Candida (genus)

Candida

Scientific classification
Kingdom:Fungi
Phylum:Ascomycota
Subphylum:Ascomycotina
Class:Ascomycetes
Order:Saccharomycetales
Family:Saccharomycetaceae
Genus:Candida
Berkh., 1923
Species


C. albicans
C. dubliniensis
C. glabrata
C. guilliermondii
C. kefyr
C. krusei
C. lusitaniae
C. milleri
C. oleophila
C. parapsilosis
C. tropicalis
C. utilis
Candida is a genus of yeasts. Clinically, the most significant member of the genus is Candida albicans, which can cause numerous infections (called candidiasis or thrush) in humans and other animals, especially in immunocompromised patients.[1] Various Candida species are members of gut flora in animals, including C. albicans.

The last decade has seen the sustained medical importance of opportunistic infections due to different Candida species mainly due to the worldwide increase in the number of immunocompromised patients, who are highly susceptible to opportunistic infections [2]. Meanwhile, the genome sequence of several Candida species has been completed, enabling the detailed investigation of some aspects of their biology with the aid of post-genomic approaches. The basic knowledge gained from these investigations of pathogenic Candida, and related yeasts, can translate into innovations in the development of novel antifungal therapies, original approaches for targeted immuno-interventions, or highly sensitive diagnosis of fungal infections [2].

Laboratory characteristics

Grown in the laboratory, Candida appears as large, round, white or cream (albicans is from Latin meaning 'whitish') colonies on agar plates.[4]

Clinical characteristics

Candida species are responsible for superficial infections such as oropharyngeal candidiasis (thrush) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (vaginal Candidiasis). These infections can be cured with antifungal medications, but they do represent a concern in AIDS patients.

Candida are also responsible for a number of life-threatening opportunistic infections in AIDS patients and other immunocompromised people - including patients treated in intensive care units (ICUs), cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, and organ transplant patients[2].

Another common Candida infection is oral candidiasis caused by acrylic dentures, especially in elderly denture wearers.[6] Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by C. albicans may result from taking antacids or antihyperacidity drugs. This colonization may interfere with absorption of Coenzyme Q10.[7]

Species

Among Candida species, C. albicans, which can also be a commensal of the skin and the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, is responsible for the majority of Candida bloodstream infections (candidemia). Yet, there is an increasing incidence of infections caused by C. glabrata, which could be due to the fact that it is frequently less susceptible to the currently used azole antifungals. Other medically important Candida species include C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis [2]

Other Candida species, such as C. oleophila have been used as biological control agents in fruit.[8]

Other

Alternative medicine practitioners often use the term Candida to refer to a complex with broad spectrum of symptoms, the majority of which center around gastrointestinal distress, rashes, sore gums and other miscellaneous symptoms. This diagnosis is considered incorrect by mainstream medicine.[9]

References

1. ^ Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill. ISBN 0838585299. 
2. ^ dEnfert C; Hube B (editors) (2007). Candida: Comparative and Functional Genomics. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 9781904455134. 
3. ^ dEnfert C; Hube B (editors) (2007). Candida: Comparative and Functional Genomics. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 9781904455134. 
4. ^ Candida species. DoctorFungus.org. Retrieved on 2007-02-09.
5. ^ Enfert C, Hube B (editors) (2007). Candida: Comparative and Functional Genomics. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 9781904455134. 
6. ^ Darwazeh A, Lamey P, Samaranayake L, MacFarlane T, Fisher B, Macrury S, MacCuish A (1990). "The relationship between colonisation, secretor status and in-vitro adhesion of Candida albicans to buccal epithelial cells from diabetics". J Med Microbiol 33 (1): 43-9. PMID 2231671. 
7. ^ Krone C, Elmer G, Ely J, Fudenberg H, Thoreson J (2001). "Does gastrointestinal Candida albicans prevent ubiquinone absorption?". Med Hypotheses 57 (5): 570-2. PMID 11735312. 
8. ^ (1999) "Efficacy of Candida oleophila strain 128 in preventing Penicillium Expansum infection in apricot fruit". Acta Hort. 485: 141-148. 
9. ^ "Factsmart.org". 

External links

Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. Scientific classification also can be called scientific taxonomy, but should be distinguished from folk taxonomy, which lacks scientific basis.
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Eukarya
Whittaker & Margulis, 1978
(unranked) Opisthokonta

Kingdom: Fungi
(L., 1753) R.T. Moore, 1980[1]

Subkingdom/Phyla

Chytridiomycota
Blastocladiomycota

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Saccharomycetales is an order in the kingdom of fungi that comprises the budding yeasts.

References

1. ^ Kudryatsev, V. (1960).

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Saccharomycetaceae
G. Winter, 1881

Genera

Ascobotryozyma
Candida
Citeromyces
Debaryomyces
Dekkera (Brettanomyces)
Eremothecium
Issatchenkia
Kazachstania

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Christine Marie Berkhout (1893–1932) was a mycologist. She described the genus Candida in her doctoral thesis for the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands in 1923.
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C. albicans

Binomial name
Candida albicans
(C.P. Robin)
Berkhout 1923

Synonyms
Candida stellatoidea[1]

Oidium albicans[2] Candida albicans
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C. dubliniensis

Binomial name
Candida dubliniensis
Sullivan et al.

Candida dubliniensis is an organism associated with AIDS patients.
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C. glabrata

Binomial name
Candida glabrata
(Anderson) Meyer & Yarrow

Synonyms
Torulopsis glabrata Candida glabrata is a haploid yeast of the genus Candida
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K. marxianus

Binomial name
Kluyveromyces marxianus
Van der Walt, 1971[1]

Synonyms
Kluyveromyces fragilis
Kluyveromyces cicerisporus
Candida pseudotropicalis
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C. krusei

Binomial name
Candida krusei
(Castellani) Berkhout

Candida krusei is a budding yeast (a species of fungus) involved in chocolate production. While C.
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C. lusitaniae

Binomial name
Candida lusitaniae

Synonyms
Clavispora lusitaniae Candida lusitaniae is a species of yeast in the genus Candida.
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C. milleri

Binomial name
Candida milleri

Candida milleri is a species of yeast in the genus Candida.
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C. oleophila

Binomial name
Candida oleophila
Montrocher, 1967[1]

Candida oleophila is a species of yeast in the genus Candida.
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C. parapsilosis

Binomial name
Candida parapsilosis

Candida parapsilosis is a fungal species of the yeast family that has become a significant cause of sepsis and of wound and tissue
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C. tropicalis

Binomial name
Candida tropicalis
Berkhout, 1923[1]

Candida tropicalis is a species of yeast in the genus Candida.
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C. utilis

Binomial name
Candida utilis
(Henneberg) Lodder & Kreger-van Rij

Torula (Latin name: Candida utilis; formerly Torulopsis utilis, Torula utilis
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genus (plural: genera) is part of the Latinized name for an organism. It is a name which reflects the classification of the organism by grouping it with other closely similar organisms.
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Ascomycota (sac fungi)
  • Saccharomycotina (true yeasts)
  • Taphrinomycotina
  • Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts)
Basidiomycota (club fungi)
  • Urediniomycetes

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C. albicans

Binomial name
Candida albicans
(C.P. Robin)
Berkhout 1923

Synonyms
Candida stellatoidea[1]

Oidium albicans[2] Candida albicans
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Immunodeficiency
Classification & external resources

ICD-10 D 84.9
ICD-9 279.3

DiseasesDB 21506

MeSH D007153 In medicine, immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency
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gut flora are the microorganisms that normally live in the digestive tract and can perform a number of useful functions for their hosts.

The average human body, consisting of about 1013 cells, has about ten times that number of microorganisms in the gut.
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A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are done on biological specimens in order to get information about the health of a patient.

Departments

The laboratory is often divided into a number of disciplines:

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Latin}}} 
Official status
Official language of: Vatican City
Used for official purposes, but not spoken in everyday speech
Regulated by: Opus Fundatum Latinitas
Roman Catholic Church
Language codes
ISO 639-1: la
ISO 639-2: lat
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agar plate is a sterile Petri dish that contains a growth medium (typically agar plus nutrients) used to culture microorganisms. Selective growth compounds may also be added to the media, such as antibiotics.
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An antifungal drug is medication used to treat fungal infections such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others. Such drugs are usually obtained by a doctor's prescription or purchased over-the-counter.
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