Limited. 25 Aug. 2006
41. ^ "Bangalore third richest city in country".2007. Times of India.Times of India. 1 Apr. 2007
42. ^ Mathur, Om Prakash. "Impact of globalisation on cities and city-related policies in India"PDF (436 KiB). 2006. The Urban Partnerships Foundation Aug. 2003
43. ^ Jairam Ramesh. IT in India: Big successes, large gaps to be filled. Online Edition of The Business Standard, dated 2007-09-30. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
44. ^ "Wipro threatens to quit Bangalore". Rediff. 2006. Rediff.com India Limited. 27 Jul. 2004.
45. ^ Bangalore Helix to be a reality soon. Online edition of The Hindu, dated 2005-04-23. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
46. ^ Biocon in drug development talks with Bayer. Online webpage of Reuters, dated 2007-10-04. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
47. ^ Airports Authority of India: Traffic statistics - Passengers (Intl+Domestic), Annexure IIIC
48. ^ Airports Authority of India: Traffic statistics - Aircraft movements (Intl+Domestic), Annexure IIC
49. ^ Rasheed Kappan. HAL keen to retain domestic airport. Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2007-06-14. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
50. ^ Rasheed Kappan. Chaos reigns supreme at Bangalore airport. Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2006-02-13. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
51. ^ R. Krishnakumar. Expressway for airport drive. Deccan Herald. Retrieved on 2007-07-02.
52. ^ A Sense of Deja Vu. Online Edition of The Business World. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
53. ^ Popular Trains. Online webpage of Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation Limited. Retrieved on 2007-10-17.
54. ^ Govind D. Belgaumkar. Metro rail may result in increase in temperature. Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2006-10-18. Retrieved on 2007-10-17.
55. ^ Stir leaves hundreds stranded. Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2006-12-15. Retrieved on 2007-10-17.
56. ^ S Praveen Dhaneshkar. Loyalty may pay for Volvo commuters!. Online Edition of The Deccan Herald, dated 2007-06-20. Retrieved on 2007-04-10.
57. ^ World: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population. World-Gazetter.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-17.
58. ^ globalization
59. ^ "Kannadigas assured of all support". The Hindu. 2006. The Hindu Group. 23 July 2004
60. ^ "Census GIS Household". censusindiamaps.net. 2006.
61. ^ "Total Population, Slum Population...". Census of India, 2001. 2006. Government of India.
62. ^ Warah, Rasna. "Slums Are the Heartbeat of Cities". The EastAfrican. 2006. National Media Group Ltd. 6 October 2003
63. ^ "Crime in Mega Cities"PDF (159 KiB). National Crime Records Bureau. 2006. Government of India. 2004.
64. ^ Nair, Janaki. "Battles for Bangalore..."PDF (77.1 KiB). Centre for Study of Culture and Society. 2006.
65. ^ "Bollywood ban in language fight". BBC News. 2006. British Broadcasting Corporation. 26 November 2004
66. ^ "Communal Violence and Denial of Justice". Human Rights Watch. 2006. Apr. 1996
67. ^ Garden city. Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2004-06-06. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
68. ^ Cricinfo Page on Chinnaswamy Statdium
69. ^ Detailed Account on Bangalore Club
70. ^ Hayavadana Rao (1929), p494
71. ^ Hayavadana Rao (1929), p497
72. ^ Bangalore a hot destination for foreign students. Online Edition of The Times of India, dated 2003-08-09. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
73. ^ Broad choice of Class X boards. Online Edition of The Deccan Herald, dated 2004-07-01. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
74. ^ Trimester system in all Karnataka schools from June 1. Online Edition of The Times of India, dated 2004-05-18. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
75. ^ Students, parents throng PU colleges in city. Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2006-05-16. © 2006, The Hindu. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
76. ^ BU overloaded, wants to split. Online Edition of The Times of India, dated 2007-01-09. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
77. ^ Parvathi Menon and Ravi Sharma. Hub of research. Online Edition of the Hindu, dated 2006-09-08. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
78. ^ Vijaya B. Punekar. Assimilation: A Study of North Indians in Bangalore. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
79. ^ M. Fazlul Hasan. Bangalore Through the Centuries. Historical Publications. Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
80. ^ Preiti Sharma. Double dhamaka. Online Edition of The Ecomomic Times, dated 2006-10-18. Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
81. ^ Shuma Raha. Battleground Bangalore. Online Edition of The Telegraph, dated 2006-11-19. Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
82. ^ Idhu Akashvani, Bengalooru!. Online Edition of The Deccan Herald, dated 2006-01-23. Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
83. ^ Radio City goes on air in Mumbai. Online Edition of The Hindu Business Line, dated 2002-05-23. Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
84. ^ Radio gaga: 6 more FM stations. Online Edition of The Deccan Herald, dated 2006-01-08. Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
85. ^ Juliana Lazarus. Of young ladies and old men. Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2003-01-13. Retrieved on 2007-10-08.
86. ^ Doordarshan, Bangalore. Online webpage of the Press Information Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
87. ^ Sevanti Ninan. Tune in to quality. Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2001-07-29. Retrieved on 2007-10-08.
88. ^ Consolidated list of channels allowed to be carried by Cable operators/Multi system operators/DTH licensees in India. Online webpage of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
89. ^ Rage against cable operators. Online Edition of The Times of India, dated 2004-07-17. Retrieved on 2007-10-08.
90. ^ Going for the action. Online Edition of The Hindu Business Line, dated 2007-05-08. Retrieved on 2007-10-08.
91. ^ Rakesh Basant. Bangalore Cluster: Evolution, Growth and Challengers. Retrieved on 2007-10-08.
92. ^ A short recap on Internet developments in India. Retrieved on 2007-10-08.
93. ^ A highly net-savvy city. Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2006-12-29. Retrieved on 2007-10-08.


Additional sources

External links






Coordinates: Karnātakā pronunciation  
..... Click the link for more information.
This page is currently protected from editing until disputes have been resolved.
Protection is not an endorsement of the current [ version] ([ protection log]).
..... Click the link for more information.
Vidhana Soudha, located in Bangalore (Bengaluru), is the seat of the state legislature of Karnataka. It is an imposing building, constructed in a style, sometimes described as 'Neo-Dravidian', incorporates elements of Indo-Saracenic, Rajasthani Jharokha and Dravidian styles.
..... Click the link for more information.
geographic coordinate system enables every location on the earth to be specified by the three coordinates of a spherical coordinate system aligned with the spin axis of the Earth.
..... Click the link for more information.
The geography of India is diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, rainforests, hills, and plateaus. India comprises most of the Indian subcontinent situated on the Indian Plate, the northerly portion of the Indo-Australian Plate.
..... Click the link for more information.
elevation of a geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point, often the mean sea level. Elevation, or geometric height, is mainly used when referring to points on the Earth's surface, while altitude or geopotential height
..... Click the link for more information.
This is a list of unofficial, or quasi-official regions of India. Some are geographic regions, others ethnic, linguistic, dialect, or cultural regions, and some correspond to historic countries, states or provinces. For ecological regions, see Ecoregions of India.
..... Click the link for more information.
Bayaluseeme is the area lying to the east of Malnad, a region of Karnataka state in South India, or east of the western ghats. In the Kannada language, bayaluseemae means "plain ground". The area is largely open plain, with few hillocks.
..... Click the link for more information.
district is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory. Districts are further subdivided, in some cases into Sub-Divisions, and otherwise directly into tehsils or talukas.
..... Click the link for more information.
Coordinates: Bangalore Urban is a district of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore Urban district came into being in 1986, with the partition of the earstwhile Bangalore district into Bangalore Urban and Bangalore Rural districts.
..... Click the link for more information.
geographic coordinate system enables every location on the earth to be specified by the three coordinates of a spherical coordinate system aligned with the spin axis of the Earth.
..... Click the link for more information.
This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the for details.
This article has been tagged since June 2007.

..... Click the link for more information.
Kannada}}} 
Official status
Official language of:  India (Karnataka)
Regulated by: Various academies and the Government of Karnataka
Language codes
ISO 639-1: kn
ISO 639-2: kan
ISO 639-3: kan

Kannada
..... Click the link for more information.
This page is currently protected from editing until disputes have been resolved.
Protection is not an endorsement of the current [ version] ([ protection log]).
..... Click the link for more information.
States:
  1. Andhra Pradesh
  2. Arunachal Pradesh
  3. Assam
  4. Bihar
  5. Chhattisgarh
  6. Goa
  7. Gujarat
  8. Haryana
  9. Himachal Pradesh
  10. Jammu and Kashmir
  11. Jharkhand
  12. Karnataka
  13. Kerala
  14. Madhya Pradesh
  1. Maharashtra
  2. Manipur

..... Click the link for more information.
Coordinates: Karnātakā pronunciation  
..... Click the link for more information.
Deccan Plateau (Marathi: डेक्कन) , also known as "The Great Countrie", is a vast elevated tableland area with widely varying terrain features making up the majority of southern India located between three ranges and extending over eight states.
..... Click the link for more information.
A lakh (Hindi/Nepali : लाख, Urdu: لکھ, Bengali: লাখ, Kannada : లక్ష, Tamil : இலட்சம்) is a unit in the Indian numbering
..... Click the link for more information.
million (1,000,000), or one thousand thousand, is the natural number following 999,999 and preceding 1,000,001.

In scientific notation, it is written as 106[1]
..... Click the link for more information.
The following is a list of the most populous cities in India. Population statistics indicated in this article are estimates for the year 2007 [1]. Note that this is a list of city populations and does not indicate urban agglomeration populations.
..... Click the link for more information.
This article lists the top fifty metropolitan areas in India by population as of 2007. The combined population of these 50 metros accounts for approximately one-eighth of the national population.
..... Click the link for more information.
Kempe Gowda I (ಕೆಂಪೇಗೌಡ in Kannada) (1513-1569) was a chieftain of Yelahanka (now in present day Bangalore), a feudalory of the Vijayanagara Empire.
..... Click the link for more information.
Sangama Dynasty
Harihara Raya I 1336-1356
Bukka Raya I 1356-1377
Harihara Raya II 1377-1404
Virupaksha Raya 1404-1405
Bukka Raya II 1405-1406
Deva Raya I 1406-1422
Ramachandra Raya 1422
Vira Vijaya Bukka Raya 1422-1424
Deva Raya II 1424-1446
..... Click the link for more information.
British Raj (rāj, lit. "rule" in Hindi) or British India, officially the British Indian Empire, and internationally and contemporaneously, India
..... Click the link for more information.
The Bangalore Cantonment (IPA: [kæn'təʊnmɛnt]) (1806-1881) was a military cantonment of the British Raj based in the Indian city of Bangalore.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Indian Independence Movement was a series of revolutions empowered by the people of India put forth to battle the British Empire for complete political independence, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857.
..... Click the link for more information.
The public sector is the part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the government, whether national, regional or local/municipal.
..... Click the link for more information.
Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning as compared to light industry. In general, it is a popular term used within the name of many Japanese firms, meaning 'construction' for big projects.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Silicon Valley of India is a nickname of the Indian city of Bangalore. The name signifies Bangalore's status as a hub for information technology (IT) companies in India and is a comparative reference to the original Silicon Valley, based around Santa Clara Valley, California, a
..... Click the link for more information.
developing country has a relatively low standard of living, an undeveloped industrial base, and a moderate to low Human Development Index (HDI) score. In developing countries, there is low per capita income, widespread poverty, and low capital formation.
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.