Bhai Parmanand

Bhai Parmanand (born on 4 November, 1876 - died December 8, 1947) was an Indian nationalist.

From a prominent family of the Punjab, descended from the family of the famous Sikh martyr, Bhai Mati Das. His father, Bhai Tara Chand Mohyal, came from Kariala, District Jhelum. He was an active religious missionary with the Arya Samaj movement, a major Bhai Hindutva icon and one-time President of the Hindu Mahasabha

He visited South Africa and stayed with Mahatma Gandhi as a vedic missionary.

Parmanand has been credited as being the first person to propose setting up a separate Muslim state, i.e. Pakistan. Following the British announcement of the partition of Bengal in 1905, he demanded that 'the territory beyond Sindh should be united with Afghanistan and North-West Frontier Province into a great Musulman Kingdom. The Hindus of the region should come away, while at the same time the Musulmans in the rest of the country should go and settle in this territory'. This preceded the Muslim League's Pakistan Resolution by over three decades.

He visited Guyana in 1910 which was the centre of the Arya Samaj movement in the Caribbean. His lectures increased their following there.

In 1911 he visited Lala Hardayal when he was on retreat in Martinique. Parmanand persuaded Hardayal to go to the United States to found a centre for the propagation of the ancient culture of the Aryan Race. Hardayal left for America, but soon located himself in Honolulu, Hawaii, where he again went on retreat on Waikiki Beach. A letter from Parmanand prompted his departure for San Francisco where he became an activist in the anarchist movement.

Parmanand toured several British colonies in South America before rejoining Hardayal in San Francisco. He was a founder member of the Ghadar Party. He accompanied Hardayal on a speaking tour to Portland in 1914 and wrote a book for the Ghadar Party called Tarikh-I-Hind. He returned to India claiming he was accompanied by 5,000 Ghadarites. He was part of the leadership of the revolt, and was sent to promote the revolt in Peshawar. He was arrested in connection with the First Lahore Conspiracy Case and was sentenced to death in 1915. The sentence was later commuted to one of transportation for life: he was imprisoned in the Andaman Islands until 1920 and subjected to hard labour. In protest against such harsh treatment of political prisoners, Bhai Parmanand went on hunger strike for two months. The King-Emperor, George V, released him in 1920 as the result of a general amnesty order.

In 1930 he was the chair of the Sind Provincial Hindu Conference, where he expressed concern that Muslim creation of Pakistan would divide India. He met Gandhi again in 1933 where he analysed India as being composed of three elements: Hindus, Muslims and the British. He suggested that Gandhi had tried to bring the first two together to drive out the British, but that the British had succeeded in gaining the support of the Muslims. Gandhi replied that he was an optimist, and look forward to the day when Muslims would join with Hindus. Parmanand suggested that only if Hindus organised amongst themselves would Muslims join them as nobody associates with the weak.

Bhai Parmanand died on December 8, 1947 of a heart attack. Bhai Parmanad is survived by his son Dr. Bhai Mahavir, a prominent member of the Jana Sangh and BJP.

An Institute of Business Studies was named after him in New Delhi, a Public School in East Delhi and a hospital also in Delhi.

External links

References

The Story of My Life by Bhai Parmanand, translated by N. Sundra Iyer and Lal Chand, The Central Hindu Yuvak Sabha, Lahore, 1934
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Punjab pronunciation   (Punjabi: ਪੰ
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Spoken & written script of holy Guru Granth Sahib:
Written language of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib is: Gurmukhi, Sahiskriti and Sant Bhasha[19]
Spoken words: Punjabi, Bengali, Brij Bhasha and Persian[20]
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Bhai Mati Das is one of the greatest martyrs in Sikh history. He along with his younger brother Bhai Sati Das and Bhai Dyal Das, all disciples of the ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Teg Bahadur, were executed along with him at the Kotwali(police-station) near the
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Jhelum or Jehlum may mean:
  • The Jhelum River of northern India and Pakistan, a tributary of the Indus.
  • Jhelum (city), a city on the banks of the Jhelum River.
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Arya Samaj (Sanskrit ārya samāj
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Hindu politics
Major parties
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Integral humanism
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Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી, IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī
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Vedas (Sanskrit véda वेद
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اتحاد، تنظيم، يقين محکم
Ittehad, Tanzim, Yaqeen-e-Muhkam   (Urdu)
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Sindh (Sindhī: سنڌ, Urdū: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. Different cultural and ethnic groups also reside in Sindh including Urdu speaking people who migrated from India
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Hindu ( pronunciation  , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the
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Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. The feminine form of 'Muslim' is Muslimah (Arabic: مسلمة).
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The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developed into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian
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Lahore Resolution (Qarardad-e-Lahore قرارداد لاھور), commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution
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Lala Har Dayal (b. October 4, 1884, Delhi, India - d. March 4, 1939, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was an Indian revolutionary and founder of the Ghadar Party.

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He was the sixth of seven children of Bhoti and Gauri Dayal Mathur, Reader of the District Court.
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"E Pluribus Unum"   ("From Many, One"; Latin, traditional)
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Aryan race" is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It derives from the idea that the original speakers of the Indo-European languages and their descendents up to the present day constitute a
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