brown rice

Brown rice, medium grain, cooked
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 0 kcal   0 kJ
Carbohydrates     23.51 g
- Dietary fiber  1.8 g  
Fat0.83 g
- saturated  0.165 g
- monounsaturated  0.3 g  
- polyunsaturated  0.296 g  
Protein 2.32 g
Water72.96 g
Vitamin A equiv.  0 μg 0%
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.102 mg  0%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.012 mg  0%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  1.33 mg  0%
Vitamin B6  0.149 mg0%
Folate (Vit. B9)  4 μg 0%
Vitamin B12  0 μg  0%
Vitamin C  0 mg0%
Calcium  10 mg0%
Iron  0.53 mg0%
Magnesium  44 mg0% 
Phosphorus  77 mg0%
Potassium  79 mg  0%
Sodium  1 mg0%
Zinc  0.62 mg0%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database


Brown rice (or otherwise called "hulled rice") is unmilled or partly milled rice, a kind of whole grain. It has a mild nutty flavor, is chewier than white rice, becomes rancid more quickly, but is far more nutritious. Any rice, including sticky rice, long-grain rice, or short-grain rice, may be eaten as brown rice.

In much of Asia, brown rice (Chinese: 糙米; Pinyin: cāomǐ; Korean: 현미; Japanese: 玄米; genmai) is associated with poverty and wartime shortages, and in the past was rarely eaten except by the sick, the elderly and as a cure for constipation. This traditionally denigrated kind of rice is now more expensive than common white rice, partly due to its low consumption, difficulty of storage and transport, and higher nutritional value.

Brown rice and white rice

Brown rice and white rice have similar amounts of calories, carbohydrates, fat and protein. The difference between the two lies in processing and nutritional content. If the outermost layer of a grain of rice (the husk) is removed, the result is brown rice. If the bran layer underneath is removed, the result is white rice. Several vitamins and dietary minerals are lost in this removal and the subsequent polishing process. A part of these missing nutrients, such as B1, B3, and iron are sometimes added back into the white rice making it "enriched", as food suppliers in the US are required to do by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). One mineral that is not added back into white rice is magnesium; one cup (195 grams) of cooked long grain brown rice contains 84 mg of magnesium while one cup of white rice contains 19 mg.

When the bran layer is removed to make white rice, the oil in the bran is also removed. A recent study has shown that rice bran oil may help lower LDL cholesterol.

Among other key sources of nutrition lost are fatty acids and fiber.

In addition to having greater nutritional value, brown rice is also said to be less constipating than white rice. Although this effect also depends on natural adaptation to the product by its users and whether or not the rice has been washed prior to cooking, brown rice generally allows better digestion.

Role in the Macrobiotic Diet regime

Unlike in the traditional Chinese cuisine, only brown rice is used in macrobiotic dishes because, according to this diet, foods that undergo less processing are healthier.

Cooking and preparation

To prepare brown rice, use 2 cups of water for each cup of brown rice, and salt to taste. Bring salted water to a boil, and stir in rice. Reduce heat to a minimal simmer, and cook tightly covered for 45 minutes or until all water has been absorbed into rice.

Use slightly more water for sticky rice. Use slightly less water for fluffy, separate rice in the American preferred style. Adding a couple tablespoons of yogurt helps to give brown rice the texture of white rice.

It is possible to substitute a salted broth for the salted water for a different flavor.

A nutritionally superior method of preparation known as GABA Rice or GBR (Germinated Brown Rice), developed during the United Nations Year of Rice, may be used[1]. This involves soaking washed brown rice for 20 hours in warm water (38 °C or 100 °F) prior to cooking it. This process stimulates germination, which activates various enzymes in the rice. By this method, it is possible to obtain a more complete amino acid profile, including GABA. At least one manufacturer produces rice cooker models claiming to prepare GABA rice[2].

Storage and preservation

Brown rice can remain in storage for 6 months under normal conditions, but hermetic storage and freezing can significantly extend its lifetime. Freezing, even periodically, can also help control infestations of Indian meal moths.

External links

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Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. Dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides such as cellulose and many other plant components such as dextrins, inulin,
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Types of Fats in Food
  • Unsaturated fat
  • Monounsaturated fat
  • Polyunsaturated fat
  • Trans fat
  • Omega: 3, 6, 9

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Water is a common chemical substance that is essential to all known forms of life.[1] In typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice, and a gaseous state, water vapor.
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Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. It exists not as a single compound, but in several forms. In foods of animal origin, the major form of vitamin A is an alcohol (retinol), but can also exist as an aldehyde (retinal), or as an acid (retinoic acid).
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For the similarly spelled nucleic acid, see Thymine


Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1 and aneurine hydrochloride, is one of the B vitamins.
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Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. It is the central component of the cofactors FAD and FMN, and is therefore required by all flavoproteins.
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For the band, see Niacin (band).


Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+
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Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) is the active form and is a cofactor in many reactions of amino acid metabolism, including transamination, deamination, and decarboxylation.
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Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. These occur naturally in food and can also be taken as supplements. Folate gets its name from the Latin word folium ("leaf").
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Cyanocobalamin is a compound that is metabolized to a vitamin in the B complex commonly known as vitamin B 12 (or B 12 for short).

Vitamin B 12
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Vitamin C or L -ascorbate is an essential nutrient for higher primates, and a small number of other species. The presence of ascorbate is required for a range of essential metabolic reactions in all animals and in plants and is made internally by almost all organisms,
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Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. Magnesium occurs typically as the Mg2+ ion. It is an essential mineral nutrient for life[1][2][3] and is present in every cell type in every organism.
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For sodium in the diet, see salt.


Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl.
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Zinc (IPA: /ˈzɪŋk/, from German: Zink) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
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The Dietary Reference Intake is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine of the USA National Academy (IOM). The DRI system is used by both the United States and Canada. It is intended for the general public and health professionals.
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huller (or sometimes called a rice husker) is a kind of agricultural machinery to hull rice.

To hull rice is to remove chaffs, the outer husks of the grain. There were many ways to hull rice in ancient times, but nowadays a huller, or rice huller, is widely used in
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RICE is a treatment method for soft tissue injury which is an abbreviation for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation.[1][2][3] When used appropriately, recovery time is usually shortened and discomfort minimized.
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Whole grains are cereal grains which retain the bran and germ as well as the endosperm, in contrast to refined grains which retain only the endosperm. Whole meal products are made from whole grain flour.
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White rice is the name given to milled rice which has had its husk, bran, and germ removed. This is done largely to prevent spoilage and to extend the storage life of the grain. After milling, the rice is polished, resulting in a seed with a bright, white, shiny appearance.
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Rancidification is the decomposition of fats and other lipids by hydrolysis or oxidation, or both. Hydrolysis will split fatty acid chains away from the glycerol backbone in glycerides. These free fatty acids can then undergo further auto-oxidation.
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Glutinous rice (Oryza sativa var. glutinosa or Oryza glutinosa; also called sticky rice, sweet rice, waxy rice, botan rice, mochi rice, and pearl rice
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Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent. It covers 8.6% of the Earth's total surface area (or 29.4% of its land area) and, with almost 4 billion people, it contains more than 60% of the world's current human population.
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Chinese or the Sinitic language(s) (汉语/漢語, Pinyin: Hànyǔ; 华语/華語, Huáyǔ; or 中文, Zhōngwén) can be considered a language or language family.
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Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音
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 Korean
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Writing system: Exclusive use of Hangul (N. & S. Korea), mix of Hangul and Hanja (S. Korea), or Cyrillic alphabet (lesser used in Goryeomal
Official status
Official language of:  North Korea
 South Korea
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Japanese
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Constipation
Classification & external resources

ICD-10 K 59.0
ICD-9 564.0

DiseasesDB 3080
MedlinePlus 003125
eMedicine med/2833   Constipation or irregularity
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White rice is the name given to milled rice which has had its husk, bran, and germ removed. This is done largely to prevent spoilage and to extend the storage life of the grain. After milling, the rice is polished, resulting in a seed with a bright, white, shiny appearance.
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