Berlin papyrus

The Berlin papyrus 6619, commonly known as the Berlin papyrus[1] is an ancient Egyptian papyrus document from the Middle Kingdom.[2] This papyrus was found at the ancient burial ground of Saqqara in the early 19th century CE.

The papyrus contains ancient Egyptian mathematical and medical knowledge, including the first known documentation concerning pregnancy test procedures.

The Berlin Papyrus contains a problem stated as "the area of a square of 100 is equal to that of two smaller squares, of two second degree equations. The side of one is ½ + ¼ the side of the other."[3] The interest in the question may suggest some knowledge of what would later be named the Pythagorean Theorem, though it more likely shows a straight forward solution of two second degree equations, stated as one unknown, and not two unknowns, as sometimes suggested.

See also


1. ^ Lumpkin, Beatrice, The Mathematical Legacy of Ancient Egypt - A Response to Robert Palter, 2004. National Science Foundation. p17
2. ^ Corinna Rossi, Architecture and Mathematics in Ancient Egypt, Cambridge University Press 2004, p.217
3. ^ Richard J. Gillings, Mathematics in the Time of the Pharoahs, Dover, New York, 1982, 161.

External links

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The Middle Kingdom may refer to:
  • One of the names of China.
  • The Middle Kingdom of Egypt.
  • A group of midwest U.S. states associated with the Society for Creative Anachronism.
  • A part of Ocean Park Hong Kong.
  • Middle Francia.

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Papyrus is an early form of thick paper-like material produced from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt.
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Saqqara or Sakkara, Saqqarah (Arabic: سقارة) is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, featuring the world's oldest standing step pyramid ().
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In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem (AmE) or Pythagoras' theorem (BrE) is a relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle. The theorem is named after the Greek mathematician Pythagoras, who by tradition is credited with its discovery and
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Papyrology is the study of ancient literature, correspondence, legal archives, etc., as preserved in manuscripts written on papyrus, the most common form of writing material in the Egyptian, Greek and Roman worlds.
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A timeline of pure and applied mathematics

Before 1000 BC

  • ca. 70,000 BC - South Africa, ochre rocks adorned with scratched geometric patterns
  • ca.

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An Egyptian fraction is the sum of distinct unit fractions, such as . That is, each fraction in the series has a numerator equal to 1 and a denominator that is a positive integer, and all the denominators differ from each other.
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