catfish

Catfish
Fossil range: Late Cretaceous - Present
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Eel-tail catfish

Eel-tail catfish
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Actinopterygii
Superorder:Ostariophysi
Order:Siluriformes
Families


Akysidae
Amblycipitidae
Amphiliidae
Anchariidae
Andinichthyidae 
Ariidae
Aspredinidae
Astroblepidae
Auchenipteridae
Austroglanididae
Bagridae
Callichthyidae
Cetopsidae
Chacidae
Clariidae
Claroteidae
Cranoglanididae
Diplomystidae
Doradidae
Erethistidae
Heptapteridae
Hypsidoridae 
Ictaluridae
Lacantuniidae
Loricariidae
Malapteruridae
Mochokidae
Nematogenyiidae
Pangasiidae
Pimelodidae
Plotosidae
Pseudopimelodidae
Schilbeidae
Scoloplacidae
Siluridae
Sisoridae
Trichomycteridae

incertae sedis
  Conorhynchos
  Horabagrus
  Phreatobius
Catfish (order Siluriformes) are a very diverse group of bony fish. Named for their prominent barbels, which give the image of cat-like whiskers, catfish range in size and behavior from the heaviest, the Mekong giant catfish in Southeast Asia and the longest, the wels catfish of Eurasia, to detritivores (species that eat dead material on the bottom), and even to a tiny parasitic species commonly called the candiru, Vandellia cirrhosa. There are armour-plated types and also naked types, neither having scales. Despite their common name, not all catfish have prominent barbels; what defines a fish as being in the order Siluriformes are in fact certain features of the skull and swimbladder. Catfish are of considerable commercial importance; many of the larger species are farmed or fished for food, and some are exploited for sport fishing, including a kind known as noodling. Many of the smaller species, particularly the genus Corydoras, are important in the aquarium hobby''.

Taxonomy

The catfishes are a monophyletic group. This is supported by molecular evidence.[]

Catfish belong to a superorder called the Ostariophysi, which also includes the Cypriniformes, Characiformes, Gonorynchiformes and Gymnotiformes, a superorder characterized by the Weberian apparatus. Some place Gymnotiformes as a sub-order of Siluriformes, however this is not as widely accepted. Currently, the Siluriformes are said to be the sister group to the Gymnotiformes, though this has been debated due to more recent molecular evidence.[] As of 2007 there are about 36 extant catfish families, and about 3,023 extant species have been described.[] This makes the catfish order the second or third most diverse vertebrate order; in fact, 1 out of every 20 vertebrate species is a catfish.[1]

The taxonomy of catfishes is quickly changing. In a 2007 paper, Horabagrus, Phreatobius, and Conorhynchos were not classified under any current catfish families.[0] There is disagreement on the family status of certain groups; for example, Nelson (2006) lists Auchenoglanididae and Heteropneustidae as separate families, while the All Catfish Species Inventory (ACSI) includes them under other families. Also, FishBase and the Integrated Taxonomic Information System lists Parakysidae as a separate family, while this group is included under Akysidae by both Nelson (2006) and ACSI.[0][3][4][5] Many sources do not list the recently revised family Anchariidae.[6] The family Horabagridae, including Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius, and Platytropius, is also not shown by some authors but presented by others as a true group.[0] Thus, the actual number of families differs between authors. The species count is in constant flux due to taxonomic work as well as description of new species. On the other hand, our understanding of catfishes should increase in the next few years due to work by the ACSI.[0]

The rate of description of new catfishes is at an all-time high. Between 2003 and 2005, over 100 species have been named, a rate three times faster than that of the past century.[8] In June, 2005, researchers named the newest family of catfish, Lacantuniidae, only the third new family of fish distinguished in the last 70 years (others being the coelacanth in 1938 and the megamouth shark in 1983). The new species in Lacantuniidae, Lacantunia enigmatica, was found in the Lacantun river in Chiapas, Mexico.[9]

Relationships between families

The relationship between the families is relatively unknown.[10] Classifications of superfamilies varies. Many catfish families are classified into their own superfamilies.[0]

Based on morphological data, Diplomystidae is usually considered to be the most primitive of catfishes and the sister group to the remaining catfishes, grouped in a clade called Siluroidei. Recent molecular evidence contrasts the prevailing hypothesis, where the suborder Loricarioidei are the sister group to all catfishes, including Diplomystidae (Diplomystoidei) and Siluroidei; though they were not able to reject the past hypothesis, the new hypothesis is not unsupported. Siluroidei was found to be monophyletic without Loricarioid families or Diplomystidae with molecular evidence; morphological evidence is unknown that supports Siluroidei without Loricarioidea.[0]

Below is a list of family relationships by different authors. Lacantuniidae is included in the Sullivan scheme based on recent evidence that places it sister to Claroteidae.[11]

Nelson, 2006[0] Sullivan et al., 2006[0]
  • Unresolved families
  • Cetopsidae
  • Pseudopimelodidae
  • Heptapteridae
  • Cranoglanididae
  • Ictaluridae
  • Loricarioidea
  • Amphiliidae
  • Trichomycteridae
  • Nematogenyiidae
  • Callichthyidae
  • Scoloplacidae
  • Astroblepidae
  • Loricariidae
  • Sisoroidea
  • Amblycipitidae
  • Akysidae
  • Sisoridae
  • Erethistidae
  • Aspredinidae
  • Doradoidea
  • Mochokidae
  • Doradidae
  • Auchenipteridae
  • Siluroidea
  • Siluridae
  • Malapteruridae
  • Auchenoglanididae
  • Chacidae
  • Plotosidae
  • Clariidae
  • Heteropneustidae
  • Bagroidea
  • Austroglanididae
  • Claroteidae
  • Ariidae
  • Schilbeidae
  • Pangasiidae
  • Bagridae
  • Pimelodidae
  • Unresolved families
  • Cetopsidae
  • Plotosidae
  • Chacidae
  • Siluridae
  • Pangasiidae
  • Suborder Loricarioidei
  • Trichomycteridae
  • Nematogenyiidae
  • Callichthyidae
  • Scoloplacidae
  • Astroblepidae
  • Loricariidae
  • Clarioidea
  • Clariidae
  • Heteropneustidae
  • Arioidea
  • Ariidae
  • Anchariidae
  • Pimelodoidea
  • Pimelodidae
  • Pseudopimelodidae
  • Heptapteridae
  • Conorhynchos
  • Ictaluroidea
  • Ictaluridae
  • Cranoglanididae
  • Doradoidea (sister to Aspredinidae)
  • Doradidae
  • Auchenipteridae
  • "Big Asia"
  • Sisoroidea
  • Amblycipitidae
  • Akysidae
  • Sisoridae
  • Erethistidae
  • Ailia + Laides (Asian schilbeids)
  • Horabagridae (Horabagrus + Pseudeutropius + Platytropius)
  • Bagridae (without Rita)
  • "Big Africa"
  • Mochokidae
  • Malapteruridae
  • Amphiliidae
  • Claroteidae
  • Lacantuniidae
  • Schilbeidae

Evolution

A number of catfish fossils are known. Catfishes often have large, heavy bones that lend themselves to fossilization and, comparatively large otoliths. As such, a large number of species of catfishes have been named from complete or partial skeletal fossils or even from only otoliths.[0] 19 valid genera and 72 species are based exclusively on fossil remains.[0] There are two fossil families, Andinichthyidae, from the Lower Maastrichtian to Paleocene, as well as Hypsidoridae, from the Middle Eocene.[0]

The earliest known catfish are known from the late Campanian-early Maastrichtian of Argentina.[0] Catfish fossils are known from every continent except Australia.[0] Fossils of the Eocene period have been found from Seymour Island in Antarctica.[1] The centre of origin for catfish is likely South America. In South America, catfish reach their highest diversity. Also, two of the most primitive families, the extinct Hypsidoridae and Diplomystidae, are found at the northern and southern edges of this distribution, respectively. The catfish families in Africa are relatively primitive.[12] Though Siluriformes and Gymnotiformes are often said to be sister groups, recent molecular evidence shows they had independent origins.[14] The order dispersed early throughout the continents primarily through land bridges.[12] Australian species of catfish are all species from families that can enter saltwater; these fish traveled to Australia through saltwater, and then reverted to a freshwater lifestyle.

The catfish must have spread through Africa to Asia during the late Jurassic if they were to reach Asia.[12] During the Cretaceous period, the rift between South America and Africa would be forming; this may explain the contrast in families between the two continents. Most of the freshwater catfish of the two continents appear to be completely unrelated. Their relatively low diversity in Africa may explain why some primitive fish families coexist with them while they are absent in South America, where the more primitive fish may have been driven extinct.[12] The earliest they could have spread into Central America was the late Miocene.[12]

Distribution and habitat

Extant catfish species live in inland or coastal waters of every continent except Antarctica. Catfish have inhabited all continents at one time or another.[0] Catfish are most diverse in tropical South America, Africa, and Asia.[1] More than half of all catfish species live in the Americas. They are the only ostariophysans that have entered freshwater habitats in Madagascar, Australia, and New Guinea.[1]

They are found primarily in freshwater environments of all kinds, though most inhabit shallow, running water habitats.[15] Representatives of a at least eight families are hypogean (live underground) with three families that are also troglobitic (inhabiting caves). Thus, catfishes are some of the most successful cave colonizers among fishes.[16][17] One such species is Phreatobius cisternarum, known to live underground in phreatic habitats.[18] Numerous species from the families Ariidae and Plotosidae, and a few species from among the Aspredinidae and Bagridae, are also found in marine environments.[19][20]

Ecology

Most catfish are benthic in nature, meaning they normally associate with the bottom of the water column.[15] However, variety of other lifestyles are also represented among the catfishes. A few species are pelagic in nature.[15]

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A Panaque nigrolineatus attached to a piece of wood.
A wide range of feeding behaviors and diets are represented by the catfishes. In the family Trichomycteridae alone, there are species that feed on algae, fish scales, mucus, carrion, insects, or even blood in the infamous candirú.[22] Panaque and some species of Hypostomus are unique among catfishes in that are the only fishes able to eat and digest wood.[23] Members of the aspredinid genus Amaralia are known to specialize in feeding on loricariid eggs.[24]

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Striped Raphael catfish are able to produce sounds.
Representatives of several catfish families utilize their pectoral spines to produce stridulatory sounds by rubbing a ridged process of the pectoral spine within the cleithral groove, including members of Aspredinidae, Mochokidae, Doradidae, Pimelodidae, and Ictaluridae. Catfishes make a "creaking" sound during defense or appeasement behavior when being attacked by conspecifics. They also vocalize when they are captured or prodded.[25]

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The unusual insemination method of sperm drinking was first recorded in the bronze corydoras.
In catfishes, fertilization of eggs can be internal, external, or even include sperm passage through female digestive tracts, the so called sperm drinking type of fertilization.[26] Internal insemination is probable in all species of Auchenipteridae.[0] Catfishes express varying levels of care reproductive strategies. In loricariids, parental care is usually well-developed and the male guards the eggs and sometimes the larvae, either carrying eggs or having the eggs attached to the underside of rocks or in cavities.[27] In most of Ariidae, if not all species, the male is a mouthbrooder; he carries the relatively large eggs in his mouth until the young hatch.[0]

Physical characteristics

External anatomy

Most catfish are adapted for a benthic lifestyle. In general, they are negatively buoyant, which means that they will usually sink rather than float due to a reduced gas bladder and a heavy, bony head.[15] Catfish have a variety of body shapes, though most have a cylindrical body with a flattened ventrum to allow for benthic feeding.[15]

A flattened head allows for digging through the substrate as well as perhaps serving as a hydrofoil. Most have a mouth that can expand to a large size and contains no incisiform teeth; catfish generally feed through suction or gulping rather than biting and cutting prey.[15] However, some families, notably Loricariidae and Astroblepidae, have a suckermouth that allows them to fasten themselves to objects in fast-moving water. Catfish also have a maxilla reduced to a support for barbels; this means that they are unable to protrude their mouths as other fish such as carp.[15]

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The channel catfish has four pairs of barbels.
Catfish may have up to four pairs of barbels: nasal, maxillary (on each side of mouth), and two pairs of chin barbels, although pairs of barbels may be absent, depending on the species. Because their barbels are more important in detecting food, the eyes on catfish are generally small. Like other ostariophysans, they are characterized by the presence of a Weberian apparatus.[0] Their well-developed Weberian apparatus and reduced gas bladder allow for improved hearing as well as sound production.[15]

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The armor plates are evident in Corydoras semiaquilus.
Catfish have no scales; their bodies are often naked. In some species, the mucus-covered skin is used in cutaneous respiration, where the fish breathes through its skin.[15] In some catfishes, the skin is covered in bony plates called scutes; some form of body armor has evolved a number of times within the order. In loricarioids and in the Asian genus Sisor, the armor is primarily made up of one or more rows of free dermal plates. Similar plates are found in large specimens of Lithodoras. These plates may be supported by vertebral processes, as in scoloplacids and in Sisor, but the processes never fuse to the plates or form any external armor. By contrast, in the subfamily Doumeinae (family Amphiliidae) and in hoplomyzontines (Aspredinidae), the armor is formed solely by expanded vertebral processes that form plates. Finally, the lateral armor of doradids, Sisor, and hoplomyzontines consists of hypertrophied lateral line ossicles with dorsal and ventral lamina.[28]

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A sting from the striped eel catfish, Plotosus lineatus, may be fatal.
All catfish, except members of Malapteruridae (electric catfish), possess a strong, hollow, bonified leading spine-like ray on their dorsal and pectoral fins. As a defense, these spines may be locked into place so that they stick outwards, which can inflict severe wounds.[1] In several species catfish can use these fin rays to deliver a stinging protein if the fish is irritated.[29] This venom is produced by glandular cells in the epidermal tissue covering the spines.[0] In members of the family Plotosidae, and of the genus Heteropneustes, this protein is so strong it may hospitalize humans unfortunate enough to receive a sting; in Plotosus lineatus, the stings may result in death.[0]

Juvenile catfishes, like most fishes, have relatively large heads, eyes and posterior median fins in comparison to larger, more mature individuals. These juveniles can be readily placed in their families, particularly those with highly derived fin or body shapes; in some cases identification of the genus is possible. As far as known for most catfish, features that are often characteristic of species such as mouth and fin positions, fin shapes, and barbel lengths show little difference between juveniles and adults. For many species, pigmentation pattern is also similar in juveniles and adults. Thus, juvenile catfishes generally resemble and develop smoothly into their adult form without distinct juvenile specializations. Exceptions to this are the ariid catfishes, where the young retain yolk sacs late into juvenile stages, and many pimelodids, which may have elongated barbels and fin filaments or coloration patterns.[30]

Sexual dimorphism is reported in about half of all families of catfish.[31] The modification of the anal fin into an intromittent organ (in internal fertilizers) as well as accessory structures of the reproductive apparatus (in both internal and external fertilizers) have been described in species belonging to 11 different families.[26]

Size

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Head of the red-tailed catfish, Phractocephalus hemioliopterus, from the Amazon. This species is often offered for sale when juvenile to aquarists who little suspect it can attain 120 cm.


Catfish have one of the greatest range in size within a single order of bony fish.[15] Many catfish have a maximum length of under 12 cm.[0] Some of the smallest species of Aspredinidae and Trichomycteridae reach sexual maturity at only 10 millimetres (.4 in).[1]

The wels catfish, Silurus glanis, is the only native catfish species of Europe, besides the much smaller related Aristotle's catfish found in Greece. Mythology and literature record wels catfish of astounding proportions, yet to be proven scientifically. The average size of the species is about 1.2–1.6 m (3.9–5.2 ft), and fish more than 2 m (6.6 ft) are very rare. The largest specimens on record measure more than 2.5 m (8.2 ft) in length and sometimes exceeded 100 kg (220 lb).

The largest Ictalurus furcatus, caught in the Mississippi River on May 22, 2005, weighed 56.25 kg (124 lb). The largest flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, ever caught was in Independence, Kansas, weighing 56 kg (123 lb 9 oz). However, these records pale in comparison to a giant Mekong catfish caught in northern Thailand in May 1, 2005 and reported to the press almost 2 months later that weighed 293 kg (646 lb). This is the largest giant Mekong catfish caught, but only since Thai officials started keeping records in 1981.[32] The giant Mekong catfish are not well studied since they live in developing countries and it is quite possible that they can grow even larger.

Internal anatomy

In many catfishes, the humeral process is a bony process extending backward from the pectoral girdle immediately above the base of the pectoral fin. It lies beneath the skin where its outline may be determined by dissecting the skin or probing with a needle.[33]

The retina of catfish are composed of single cones and large rods. Many catfish have a tapetum lucidum which may help enhance photon capture and increase low-light sensitivity. Double cones, though present in most teleosts are absent from catfish.[34]

The anatomical organization of the testis in catfish is variable among the families of catfish, but the majority of them present fringed testis: Ictaluridae, Claridae, Auchenipteridae, Doradidae, Pimelodidae, and Pseudopimelodidae.[34] In the testes of some species of Siluriformes, organs and structures such as a spermatogenic cranial region and a secretory caudal region are observed, in addition to the presence of seminal vesicles in the caudal region.[34] The total number of fringes and their length are different in the caudal and cranial portions between species.[34] Fringes of the caudal region may present tubules, in which the lumen is filled by secretion and spermatozoa.[34] Spermatocysts are formed from cytoplasmic extensions of Sertoli cells; the release of spermatozoa is allowed by breaking of the cyst walls.[34]

The occurrence of seminal vesicles, in spite of their interspecific variability in size, gross morphology and function, has not been related to the mode of fertilization. They are typically paired, multi-chambered, and connected with the sperm duct, and have been reported to play a glandular and a storage function. Seminal vesicle secretion may include steroids and steroid glucuronides, with hormonal and pheromonal functions, but it appears to be primarily constituted of mucoproteins, acid mucopolysaccharides, and phospolipids.[26]

Fish ovaries may be of two types: gymnovarian or cystovarian. In the first type, the oocytes are released directly into the coelomic cavity and then eliminated. In the second type, the oocytes are conveyed to the exterior through the oviduct.[34] Many catfish are cystovarian in type, including Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, P. fasciatum, Lophiosilurus alexandri, and Loricaria lentiginosa.[34][34]

Catfish as food

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Fried catfish fillet served with potatoes and omelette.
Catfish have been widely caught and farmed for food for hundreds of years in Africa, Asia, and Europe. Judgements as to the quality and flavor vary, with some food critics considering catfish as being excellent food, others dismiss them as watery and lacking in flavour.[37] In Central Europe, catfish were often viewed as a delicacy to be enjoyed on feast days and holidays. Migrants from Europe and Africa to the United States brought along this tradition, and in the southern United States catfish is an extremely popular food. The most commonly eaten species in the United States are the channel catfish and blue catfish, both of which are common in the wild and increasingly widely farmed. Catfish is eaten in a variety of ways; in Europe it is often cooked in similar ways to carp, but in the United States it is typically breaded with cornmeal and fried.[37] In Indonesia catfish are very popular food. They are usually served grilled in street stalls called warung and eaten with vegetables, the dish is called Pecel Lele (Lele is the Indonesian word for catfish). The iridescent shark is a common food fish in parts of Asia.

Catfish is also high in Vitamin D.[38]

Aquaculture

Catfish are easy to farm in warm climates, leading to inexpensive and safe food in local grocers. Ictalurids are cultivated in North America (especially in the Deep South, with Mississippi being the largest domestic catfish producer).[39] Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) supports a $450 million/yr aquaculture industry.[1]

In Asia, many catfish species are important as food. Several walking catfish (Clariidae) and shark catfish (Pangasiidae) species are heavily cultured in Africa and Asia. Exports of one particular shark catfish species from Vietnam, Pangasius bocourti, has met with pressures from the U.S. catfish industry. In 2003, The United States Congress passed a law preventing the imported fish from being labeled as catfish.[40] As a result, the Vietnamese exporters of this fish now label their products sold in the U.S. as "basa fish."

There is a large and growing ornamental fish trade, with hundreds of species of catfish, such as Corydoras and armored suckermouth catfish (often called plecos), being a popular component of many aquaria. Other catfish commonly found in the aquarium trade are banjo catfish, talking catfish, and long-whiskered catfish.

Catfish as invasive species

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Walking catfish is an invasive species in Florida.
Representatives of the genus Ictalurus have been misguidedly introduced into European waters in the hope of obtaining a sporting and a food resource. However, the European stock of American catfishes has not achieved the dimensions of these fishes in their native waters, and have only increased the ecological pressure on native European fauna. Walking catfish has also been introduced in the freshwaters of Florida, with the voracious catfish becoming a major alien pest there. Flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, is also a North American pest on Atlantic slope drainages.[1] Pterygoplichthys species, released by aquarium fishkeepers, has also established feral populations in many warm waters around the world.[41][42][43][44][45]

References

1. ^ Lundberg, John G.; Friel, John P. (2003-01-20). Siluriformes. Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
2. ^ Ferraris, Carl J., Jr. (2007). "Checklist of catfishes, recent and fossil (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes), and catalogue of siluriform primary types" (PDF). Zootaxa 1418: 1–628.Zootaxa&rft.date=2007&rft.volume=1418&rft.aulast=Ferraris&rft.aufirst=Carl%20J.,%20Jr.&rft.pages=1%26%238211%3B628&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fsilurus.acnatsci.org%2FACSI%2Flibrary%2Fbiblios%2F2007_Ferraris_Catfish_Checklist.pdf"> 
3. ^ Catfish Families. All Catfish Species Inventory. Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
4. ^ "Parakysidae". FishBase. Ed. Ranier Froese and Daniel Pauly. Apr 2007 version. N.p.: FishBase, 2007.
5. ^ Parakysidae (TSN 553185). Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
6. ^ Ng, Heok Hee; Sparks, John S. (2005). "Revision of the endemic Malagasy catfish family Anchariidae (Teleostei: Siluriformes), with descriptions of a new genus and three new species" (PDF). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 16 (4): 303-323. 
7. ^ Nelson, Joseph S. (2006). Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0471250317. 
8. ^ Ferraris, Carl J., Jr.; Reis, Roberto E. (2005). "Neotropical catfish diversity: an historical perspective". Neotropical Ichthyology 3 (4): 453-454. 
9. ^ Rodiles-Hernández, Rocío; Hendrickson, Dean A.; Lundberg, John G.; Humphries, Julian M. (2005). "Lacantunia enigmatica (Teleostei: Siluriformes) a new and phylogenetically puzzling freshwater fish from Mesoamerica" (PDF). Zootaxa 1000: 1-24. ISSN: 1175-5334.Zootaxa&rft.date=2005&rft.volume=1000&rft.aulast=Rodiles-Hern%E1ndez&rft.aufirst=Roc%EDo&rft.pages=1-24&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.digimorph.org%2Fspecimens%2FLacantunia_enigmatica%2Fzt01000.pdf"> 
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11. ^ Lundberg, John G.; Sullivan, John P.; Rodiles-Hernández, Rocío; Hendrickson, Dean A. (June 2007). "[https://webspace.utexas.edu/deanhend/www/pdfs/Lundberg_2007_African_roots_Lacantunia.pdf Discovery of African roots for the Mesoamerican Chiapas catfish, Lacantunia enigmatica, requires an ancient intercontinental passage]" (PDF). Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 156: 39-53. 
12. ^ Sullivan, JP; Lundberg JG; Hardman M (2006). "A phylogenetic analysis of the major groups of catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes) using rag1 and rag2 nuclear gene sequences". Mol Phylogenet Evol. 41 (3): 636-62. 
13. ^

It is believed that modern siluroid lineages radiated from a common ancestor during a relatively short period of siluriform history.
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15. ^ Briggs, John C. (2005). "The biogeography of otophysan fishes (Ostariophysi: Otophysi): a new appraisal" (PDF). Journal of Biogeography 32: 287–294. 
16. ^ Langecker, Thomas G.; Longley, Glenn (1993). "Morphological Adaptations of the Texas Blind Catfishes Trogloglanis pattersoni and Satan eurystomus (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae) to Their Underground Environment". Copeia: 976-986.Copeia&rft.date=1993&rft.aulast=Langecker&rft.aufirst=Thomas%20G.&rft.pages=976-986"> 
17. ^ Hendrickson, Dean A.; Krejca, Jean K.; Martinez, Juan Manuel Rodríguez (2001). "Mexican blindcats genus Prietella (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae): an overview of recent explorations". Environmental Biology of Fishes 62: 315–337. 
18. ^ "Phreatobius cisternarum". FishBase. Ed. Ranier Froese and Daniel Pauly. Apr 2007 version. N.p.: FishBase, 2007.
19. ^ Monks N. (editor): Brackish Water Fishes, TFH 2006, ISBN 0-7938-0564-3
20. ^ Schäfer F: Brackish Water Fishes, Aqualog 2005, ISBN 3-936027-82-X
21. ^ Bruton, Michael N. (1996). "Alternative life-history strategies of catfishes" (PDF). Aquat. Living Resour. 9: 35-41. 
22. ^ Schaefer, Scott A.; Provenzano, Francisco; de Pinna, Mario; Baskin, Jonathan N. (November 29, 2005). "New and Noteworthy Venezuelan Glanapterygine Catfishes (Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae), with Discussion of Their Biogeography and Psammophily" (PDF). American Museum Novitates (3496): 1-27. 
23. ^ Armbruster, Jonathan W. (2003). "The species of the Hypostomus cochliodon group (Siluriformes: Loricariidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa 249: 1-60.Zootaxa&rft.date=2003&rft.volume=249&rft.aulast=Armbruster&rft.aufirst=Jonathan%20W.&rft.pages=1-60&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mapress.com%2Fzootaxa%2F2003f%2Fzt00249.pdf"> 
24. ^ Friel, John Patrick (1994-12-13). "A Phylogenetic Study of the Neotropical Banjo Catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Aspredinidae)" (PDF). Duke University, Durham, NC. Retrieved on 2007-08-07.
25. ^ Pruzsinszky, Inge; Ladich, Friedrich (October 1998). "Sound production and reproductive behaviour of the armoured catfish Corydoras paleatus (Callichthyidae)". Journal Environmental Biology of Fishes 53 (2): 183-191. 
26. ^ Mazzoldi, C.; Lorenzi, V.; Rasotto, M. B. (2007). "Variation of male reproductive apparatus in relation to fertilization modalities in the catfish families Auchenipteridae and Callichthyidae (Teleostei: Siluriformes)". Journal of Fish Biology 70: 243–256. 
27. ^ Sabaj, Mark H.; Armbruster, Jonathan W.; Page, Lawrence M. (1999). "Spawning in Ancistrus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) with comments on the evolution of snout tentacles as a novel reproductive strategy: larval mimicry" (PDF). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 10 (3): 217-229. 
28. ^ (1996) "Micromyzon akamai, gen. et sp. nov., a small and eyeless banjo catfish (Siluriformes: Aspredinidae) from the river channels of the lower Amazon basin" (PDF). Copeia (3): 641-648.Copeia&rft.date=1996&rft.issue=3&rft.aufirst=J.&rft.pages=641-648"> 
29. ^ Channel Catfish. Fairfax County Public Schools. Retrieved on 2006-12-02.
30. ^ Lundberg, John G.; Berra, Tim M.; Friel, John P. (March 2004). "First description of small juveniles of the primitive catfish Diplomystes (Siluriformes: Diplomystidae)" (PDF). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 15 (1): 71-82. 
31. ^ Friel, John P.; Vigliotta, Thomas R. (2006). "Synodontis acanthoperca, a new species from the Ogôoué River system, Gabon with comments on spiny ornamentation and sexual dimorphism in mochokid catfishes (Siluriformes: Mochokidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa 1125: 45–56.Zootaxa&rft.date=2006&rft.volume=1125&rft.aulast=Friel&rft.aufirst=John%20P.&rft.pages=45%26%238211%3B56&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mapress.com%2Fzootaxa%2F2006f%2Fzt01125p056.pdf"> 
32. ^ Grizzly Bear-Size Catfish Caught in Thailand. National Geographic News. Retrieved on 2006-07-14.
33. ^ Term : humeral process. FishBase (2007).
34. ^ Douglas, Ron H.; Collin, Shaun P.; Corrigan, Julie (2002). "The eyes of suckermouth armoured catfish (Loricariidae, subfamily Hypostomus): pupil response, lenticular longitudinal spherical aberration and retinal topography" (PDF) 205 (22): 3425-3433. 
35. ^ Barros, Marcelo D. M.; Guimarães-Cruz, Rodrigo J.; Veloso-Júnior, Vanderlei C.; Santos, José E. dos (2007). "Reproductive apparatus and gametogenesis of Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner (Pisces, Teleostei, Siluriformes)" (PDF). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 24 (1): 213-221. 
36. ^ Brito, M.F.G.; Bazzoli, N. (2003). "Reproduction of the surubim catfish (Pisces, Pimelodidae) in the São Francisco River, Pirapora Region, Minas Gerais, Brazil". Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia 55 (5). ISSN: 0102-0935. 
37. ^ Jenny Baker (1988), Simply Fish p 36-37. Faver & Faber, London.
38. ^ Vitamin D and Healthy Bones. New York State Department of Health. Retrieved on 2007-07-13.
39. ^ J.E. Morris (October 1993). "Pond Culture of Channel Catfish in the North Central Region". North Central Regional Aquaculture Center. Retrieved on 2006-06-28.
40. ^ [1] L.A. Times, "'Catfish' bred in Asia move up on U.S. food chain", 28 November 2006
41. ^ Nico, Leo G.; Martin, R. Trent (March 2001). "The South American Suckermouth Armored Catfish, Pterygoplichthys anisitsi (Pisces: Loricaridae), in Texas, with Comments on Foreign Fish Introductions in the American Southwest". The Southwestern Naturalist 46 (1): 98-104. 
42. ^ Wakida-Kusunokia, Armando T.; Ruiz-Carusb, Ramon; Amador-del-Angelc, Enrique (March 2007). "Amazon Sailfin Catfish, Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Castelnau, 1855) (Loricariidae), Another Exotic Species Established in Southeastern Mexico". The Southwestern Naturalist 52 (1): 141–144. 
43. ^ Chavez, Joel M.; de la Paz, Reynaldo M.; Manohar, Surya Krishna; Pagulayan, Roberto C.; Carandang Vi, Jose R. (2006). "New Philippine record of South American sailfin catfishes (Pisces: Loricariidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa 1109: 57–68.Zootaxa&rft.date=2006&rft.volume=1109&rft.aulast=Chavez&rft.aufirst=Joel%20M.&rft.pages=57%26%238211%3B68&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mapress.com%2Fzootaxa%2F2006f%2Fzt01109p068.pdf"> 
44. ^ Bunkley-Williams, Lucy; Williams, Ernest H., Jr.; Lilystrom, Craig G.; Corujo-Flores, Iris; Zerbi, Alfonso J.; Aliaume, Catherine; Churchill, Timothy N. (1994). "The South American Sailfin Armored Catfish, Liposarcus multiradiatus (Hancock), a New Exotic Established in Puerto Rican Fresh Waters" (PDF). Caribbean Journal of Science 30 (1-2): 90-94. 
45. ^ Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Wu, Hsiao-Ping; Shieh, Bao-Sen (2005). "Size Structure, Reproductive Phenology, and Sex Ratio of an Exotic Armored Catfish (Liposarcus multiradiatus) in the Kaoping River of Southern Taiwan" (PDF). Zoological Studies 44 (2): 252-259. 

External links

A. lupus

Binomial name
Anarhichas lupus
Linnaeus, 1758

The Seawolf (Anarhichas lupus), also known as the Atlantic wolffish, Atlantic catfish, wolf eel, or
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Catfish might refer to:
  • The catfish group of primarily freshwater fish
  • Seawolf (fish), the "Atlantic catfish"
  • James Augustus “Catfish” Hunter, a baseball player
  • Milburn “Catfish” Smith, a football and basketball coach

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The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i.e. from 145.5 ± 4.0 million years ago (Ma)) to the beginning of the Paleocene epoch of the Tertiary Period (about 65.5 ± 0.3 Ma).
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Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. Scientific classification also can be called scientific taxonomy, but should be distinguished from folk taxonomy, which lacks scientific basis.
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Editing of this page by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled until (UTC) due to vandalism.
If you are prevented from editing this page, and you wish to make a change, please discuss changes on the talk page, request unprotection, log in, or
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Chordata
Bateson, 1885

Typical Classes

See below

Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates.
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Actinopterygii
Klein, 1885

Subclasses

Chondrostei
Neopterygii
See text for orders.
The Actinopterygii (the plural form of Actinopterygius) comprise the class of the ray-finned fishes.
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Ostariophysi

Orders

Gonorynchiformes
Cypriniformes
Characiformes
Gymnotiformes
Siluriformes

Ostariophysi is the second-largest superorder of fish. Members of this superorder are called ostariophysans.
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Akysidae
Gill, 1861

Genera

Subfamily Akysinae
 Akysis
 Pseudobagarius
Subfamily Parakysinae
 Acrochordonichthys
 Breitensteinia
 Parakysis

The
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Amblycipitidae
Day, 1873

Genera

Amblyceps
Liobagrus
Xiurenbagrus

Amblycipitidae is a family of catfishes, commonly known as torrent catfishes.
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Amphiliidae
Regan, 1911

Genera

Subfamily Amphiliinae
  Amphilius
  Paramphilius
Subfamily Leptoglanidinae
  Dolichamphilius
  Leptoglanis
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Anchariidae
Glaw & Vences, 1994

Genera

Ancharius
Gogo

Anchariidae is a family of catfishes order. This small family contains two genera, Ancharius and Gogo.
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extinction is the cessation of existence of a species or group of taxa, reducing biodiversity. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of that species (although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point).
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Ariidae
L. S. Berg, 1958

Genera

Amissidens
Amphiarius
Arius
Aspistor
Bagre
Batrachocephalus
Brustiarius
Carlarius
Cathorops
Cephalocassis
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Aspredinidae
Adams, 1854

Subfamilies and genera[1]

Subfamily Aspredininae
  Aspredinichthys
  Aspredo
  Platystacus
  Pterobunocephalus
Subfamily
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Astroblepidae
Bleeker, 1862

Genus: Astroblepus
Humboldt, 1805

Species[1]

A. boulengeri
A. brachycephalus
A. caquetae
A. chapmani
A. chimborazoi
A. chotae
A. cirratus
A. cyclopus
A.
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Auchenipteridae
Bleeker, 1862

Genera

Subfamily Centromochlinae
  Centromochlus
  Gelanoglanis
  Glanidium
  Tatia
Subfamily Auchenipterinae
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Austroglanididae
Mo, 1991

Genus: Austroglanis
Skelton, Risch & de Vos, 1984

Species

A. barnardi
A. gilli
A.
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Bagridae
Bleeker, 1858

Genera

Bagrichthys
Bagroides
Bagrus
Batasio
Eomacrones †
Gobibagrus †
Hemibagrus
Hemileiocassis
Hyalobagrus
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Callichthyidae
Bonaparte, 1838

Genera

Aspidoras
Callichthys
Corydoras
Dianema
Hoplosternum
Lepthoplosternum
Megalechis
Scleromystax

Callichthyidae
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Cetopsidae
Bleeker, 1858

Genera

Subfamily Cetopsinae
 Cetopsidium
 Cetopsis
 Denticetopsis
 Paracetopsis
Subfamily Helogeneinae
 Helogenes


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Chacidae
Bleeker, 1858

Genus: Chaca
Gray, 1831

Binomial name
Chaca bankanensis
Bleeker, 1852

Chaca burmensis
Brown & Ferraris, 1988
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Clariidae

Genera

Bathyclarias
Channallabes
Clariallabes
Clarias
Dinotopterus
Dolichallabes
Encheloclarias
Gymnallabes
Heterobranchus

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Claroteidae

Genera

Subfamily Auchenoglanidinae
 Auchenoglanis
 Liauchenoglanis
 Notoglanidium
 Parauchenoglanis
 Platyglanis
Subfamily Claroteinae
 
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Cranoglanididae
Myers, 1931

Genus: Cranoglanis
Peters, 1881

Type species
Cranoglanis sinensis
Peters, 1881

Binomial name

Cranoglanis bouderius

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Doradidae
Bleeker, 1858

Genera[1]

Acanthodoras
Agamyxis
Amblydoras
Anadoras
Anduzedoras
Astrodoras
Centrochir
Centrodoras
Doraops

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Erethistidae
Bleeker, 1862

Genera[1]

Ayarnangra
Caelatoglanis
Conta
Erethistes
Erethistoides
Pseudolaguvia

Erethistidae
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Heptapteridae
Gill, 1861[1]

Genera

Acentronichthys
Brachyglanis
Brachyrhamdia
Cetopsorhamdia
Chasmocranus
Gladioglanis
Goeldiella
Heptapterus

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Hypsidoroidea

Family: Hypsidoridae
Grande, 1987

Genus: Hypsidoris
Lundberg & Case, 1970

Type species
Hypsidoris farsonensis
Lundberg & Case, 1970
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