Centralia Massacre (Washington)

The Centralia Massacre was a violent and bloody incident that occurred in the town of Centralia, Washington, on November 11, 1919, during a parade celebrating the first anniversary of Armistice Day. This conflict between the populace of Centralia and itinerant workers who were members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) — also called the "Wobblies" — labor union, resulted in six deaths, additional wounded, multiple prison terms, and an ongoing and especially bitter dispute over the motivations, timeline, and the events that precipitated the massacre. The subsequent ramifications of this event included: a trial that attracted national media attention; notoriety that contributed to the red scare of the late teens and 1920’s; creation of a powerful martyr for the IWW; a monument to one side of the battle and a mural for the other; a formal tribute to the fallen Legionnaires by President Warren G. Harding [1] and a deep-rooted enmity between the local American Legion and the Wobblies that persists to this day.

Background

The incident was the culmination of several years of bad blood between the town of Centralia and the IWW. Centralia, located in the middle of Washington lumber country, was a small conservative town. Many of its citizens had a strong sense of national patriotism and prided themselves on a work ethic based on the individual. Both Centralia and the neighboring town of Chehalis had a large number of World War I veterans with robust chapters of the American Legion.

The IWW, by contrast, was and remains today a radical labor union with strong anti-capitalist views. With its aggressive stance in the early 1900’s, the union was especially appealing to workers toiling in labor intensive and extremely hazardous fields such as mining and lumber. The Wobblies provided a degree of counter force against the vested owners in those industries. The union had been passionately opposed to American involvement in World War I. First organized in 1905, the Wobblies developed an effective grass roots method of recruiting. Itinerant workers would congregate in a new town, secure a building to create a union hall, and aggressively enlist the local homeless and unemployed by providing food and shelter, if needed, in the hall. These philosophies were an anathema to the average citizen in towns like Centralia. Regardless, the IWW desired a strong presence in Centralia as a keystone to their plan to unionize the lumber industry in the Northwestern United States.

Early Conflicts

The first interaction between these diametrically opposed groups occurred in 1914 when approximately 50 itinerant and unemployed IWW members entered Centralia seeking food, shelter, and a base of operations. Alarmed, local deputies escorted the group out of town, with the majority of Wobblies leaving peaceably. However, a small group later returned to town and robbed some local stores for food. Again detained, this group was taken to Chehalis and turned over to the police.

Over the next few years, the IWW persisted in efforts to establish a permanent presence in Centralia against the wishes of many in the community. Although open conflict was avoided, low-level harassment simmered on both sides. In 1917, the Wobblies tried to open a hall using an alias on the lease agreement. However, the landlord evicted the group when he discovered their identity.

The IWW succeeded in opening a union hall in 1918. Unfortunately, the enmity with the town of Centralia was getting worse. The Bolsheviks had come to power in Russia and many feared that the IWW's intentions were similar, due in part to constant inflammatory allegations of ties between the two. Union members were being arrested across the country on federal sedition charges. To the average citizen in Centralia, and the town’s war veterans in particular, the political leanings of the Wobblies were believed to be un-American and possibly treasonous.

Soon thereafter, the union hall was looted during a local parade celebrating the Red Cross. A small group of men broke off from the parade, entered and destroyed the hall. The men threw out the Wobblies found inside and forcibly removed them from downtown. However, both sides dispute the details. According to the townsfolk of Centralia, this action was in response to ongoing provocations by the Wobblies, and the general desire to remove seditious elements from the town. According to the IWW, the looters were not just local citizens but included hired thugs acting under orders from the lumber companies. In addition, the members thrown out into the street were then humiliated and, more importantly, physically beaten by both the hired muscle and Centralia’s local business owners. Regardless of the point of view, hostilities were now out in the open.

After this incident, the IWW reopened their union hall in the old Roderick Hotel. Although in disrepair, this building was perfect to their needs as it was able to provide lodging for homeless members. More importantly, the Wobblies vowed they would not be so evicted again.

Fateful Decisions

Elmer Smith was a Centralia lawyer sympathetic to the IWW. A pacifist, Smith strongly encouraged union members to pursue a non-violent course and to try to reach a peaceful arrangement with the citizens of Centralia. Whether the result of unwillingness to compromise by the Wobblies, the townsfolk of Centralia, or most likely both groups, Smith’s mediation efforts failed.

With attempts at a peaceful compromise unsuccessful, local IWW leader Britt Smith pressed Elmer Smith for additional advice. Elmer Smith agreed that it would be legal for the Wobblies to physically defend themselves, but, as he later testified, only in self defense if attacked first. Regardless, the IWW members used this legal advice as justification to arm themselves for what they perceived as an inevitable and physically dangerous confrontation.

In hindsight, this legal counsel would prove deadly. During Smith's trial the following year for his part in the Centralia Massacre, prosecutors would leverage this advice into proof that the I.W.W. planned the Massacre. [2] However, considering Elmer Smith’s strong belief in non-violence and seeming good character, it is doubtful that armed conflict was his objective. Impacted by the subsequent tragedy, the true intent of Smith’s recommendation will probably never be known.

As an interesting historical side note, Legionnaire Post Commander Warren Grimm, the first casualty of the Massacre, was also a local lawyer who interacted regularly with Smith. Despite vastly different viewpoints, evidence from personal logs indicates that the professional interaction between these two men was generally respectful and they had an appreciation for each other’s legal acumen. Ironically, the Wobblies themselves can’t agree on the character of Warren Grimm. The post-massacre Labor Jury of union leaders paints him as a lead participant in the Centralia Conspiracy who subverted his own men into attacking the Roderick Hotel. In contrast, Wobbly-sympathetic author John Dos Passos described Grimm as a true “gentleman of upstanding moral character” and an innocent victim in his book , which was written in the 1920s. Furthermore, Warren's brother and law partner, Huber "Polly" Grimm, was Centralia's city attorney at this time. Regardless of his personal feelings toward the Wobblies, Huber is on record during the town hall meeting of October 20th, 1919 asserting that the IWW had legal rights and there was no law that could be used to force them to leave town. [3]

Another set of factors also contributed to the tragedy that was to occur. To celebrate Armistice Day, the town leaders of Centralia planned a combined parade with the neighboring city of Chehalis, to be followed by festivities. Appropriately, the full contingent of both Centralia and Chehalis American Legion Posts, along with other civic organizations, were to march in the parade. This helped create a parade body that was overly crowded and unwieldy.

To make matters worse, the route to be marched was entirely inadequate, with the parade doubling back on itself at 3rd Avenue, a short ways from the IWW Hall on North Tower. In addition, the parade was to follow a new route modified only weeks before the festivities. According to event planners, this new route was needed to accommodate the larger than usual parade. In consequence, the parade was beset by a high number of starts and stops, tight crowding, and large gaps.

More menacing, for the first time part of these route modifications would result in the parade passing directly in front of the new Wobbly hall.

Finally, there were persistent rumors circulating among union members that the lumber companies and local business leaders were ready for a repeat of the 1918 incident and would use the Armistice Day parade as cover. The changes to the parade route, along with various inflammatory speeches by Centralia leaders, helped to fuel these fears.

Regardless of the veracity of these rumors, they began to take on a life of their own, as rumors typically do. They became so prevalent that the owner of the Roderick Hotel who was renting the facility to the IWW asked the local sheriff for assistance during the march. The sheriff declined to provide protection. According to the Centralia Sheriff’s Department, they were unable to commit already scarce resources simply on the basis of a rumor. In contrast, the Wobblies viewed this unwillingness as additional proof of what they believed to be the developing conspiracy against them.

At this point, the course of events began to follow two widely divergent paths based upon one’s point of view.

According to the IWW, their union members, fearing attack, decided to place men armed with revolvers within their hall. To help prevent a repeat of the 1918 street beatings, additional Wobblies were staked out across the street in the Avalon Hotel, further ahead in an old rooming house, and on the rooftops to gain a good view of the area in front of the hall and provide warning. Likewise, members were stationed on nearby Seminary Hill with a commanding view of the street in front of the Roderick.

According to some of the citizens of Centralia, the IWW, being on the losing end of the previous confrontations, was looking for a fight and wanted to even the score with bloodshed. As proof, they point out that only seven Wobblies were actually inside the hall. The rest, allegedly armed with high-powered rifles and stationed in those other buildings, rooftops, and on Seminary Hill, served not as lookouts but as ambushers. Since they could not influence any confrontation within the Hall, these citizens believed, the Wobblies' goal was to create a killing field in the middle of North Tower Street.

The American Legion in particular has a bitter point of contention with the IWW. Warren Grimm was one of the leading figures in Centralia. A local high-school football star, an All-American at the University of Washington, and the new father of a baby girl, he had served with distinction as a US Army officer with the American Expeditionary Forces Siberia protecting the Trans-Siberian Railway during the Russian Revolution. To this day, the American Legion believes that Grimm was specifically singled out in advance as a target, especially since he had made a public speech about the “evils of the Bolsheviks” based on his experiences in Siberia, and was known to be strongly anti-IWW.

Both sides have cited witnesses, claimed witness intimidation and false testimony by the other, and have used forensic evidence to support their arguments.

The Massacre, Part I

Armistice Day, November 11th, 1919, was supposed to be a time of celebration marking the Allied victory in World War I. The memorial parade kicked off with the usual fanfare as local civic organizations and war veterans marched in full regalia. As the parade unevenly wound its way through Centralia, the Chehalis contingent of the American Legion passed in front of the IWW Union Hall.

Both sides agree that the Centralia contingent, which was beginning to press up on the Chehalis contingent, paused just before reaching the site of the hall. As the gap began to open back up with the Chehalis group, Warren Grimm, turned to address his troops and uttered the command “Halt. Close up.” at which point the front ranks began to mark time [4]

At this exact moment, the American Legion and the IWW believe in radically different series of events which still evoke bitter arguments almost nine decades later. Mired in confusion, both sets of events contain glaring inconsistencies and both certainly have at least some elements of truth.

According to the American Legion, this realigning of ranks presented Wobbly Eugene Barnett, stationed back down the in the Avalon, a direct shot at Grimm. The bullet from Barnett’s high powered rifle caught Grimm in the chest, passing through his body and eviscerating him where he stood. Legionnaire McElfresh, standing nearby, was next. Hit in brain by a bullet fired from Seminary Hill, he was killed instantly. As the mortally wounded Grimm was dragged to the sidewalk, additional shots rained down into the unarmed Legionnaires. At this point, caught between dying in the open and charging their ambushers, the Legionnaires stormed the Roderick and surrounding buildings.

In contrast, the IWW claims that, as the Legionnaires paused, a small group, possibly with Grimm’s complicity, broke off and charged the Roderick with the intent to repeat the events of the previous year. When this initial group broke down the doors, the Wobblies, fearing for their lives, fired in self defense. As the first group of Legionnaires fell back in disarray, Grimm was gut shot in the entrance of the hall leading a second group of attackers. McElfresh was then shot by John Doe Davis, one of the few Wobblies never to be captured, as he waited his turn outside.

Evidence supports and contradicts both theories. First, Grimm’s and McElfresh’s wounds were caused by rifle bullets fired at medium to long range, not revolvers, and the blood trails from both men began in the middle of the street. In contrast, the IWW claims that Grimm and McElfresh were two of the three “secret committeemen” behind the Centralia Conspiracy and point to the significant fact that Grimm did give the order to halt in front of the Wobbly hall. The American Legion counters by pointing out what they believe is the incriminating coincidence that Grimm and McElfresh were the first two men killed by the Wobblies and both we shot in the street over 100 feet away from the Roderick on the north side of Second Street on Tower Avenue. [5] The IWW responds with a statement by Dr. Frank Bickford asserting that he personally led the raid and that the Legionnaires initiated the conflict. Dr. Bickford later testified, "the door of the I.W.W. was kicked open before the shooting from inside began."[6] The Legionnaires counter that Bickford was a lying braggart and, by his own admission on the stand, was legally deaf and thus could not know when the shooting actually started [7]. The Legionnaires further counter with statements from IWW member Tom Morgan who was inside the Wobbly Hall during the Massacre and testified "that shots were fired before any rush was made upon the I.W.W. Hall" [8]. The I.W.W. replies that Tom Morgan committed perjury in order to "make a deal", as evidenced by all charges against him being dropped. Both sides have additional eyewitnesses that support their side of the story. Unsurprisingly, most of the witnesses supporting the IWW’s version of events were members of various unions. Likewise, most of the witnesses supporting the American Legion’s version were war veterans and local businessmen.

A third theory, advanced by defense council George Vanderveer, may actually be closer to the truth. In his opening statement, Vanderveer said "I exonerate now and forever the American Legion from any responsibility for this. They were made catpaws..." [9] According to Vanderveer's contention, as the Centralia contingent of Legionnaires began to pass by the Wobbly hall, a small group of men did in fact attempt to storm the building. However, although a few Legionnaires as individuals may have participated, the main aggressors were from the Centralia Citizens' Committee acting on behest of F.B. Hubbard, president of the Eastern Railway & Lumber Company [10]. Grimm, facing partially backwards towards the first platoon, would have seen this movement and assumed they were his troops. Thus, his command “Halt. Close Up.” makes more sense and could have been an attempt to return those men to the parade. However, when Wobblies saw this smaller group of men start towards their union hall, they naturally opened fire. Since the main body of Legionnaires was facing forward, they would not have seen this smaller group and, thus, honestly believed that they were fired upon first. In addition, these packed Legionnaires, including Grimm, standing stationary in the street would have been the easiest targets.

Much of this theory depends upon the character of Lt. Warren Grimm. Like Elmer Smith, he may simply have been a man unfortunately caught in the middle. Although anti-Wobbly, he also seemed a man of outstanding character who valued individual respect and order in the ranks. However, since one side regards him as a martyred hero while some on the other side have viewed him as one of the vilest conspirators, consensus is unlikely.

The Massacre, Part II

After these opening movements, the subsequent series of events is somewhat agreed upon as the group (or second group) of enraged Legionnaires charged the hall.

Legionnaire Bernard Eubanks took a bullet in the leg on the curb in front of the Wobbly hall and Eugene Pfitzer was shot through the arm. Then, as additional Legionnaires broke into the hall and began to overpower the armed men, Wobbly Wesley Everest ran for the back of the hall. Everest shot and killed Legionnaire Ben Cassagranda. Legionnaire Earl Watts was shot next and fell within a few feet of the mortally wounded Cassagranda. (note: there is some confusion regarding the identities of Earl Watts and John Watt and where they were wounded). Everest was able to escape out the rear of the Roderick Hotel, firing at his pursuers and reloading as he ran.

Legionnaire Alva Coleman grabbed a non-functioning revolver (either from a captured Wobbly or a nearby house) and began to chase Everest. Shot and wounded by Everest, he passed the revolver to Legionnaire Dale Hubbard, a noted athlete, who caught up with Everest as the Wobbly was trying to ford the Skookumchuck River. Pointing the useless revolver at Everest, Hubbard ordered Everest to drop his gun and surrender. It is not known whether Hubbard knew his revolver was useless. Everest most certainly would have assumed it wasn’t. Everest, already having killed one Legionnaire, wounding two more, and unable to cross the river, turned and shot Hubbard and seriously wounded Legionnaire John Watt.

At this point Everest returned to shore and, according to the townsmen next arriving on the scene, proceeded to pistol whip the mortally wounded Hubbard before being subdued. In contrast, IWW memoirs make no mention of this final brutal act, if it in fact occurred.

All of the captured Wobblies were taken to the local jail. Elmer Smith, who did not participate in the actual massacre, was also rounded up and incarcerated. There is also some confusion over whether IWW leader Britt Smith was jailed at this point or captured soon thereafter.

Wobbly Loren Roberts, 16, turned himself in on November 13th. Then, as the town of Centralia continued to hunt for escaped Wobblies over the next few days, Deputy Sheriff John M. Haney was killed November 15th. This final fatality was most likely caused by friendly fire. Bert Bland was the last Wobbly captured on November 19th.

The Deathof Wesley Everest

The night of November 11th, 1919, added an additional ugly sub-plot to the events surrounding the Centralia Massacre.

As evening fell, a vigilante mob of hysterical townsmen began to grow outside the jailhouse. Suddenly, the power grid at the municipal electric power plant was turned off, plunging the town into darkness. Whether this individual was working alone supporting the growing mob, or was acting under the direction of Centralia’s sheriff remains another disputed issue. Regardless, the effect was the same.

Under cover of darkness, the mob forced the release of Wesley Everest. Although Everest’s personal identity was unknown, with some believing him to be IWW leader Britt Smith, he was positively recognized as the Wobbly who had shot and killed both Cassangranda and Hubbard. Everest was the only Wobbly taken from the jail.

The subsequent facts surrounding the death of Wesley Everest are as hotly and violently contested as the death of Warren Grimm.

The IWW claims that the mob proceeded to beat Everest, caving in his teeth with a rifle butt and castrating the helpless man. They then carried him to the bridge on Mellon Street, tied a noose around his neck, and threw him over the edge three times, the final toss breaking his neck and killing him. That bridge was subsequently known as the “Hangman’s Bridge”.

Centralia’s town records of the time make no mention of the beating, let alone any castration. The “official” coroner’s report lists the cause of death as a “suicide”. Centralia’s prosecutor, Herman Allen, claimed that he would prosecute the lynching if any evidence was brought forth. Not surprisingly, none of the vigilantes were ever charged.

Unfortunately, neither the coroner of Centralia nor of nearby Chehalis were ever willing to examine Everest’s body. As a consequence, there was never any physical evidence to support either position. However, considering the mood of the mob that night and what Everest had done, Everest was almost certainly beaten and hung. Wesley Everest was eventually buried in an unmarked grave.

The events surrounding this night and the IWW’s fervent belief that the local sheriff was one of the conspirators, helped turn Wesley Everett into one of the union's best known martyrs.

Aftermath

The captured Wobblies were charged with murder and the resulting trial was held in Montesano, in nearby Grays Harbor County. After a trial that received national coverage, eight Wobblies were convicted of 2nd degree murder, two were acquitted (including Elmer Smith), and two had all charges against them dropped. Those convicted were sentenced to prison terms of 25-40 years, far in excess of the standard 10 year sentence of the day.

As time passed and passions cooled, a public campaign spearheaded by Elmer Smith was eventually able to secure the release of those Wobblies still alive in prison. Although their convictions were never overturned, all of the remaining Wobblies save one were paroled in 1931 and 1932. The sole hold-out was Ray Becker. Continuing to maintain his innocence, Becker refused to accept parole and was eventually pardoned in 1939 with his sentence commuted to time served.

Events in the year 1919 had a significant impact on the IWW. Bill Haywood, then Secretary-Treasurer of the union, left the United States to avoid a lengthy prison sentence relating to the organization's anti-war activities. He traveled with friends to Soviet Russia, where he spent the rest of his days. Emma Goldman was an anarchist who was a long-time supporter of the IWW, but had never joined. She was deported to Russia, along with many other anarchist immigrants. Many IWW leaders were arrested and spent time in prison. Still others were lynched by mobs in vigilante actions spurred on by employers, local government officials, and hostile newspapers.

In 1924 the IWW underwent a split over issues such as centralization. In the wake of that split, many rank-and-file members left the IWW for the Communist Party, which had adopted a campaign of more covert operations by infiltrating more mainstream unions in the AFL. Though the IWW has made a modest comeback in recent years, its membership has never come anywhere near the group's 1923 all-time high of 100,000 members.

A bronze statue of a doughboy, erected to honor the four Legionnaires killed in the Massacre, still stands in Centralia's George Washington Park. In 1999 the owner of the nearby former Elks building commissioned a mural to memorialize Wesley Everest and the Wobblies.

Literature on the subject of the massacre includes Wobbly Wars, the Centralia Story by John McCleland, as well as The Centralia Tragedy of 1919: Elmer Smith and the Wobblies. The incident also features prominently in John Dos Passos' U.S.A. trilogy.

The above link to the doughboy shows E.M. Viquesney's Spirit of the American Doughboy, which is not the doughboy statue that stands in Centralia; the statue there is The Sentinel, by sculptor Alonzo Victor Lewis. Photos of it at The Doughboy Center Website are available to confirm this. Although Viquesney received a letter in 1921 from the American Legion informing him his statue had won that organization's design award competition and was to be the monument placed at Centralia, in 1924, Lewis' statue was placed there instead.

The Victims

The only significant facts not in dispute are the identities of the victims:

Killed:
  • Warren Grimm, American Legion Post Commander;
  • Arthur McElfresh, American Legion;
  • Ben Cassagranda, American Legion;
  • Dale Hubbard, American Legion;
  • John M. Haney, Centralia Deputy Sheriff; and,
  • Wesley Everest, IWW


Wounded:
  • Bernard Eubanks, American Legion;
  • Eugene Pfitzer, American Legion;
  • Earl Watts, American Legion;
  • Alva Coleman, American Legion; and,
  • John Watt, American Legion


Eight Wobblies were convicted of 2nd degree murder for their roles in the massacre:
  • Eugene Barnett;
  • Bert Bland;
  • O.C. Bland;
  • Ray Becker;
  • John McInerney;
  • Dewey Lamb;
  • John Lamb; and,
  • Loren Roberts (guilty, but found insane).


Mike Sheehan and Elmer Smith, a local lawyer sympathetic to the IWW, were acquitted. Bert Faulkner and Tom Morgan, who turned states evidence, had their charges dropped.

External links

Notes

1. ^ "Nation's Chief Pays Glowing Tribute to Slain War Veterans", United Wire, November 11, 1922
2. ^ "Visited I.W.W. Hall with Elmer Smith at Noon on November 11th", The Chronicle (Spokane, WA), February 16, 1920
3. ^ The Centralia Chronicle, October 21st, 1919.
4. ^ "Testimony of Frank Van Gilder not Shaken by Cross-Examination", The Chronicle (Spokane, WA), February 17th, 1920
5. ^ "Clarence Watkins is Placed on Stand", The Chronicle (Spokane, WA), February 14th, 1920
6. ^ Vernon Horton Jensen, Lumber and Labor, 1971, pp. 142.
7. ^ "Vanderveer Sharply Censured by Court", The Chronicle (Spokane, WA) March 1, 1920
8. ^ "Scene in I.W.W. Hall Prior to Shooting is Explained in Detail", The Chronicle (Spokane, WA), February 13,1920
9. ^ "Centralia Citizens' Committee is Blamed for Amrmistace Day Murder - American Legion Members are Exonerated by Vanderveer", The Chronicle (Spokane, WA), February 9th, 1920
10. ^ Ibid
Armistice Day is the anniversary of the official end of World War I, November 11, 1918. It commemorates the armistice signed between the Allies and Germany at Compiègne, France, for the cessation of hostilities on the Western Front, which took effect at eleven o'clock in the
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IWW

Industrial Workers of the World
Founded 1905
Members 2,000/900 (2006)
100,000 (1923)
Country International
Office location Cincinnati, Ohio
Website www.iww.
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First Red Scare took place in the period 1917–1920, and was marked by a widespread fear of anarchism and communism, as well as the effects of radical political agitation in American society. Fueled by anarchist bombings and spurred on by Attorney General A.
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Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2 1865 – August 2 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923, when he became the sixth president to die in office.
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The American Legion is an organization of veterans of the United States armed forces who served in wartime. The Organization was founded in 1919 by veterans returning from Europe after World War I and is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana.
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Clockwise from top: Trenches on the Western Front; a British Mark IV tank crossing a trench; Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistible sinking after striking a mine at the Battle of the Dardanelles; a Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks, and German Albatros D.
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The American Legion is an organization of veterans of the United States armed forces who served in wartime. The Organization was founded in 1919 by veterans returning from Europe after World War I and is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana.
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John Rodrigo Dos Passos (January 14, 1896 — September 28, 1970) was an American novelist and artist.

Early life

Dos Passos was born in Chicago, where his father was a wealthy lawyer of Madeiran Portuguese descent.
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Russian Revolution can refer to:
  • Russian Revolution (1905), a series of strikesagainst Tsar Nicholas II
  • Russian Revolution (1917)

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Wesley Everest (1890—November 11, 1919) was a member of the Industrial Workers of the World and a World War I veteran. He was killed during the Centralia Massacre after killing Ben Cassagranda and Earl Watts and wounding others.
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Montesano, Washington

Seal
Motto:
Location of Montesano, Washington
Coordinates:
Country United States
State Washington
County Grays Harbor
Area
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Grays Harbor County is a county of Washington State, in the United States of America. As of 2000, the population was 67,194. The county seat is at Montesano, and its largest city is Aberdeen.
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William Dudley Haywood (February 4, 1869–May 18, 1928), better known as Big Bill Haywood, was a prominent figure in the American labor movement. Haywood was a leader of the Western Federation of Miners (WFM), a founding member and leader of the Industrial Workers of
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Emma Goldman (June 27 1869 – May 14 1940) known as 'Red Emma', was a Lithuanian-born anarchist known for her writings and speeches. She was lionized as an iconic "rebel woman" feminist by admirers, and derided as an advocate of politically motivated murder and violent
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A.F. of L.
American Federation of Labor
Founded December 8, 1886
Date dissolved December 4, 1955
Merged into AFL-CIO
Country United States
Office location New York City; later, Washington, D.C.
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Doughboy is an outdated slang term for an American infantryman, best known from its use in World War I, although it potentially dates back to the Mexican-American War of 1846-48.

Etymology

The origin of the term is unclear.
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John Rodrigo Dos Passos (January 14, 1896 — September 28, 1970) was an American novelist and artist.

Early life

Dos Passos was born in Chicago, where his father was a wealthy lawyer of Madeiran Portuguese descent.
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The Spirit of the American Doughboy is a pressed copper sculpture by Ernest Moore Viquesney, designed to honor the veterans and casualties of World War I. Mass produced during the 1920s and 1930s for communities throughout the United States, the statue's design was the most popular
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A sentinel usually refers to a sentry or border guard, sometimes a statue that guards a particular place, person or item, as well as an Honour guard.

Sentinel may also refer to:

Science


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Lt. Warren O. "Wedge" Grimm was born on March 9, 1888 in Lewistown, Pennsylvania. http://www.drizzle.com/~jtenlen/walewis/walewis.html An All-American at the University of Washington and an officer in the United States Army, he served with distinction as part of the American
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Wesley Everest (1890—November 11, 1919) was a member of the Industrial Workers of the World and a World War I veteran. He was killed during the Centralia Massacre after killing Ben Cassagranda and Earl Watts and wounding others.
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