Carnutes

The Carnutes (Latin Carnuti), a powerful Celtic people in the heart of independent Gaul, dwelled in a particularly extensive territory between the Sequana (Seine) and the Liger (Loire) rivers. Their lands later corresponded to the dioceses of Chartres, Orleans and Blois, that is, the greater part of the modern departments of Eure-et-Loir, Loiret, Loir-et-Cher. The territory of the Carnutes had the reputation among Roman observers of being the political and religious center of the Gallic nations. The chief fortified towns were Cenabum (mistakenly "Genabum"), the modern Orleans, where a bridge crossed the Loire, and Autricum (or Carnutes, thus Chartres). The great annual Druidic assembly mentioned by Caesar took place in one or the other of these towns. Livy's history records the legendary tradition that the Carnutes had been one of the tribes which accompanied Bellovesus in his invasion of Italy during the reign of Tarquinius Priscus.
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A map of Gaul in the 1st century BC, showing the relative positions of the Celtic tribes.
In the 1st century BCE, the Carnutes minted coins, usually struck with dies, but sometimes cast in an alloy of high tin content called "potin." Their coinage turns up in hoards well outside their home territories, in some cases so widely distributed in the finds that the place of coinage is not secure. The iconography of their numismatics includes the motives of heads with traditional Celtic torcss; a wolf with a star; a galloping horse; the triskelion. Many coins show an eagle, with the lunar crescent, with a serpent or with a wheel with six or four spokes or a pentagrammatic star, or beneath a hand holding a branch with berries, holly perhaps. The wheel with four spokes forms a cross within a circle, an almost universal image since Neolithic times. Sometimes the circle is a ring of granules. It would be easy to make too much of the symbol as it appears on coinage, but among the Celts, rather than a solar symbol it may represent the cycle of the year divided in its four seasons [1]. See Cross.

In the time of Caesar the carnutes were dependents of the Remi, who on one occasion interceded for them. In the winter of 58 - 57 BCE, Caesar imposed a protectorate over the Carnutes and set up his choice of king, Tasgetius, picked from the ruling clan. Within three years, the Carnutes had assassinated the puppet king. On February 13, 53 BCE the Carnutes of Cenabum massacred all the Roman merchants stationed in the town as well as one of Caesar's commissariat officers. The uprising was swiftly a general one throughout Gaul, under the leadership of Vercingetorix. Cenabum was burnt by Caesar, the men put to the sword and women and children sold as slaves, and the booty distributed among his soldiers, an effective way of financing the conquest of Gaul. During the war that followed, the Carnutes were able to send 12,000 fighting men to relieve Alesia, but shared in the defeat of the Gallic army. Having attacked the Bituriges Cubi, who appealed to Caesar for assistance, they were forced to submit. Cenabum, however, remained a mass of ruins garrisoned by two Roman legions for years.

After they had been pacified, though not Romanized, under Augustus, the Carnutes, as one of the peoples of Gallia Lugdunensis, were raised to the rank of civitas soda or foederati, retaining their own self-governing institutions, continuing to mint coins, and only bound to render military service to the emperor. Up to the 3rd century Autricum (later Carnutes, whence Chartres) was the capital, but in 275 Aurelian refounded Cenabum ordaining it no longer a vicus but a civitas and named it Aurelianum or Aurelianensis urbs (thus eventually "Orleans").

See Livy, v.34; Julius Caesar, Belli Gall. v. 25, 29, vii. 8, II, 75, viii. 5, 31 (see under "cenabuns); Strabo Geographia iv.2 - 3; Ptolemy Geographia, ii.8.

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Latin}}} 
Official status
Official language of: Vatican City
Used for official purposes, but not spoken in everyday speech
Regulated by: Opus Fundatum Latinitas
Roman Catholic Church
Language codes
ISO 639-1: la
ISO 639-2: lat
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Celts, normally pronounced /kɛlts/ (see article on pronunciation), is widely used to refer to the members of any of the peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages or descended from those who did.
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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of
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Seine, see Seine River (disambiguation). For the old Seine département, see Seine (département). For a kind of fishing net, see seine (fishing).


Seine
The Seine viewed from the Eiffel Tower.
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Loire

Coat of arms of the Loire department
Location

Administration
Department number: 42
Region: Rhône-Alpes
Prefecture: Saint-Étienne
Subprefectures: Montbrison
Roanne
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Commune of
Orléans

Orléans and the Loire River


Location

Coordinates

Administration
Country  France

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Commune of
Chartres

Distant view of Chartres


Location
Longitude 01° 29' 21" E
Latitude 48° 26' 50" N

Administration
Country  France

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druid denotes the priestly class in ancient Celtic societies, which existed through much of Western Europe and in Britain and Ireland until they were supplanted by Roman government and, later, Christianity.
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Titus Livius (traditionally 59 BC–AD 17[1]), known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental History of Rome, Ab Urbe condita
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Bellovesus was a legendary Gallic king. He lived around 600 BCE and is remembered for invading northern Italy with his people during the reign of Tarquinius Priscus, although archeology would associate Gallic expansion into Italy to around 500 BCE.
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Lucius Tarquinius Priscus (also called Tarquin the Elder or Tarquin I) was the legendary fifth King of Rome, said to have reigned from 616 BC to 579 BC.
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Iconography is the branch of art history which studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images. The word iconography literally means "image writing", or painting, and comes from the Greek
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Numismatics (Lat. numisma, nomisma, a coin; from the Greek, derived from voµi eiv, to use according to law), is the scientific study of currency and its history in all its varied forms.
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triskelion or triskele (both from the Greek, τρισκέλιον) or τρισκελής
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Serpent is a word of Latin origin (serpens, serpentis) that is commonly used in a specifically mythic or religious context, signifying a snake that is to be regarded not as a mundane natural phenomenon nor as an object of scientific zoology, but as the bearer of some
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A pentagram (sometimes known as a pentalpha or pentangle or, more formally, as a star pentagon) is the shape of a five-pointed star drawn with five straight strokes.
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Ilex
L.

Species
See text

Holly (Ilex) is a genus of about 600 species of flowering plants in the family Aquifoliaceae, and the only genus in that family.
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cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two lines or bars perpendicular to each other, dividing one or two of the lines in half. The lines usually run vertically and horizontally; if they run diagonally, the design is technically termed a saltire.
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Remi were a Belgic tribe of north-eastern Gaul in the 1st century BC. They occupied the northern Champagne plain, on the southern fringes of the Forest of Ardennes, between the rivers Mosa (Meuse) and Matrona (Marne), and along the river valleys of the Aisne and its tributaries the
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February 13 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events

  • 1258 - Baghdad falls to the Mongols, and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed.

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Vercingetorix (pronounced [werkiŋˈgetoriks] (died 46 BC), was chieftain of the Arverni, originating from the Arvernian city of Gergovia and known as the man who led the Gauls in their ultimately unsuccessful war
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Alesia may refer to:
  • the city of Alesia in Gaul
  • the Battle of Alesia
  • the Alésia station in the Paris Métro
  • rue d'Alésia, Paris
  • le Carrefour Alésia, popular name for Place Hélène et Victor Basch, Paris

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The Bituriges (Bituriges-Cubi) was a tribe with its capital at Bourges (Avaricum). Earlier in the century they had been one of the main tribes, but recently declined in importance. Argentomagus (near today's Argenton-sur-Creuse) was another important oppidum of theirs.
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Gallia Lugdunensis was a province of the Roman Empire in what is now the modern country of France, part of the Celtic nation of Gaul. It is named after its capital Lugdunum (today's Lyon), possibly Roman Europe's major city west of Italy, and a major imperial mint.
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Foederatus (pl. foederati) is a Latin term whose definition and usage drifted in the time between the early Roman Republic and the end of the Western Roman Empire.
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Aurelian
Emperor of the Roman Empire

Reign September 9, 270–September 275
Full name Lucius Domitius Aurelianus
Born 214
Dacia or possibly Sirmium
Died September 275
Caenophrurium, Thrace
Buried

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civitas (pl. civitates) mainly referred to the condition of Roman citizenship. It was also used to describe a type of settlement.

As the empire grew, inhabitants of the outlying Roman provinces would either be classed as dediticii
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Titus Livius (traditionally 59 BC–AD 17[1]), known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental History of Rome, Ab Urbe condita
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Gaius Julius Caesar
Dictator of the Roman Republic

Reign October, 49 BC–March 15, 44 BC
Full name Gaius Julius Caesar
Born 12 July 100 BC - 102 BC
Rome, Roman Republic
Died 15 March 44 BC (aged 57)
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Strabo[1] (Greek: Στράβων; 63/64 BC – ca. AD 24) was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. He is mostly famous for his 17-volume work Geographica
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