# Brahmasphutasiddhanta

The main work of Brahmagupta,

590s 600s 610s

625 626 627

**, written in the year 628, contains some remarkably advanced ideas, including a good understanding of the mathematical role of zero, rules for manipulating both negative and positive numbers, a method for computing square roots, methods of solving linear and some quadratic equations, and rules for summing series, Brahmagupta's identity, and the Brahmagupta’s theorem. The book was written completely in verse.***Brahmasphuta-siddhanta (The Opening of the Universe)*## Brahmasphuta-siddhantas rules for numbers

*Brhmasphuta-siddhanta*is one of the first mathematical books to provide concrete ideas on positive numbers, negative numbers, and zero. He wrote the following rules:^{[1]}

- The sum of two positive quantities is positive
- The sum of two negative quantities is negative
- The sum of zero and a negative number is negative
- The sum of zero and a positive number is positive
- The sum of zero and zero is zero.
- The sum of a positive and a negative is their difference; or, if they are equal, zero
- In subtraction, the less is to be taken from the greater, positive from positive
- In subtraction, the less is to be taken from the greater, negative from negative
- When the greater however, is subtracted from the less, the difference is reversed
- When positive is to be subtracted from negative, and negative from positive, they must be added together
- The product of a negative quantity and a positive quantity is negative
- The product of a negative quantity and a negative quantity is positive
- The product of two positive, is positive.
- Positive divided by positive or negative by negative is positive
- Positive divided by negative is negative. Negative divided by positive is negative
- A positive or negative number when divided by zero is a fraction with the zero as denominator
- Zero divided by a negative or positive number is either zero or is expressed as a fraction with zero as numerator and the finite quantity as denominator
- Zero divided by zero is zero.

## References

## External links

**Brahmagupta (ब्रह्मगुप्त)**( ) (598–668) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer.

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**7th century**· 8th century

590s 600s 610s

**620s**630s 640s 650s

625 626 627

**628**629 630 631

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**Mathematics**(colloquially,

**maths**or

**math**) is the body of knowledge centered on such concepts as quantity, structure, space, and change, and also the academic discipline that studies them. Benjamin Peirce called it "the science that draws necessary conclusions".

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**0**(

**zero**) is both a number and a numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals. It plays a central role in mathematics as the additive identity of the integers, real numbers, and many other algebraic structures.

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A

**negative number**is a number that is less than zero, such as −3. A**positive number**is a number that is greater than zero, such as 3. Zero itself is neither positive nor negative.**.....**Click the link for more information. In mathematics, a

**square root**of a number*x*is a number*r*such that , or in words, a number*r*whose*square*(the result of multiplying the number by itself) is*x*.**.....**Click the link for more information. A

**linear equation**is an equation in which each term is either a constant or the product of a constant times the first power of a variable. Such an equation is equivalent to equating a first-degree polynomial to zero.**.....**Click the link for more information. In mathematics, a

where

**quadratic equation**is a polynomial equation of the second degree. The general form iswhere

*a*≠ 0. (For*a*= 0, the equation becomes a linear equation.**.....**Click the link for more information. In mathematics, a

**series**is often represented as the sum of a sequence of terms. That is, a series is represented as a list of numbers with addition operations between them, for example this arithmetic sequence:- 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + ... + 99 + 100.

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**Brahmagupta's identity**, also sometimes called**Fibonacci's identity**, implies that the product of two sums of two squares is itself a sum of two squares. In other words, the set of all sums of two squares is closed under multiplication.**.....**Click the link for more information.This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.