Chalukya Dynasty

ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯ ರಾಜವಂಶ
Chalukya dynasty
Founded6th century
FounderPulakesi I
Official LanguagesKannada, Sanskrit
CapitalVatapi (Badami)
GovernmentMonarchy
Greatest RulerPulakesi II
Preceding stateKadambas
Succeeding stateRashtrakuta
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Badami Chalukya Territories
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Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, built 740
The Chalukya dynasty (Kannada: ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು IPA: [ʧaːɭukjə]) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three closely related, but individual dynasties. The earliest dynasty is known as the Badami Chalukyas who ruled from their capital Badami from the middle of the 6th century. The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakesi II. After the death of Pulakesi II, the Eastern Chalukyas became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan. They ruled from the capital Vengi until about the 11th century. In the western Deccan, the rise of the Rashtrakutas in the middle of 8th century eclipsed the Chalukyas of Badami before being revived by their descendants, the Western Chalukyas in late 10th century. These Western Chalukyas ruled from Basavakalyan till the end of the 12th century.

The rise of the Chalukyas marks an important milestone in the history of South India and a golden age in the history of Karnataka. The political atmosphere in South India shifted from smaller kingdoms to large empires with the rise of Badami Chalukyas. For the first time in history, a South Indian kingdom took control and consolidated the entire region between the Kaveri and the Narmada rivers. The rise of this empire also saw the birth of efficient administration, rise in overseas trade and commerce and the development of new style of architecture called Vesara. Around the 9th century, it also saw the growth of Kannada as a language of literature in the Jaina Puranas, Veerashaiva Vachanas and Brahminical traditions. The 11th century saw the birth of Telugu literature under the patronage of the Eastern Chalukyas.

Origin of Chalukyas

Natives of Karnataka

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Old Kannada inscription, Virupaksha Temple, Pattadakal, 745
While opinions vary regarding the early origins of the Chalukyas, the consensus is that the founders of the empire were native to the Karnataka region.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. According to one theory , the Chalukya were descendants of the "Seleukia" tribe of Iraq and that their conflict with the Pallava of Kanchi was, but a continuation of the conflict between ancient Seleukia and "Parthians", the proposed ancestors of Pallavas. However, this theory has been rejected as it seeks build lineages based simply on similar sounding clan names.[11] Another theory that they were descendants of a 2nd century chieftain called Kandachaliki Remmanaka, a feudatory of the Andhra Ikshvaku (from an Ikshvaku inscription of 2nd century) was put forward but this has failed to explain the difference in lineage. The Kandachaliki feudatory call themselves Vashisthiputras of the Hiranyakagotra where as Chalukya inscriptions address themselves as Harithiputras of Manavyasagotra, which incidentally is the same as their early overlords, the Kadambas of Banavasi. This makes them descendants of the Kadambas. The Chalukyas took control of the territory formerly ruled by the Kadambas.[12]

Another record of Eastern Chalukyas conforms to the northern origin theory and claims one ruler of Ayodhya came south, defeated the Pallavas and married a Pallava princess. She had a child called Vijayaditya who is claimed to be the Pulakesi I's father. However, there is inscriptional evidence that the father of Pulakesi I was Ranaranga.[13][14] While the northern origin theory has been dismissed by many historians, it is suggested that a southern migration is a distinct possibility which needs examination.[15] The complete absence of any reference to their family connections to Ayodhya in the Badami Chalukya inscriptions and their Kannadiga identity may have been due to their earlier migration into present day Karnataka region where they achieved success as chieftains and kings. Hence, the place of origin of their ancestors may have been of no significance to the kings of the Badami Chalukya empire who may have considered themselves natives of the Kannada speaking region.[16] There is controversy even regarding the caste to which the early Chalukyas belonged. Evidence in the writings of 12th century Kashmiri poet Bilhana suggests the Chalukya family belonged to the Shudra caste while other sources claim they were of Kshatriya caste.[17]

The Chalukya inscriptions are in Kannada and Sanskrit.[18][19] Their inscriptions call them Karnatas and their names use indigenous Kannada titles such as Priyagallam and Noduttagelvom. The names of some Chalukya kings end with the pure Kannada term arasa (meaning "king" or "chief").[20][21] The Rashtrakuta inscriptions speak of Chalukyas of Badami as Karnataka Bala (Power of Karnataka). Scholars have proposed that the word Chalukya originated from Salki or Chalki which is a Kannada word for an agricultural implement.[22][23]

Sources of history

Inscriptions are the main source of information about the Badami Chalukya history. Important among them, the Badami cave inscriptions (578) of Mangalesa, Kappe Arabhatta record of 700, Peddavaduguru inscription of Pulakesi II, the Kanchi Kailasanatha inscription and Pattadakal Virupaksha Temple inscriptions of Vikramaditya II all in Kannada provide more evidence of the Chalukya language.[24][25] The earliest inscription of the Badami cliff dated 543 of Pulakesi I, the Mahakuta Pillar inscription (595) of Mangalesa and the Aihole inscription dated 634 of Pulakesi II are examples of Sanskrit inscriptions written in old Kannada script.[26][27][28][29] The reign of the Chalukyas saw the arrival of Kannada as the predominant language of inscriptions along with Sanskrit, in areas of the Indian peninsula outside what is known as Tamilaham (Tamil country).[30] Several coins of the early Chalukyas with Kannada legends have been found indicating usage of Kannada at the highest administrative levels.[31] Inscriptions of the Chalukyas have been translated and recorded by historians of the Archaeological Survey of India.[32][33]

Foreign notes

Hiuen-Tsiang, a Chinese traveller had visited the court of Pulakesi II. At the time of this visit, as mentioned in the Aihole record, Pulakesi II had divided his empire into three Maharashtrakas or great provinces comprising of 99,000 villages each. This empire possibly covered present day Karnataka, Maharashtra and coastal Konkan.[34][35] Hiuen-Tsang, impressed with the governance of the empire observed that the benefits of king's efficient administration was felt far and wide. Later, Persian emperor Khosrau II exchanged ambassadors with Pulakesi II.[36]

Legends

Vidyapati Bilhana, the famous poet in the court of Vikramaditya VI of the Western Chalukya dynasty of Kalyana, mentions a legend in his work, Vikramankadeva Charita:
Indra once requested Brahma to create a hero who would put an end to Godlessness in the world and punish the wicked. Agreeing to his request, Brahma looked into his Chuluka (hollow of the hands) while performing the Sandhya, and lo! From there sprang a mighty warrior. He was called "Chalukya" and he became the eponymous ancestor of the line. In it were born two great heroes, Harita and Manavya who raised the Chalukyas into distinct position. This story is repeated and elaborated in the Ramastipundi grant of Vimaladitya of the Eastern Chalukya family.
Another legend in the Handarike inscription of Vikramaditya VI claims that the Chalukyas were born in the interior of the Chuluka (hollow of the palm) of the sage Haritipanchashikhi when he was pouring out libations to the Gods. The Chalukyas claimed to have been nursed by the Sapta Matrikas (the seven divine mothers). It was a popular practice to link South Indian royal family lineage to a Northern kingdom in ancient times.[37]

According to a Western Chalukya inscription of Vikramaditya VI, the Chalukyas originally hailed from Ayodhya where fifty-nine kings, and later sixteen more, of this family ruled from Dakshinapatha (South India) where they had migrated.[38][39]

Periods in Chalukya history

ಬಾದಾಮಿ ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು
Badami Chalukya
(543-753)
Pulakesi I(543 - 566)
Kirtivarman I(566 - 597)
Mangalesa(597 - 609)
Pulakesi II(609 - 642)
Vikramaditya I(655 - 680)
Vinayaditya(680 -696)
Vijayaditya(696 - 733)
Vikramaditya II(733746)
Kirtivarman II(746753)
Dantidurga
(Rashtrakuta Empire)
(735-756)
The Chalukyas ruled over the central Indian plateau of Deccan for over 600 years. During this period, they ruled as three closely related, but individual dynasties. These are the Chalukyas of Badami, who ruled between the 6th and the 8th century, and the two sibling dynasties of Chalukyas of Kalyani or the Western Chalukyas and the Chalukyas of Vengi or the Eastern Chalukyas.[40][41]

Chalukyas of Badami

In the 6th century, with the decline of the Gupta dynasty and their immediate successors in northern India, major changes began to happen in the area south of the Vindyas— the Deccan and Tamilaham. The age of small kingdoms had given way to large empires in this region.[42] The Chalukya dynasty was established by Pulakesi I in 550.[43][44] Pulakesi I took Vatapi (Badami in Bagalkot district, Karnataka) under his control and made it his capital. Pulakesi I and his descendants are referred to as Chalukyas of Badami. They ruled over an empire that comprised the entire state of Karnataka and most of Andhra Pradesh in the Deccan. Pulakesi II whose precoronation name was Ereya was perhaps the greatest emperor of the Badami Chalukyas.[45] Also known as Immadi Pulakesi, he is considered one of the great kings in Indian history.[46][47][48] His queen was Kadamba Devi, a princess from the dynasty of Alupas. They maintained close family and marital relationship with the Alupas of South Canara and the Gangas of Talakad. Pulakesi II extended the Chalukya Empire up to the northern extents of the Pallava kingdom and halted the southward march of Harsha by defeating him on the banks of the river Narmada. He then defeated the Vishnukundins in the southeastern Deccan. Pallava Narasimhavarman however reversed this victory by attacking and occupying the Chalukya capital Vatapi (Badami) temporarily.

The Badami Chalukya dynasty went in to a brief decline following the death of Pulakesi II due to internal feuds. It recovered during the reign of Vikramaditya I, who succeeded in pushing the Pallavas out of Badami and restoring order to the empire. The empire reached a peak during the rule of the illustrious Vikramaditya II who defeated the Pallava Nandivarman II and captured Kanchipuram. The last Badami Chalukya king Kirtivarman I was overthrown by the Rashtrakuta Dantidurga in 753. At their peak they ruled a vast empire stretching from the Kaveri to the Narmada.

Chalukyas of Kalyani

Main article: Western Chalukyas
Part of a on
History of Karnataka
Origin of Karnataka's name
Kadambas and Gangas
Chalukya dynasty
Rashtrakuta Dynasty
Western Chalukya Empire
Hoysala Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
Bahamani Sultanate
Bijapur Sultanate
 Political history of medieval Karnataka 
Mysore Kingdom
Unification of Karnataka

  
  

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The Chalukyas revived their fortunes in 973 after over 200 years of dormancy when much of the Deccan was under the Rashtrakutas. While the popular theory is that the Kalyani Chalukyas belonged to the Badami Chalukya line,[49] objections have been raised by some historians indicating they may have been unrelated to the Early Chalukya family.[50] However, it has also been noticed that the Badami Chalukyas had titles like Satyashraya, which is also the name of a Kalyani Chalukya prince and that they used titles ending with Yuddamalla, Rajamalla which was seen commonly in other Chalukya families of the area.[51] Irrespective of their exact origin, the reign of the Kalyani Chalukyas was a golden age in Kannada literature.[52] Tailapa II, a Rashtrakuta feudatory ruling from Tardavadi-1000 (Bijapur district) overthrew Karka II and re-established the Chalukyan kingdom and recovered most of the Chalukya empire.[53] This dynasty came to be known as the Western Chalukya dynasty or Later Chalukya dynasty.

The Western Chalukyas ruled for another 200 years and were in constant conflict with the Cholas and their cousins the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi. Vikramaditya VI is widely considered the greatest ruler of the dynasty. His fifty year reign is called Chalukya Vikrama Era.[54][55][56] The Western Chalukyas went into their final dissolution c.1180 with the rise of the Hoysalas, Kakatiya and Seuna.

Eastern Chalukyas

Main article: Eastern Chalukyas
Pulakesi II (608644) conquered the eastern Deccan, corresponding to the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh in 616, defeating the remnants of the Vishnukundina kingdom. He appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as Viceroy.[57] On the death of Pulakesi II, the Vengi Viceroyalty developed into an independent kingdom. Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi outlived the main Vatapi dynasty by many generations. A claim has been made that the Eastern Chalukyas were originally of Kannada descent[58] and another that they were Maratha Kshatriyas.[59] Initially they encouraged Kannada language and literature though after a period of time local factors took over and they gave importance to Telugu language.[60][61] Telugu literature owes its growth to the Eastern Chalukyas.[62]

Art and Architecture

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Mallikarjuna and Kashi Vishwanatha Temples, Pattadakal, built 745
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Dancing Shiva in Badami
The period of Badami Chalukya dynasty saw art flourish in South India. It brought about some important developments in the realm of culture, particularly in the evolution and proliferation of a new style of architecture known as Vesara, a combination of the South Indian and the North Indian building styles. Sage Bharata's dance Natyasastra was in an advanced state of development.[63] One of the richest traditions in Indian architecture took shape in the Deccan during this time and is called as Karnata Dravida style as opposed to traditional Dravida style.[64] The Vesara style influenced the Eastern Chalukyas. This is evidenced by the presence of similar style temples in Alampur in Kurnool district of present day Andhra Pradesh.[65] The Kalyani Chalukyas further refined the Vesara style with an inclination towards Dravidian concepts, especially in the sculptures. They built fine monuments in the Tungabhadra - Krishna river doab in present day Karnataka.

Badami Chalukyas

The most enduring legacy of the Chalukya dynasty is the architecture and art that they left behind. More than one hundred and fifty monuments attributed to the Badami Chalukya, and built between 450 and 700, remain in the Malaprabha basin in Karnataka.[66]

The rock-cut temples of Pattadakal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Badami and Aihole are their most celebrated monuments.[67][68] This is the beginning of Chalukya style of architecture and a consolidation of South Indian style.

In Aihole, the Durga temple (6th century), Ladh Khan temple (450), Meguti temple (634), Hucchimalli and Huccappayya temples (5th century), Badami Cave Temples (600) are examples of early Chalukyan art. The majestic temples at Pattadakal were commissioned by Vikramaditya II (740). Here the Virupakshaand Mallikarjuna (740), Sangameswara (725) and a Jain temple are in the Dravidian style while Jambulinga, Kasivisweswara and Galaganatha (740) are in the Northern nagara style. The Papanatha (680) temple shows an attempt to combine the Northern and Southern styles.

According to some art critics, the Badami Chalukya style is a "prayaga" or confluence of formal trends of architecture, the dravida and nagara. The temples were a result of religious enthusiasm and intensity of purpose. Aihole is considered "one of the cradles of Indian temple architecture"[69]
See also: , , , and

Literature

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Hindu Cave No.3, Badami, 578
The rule of the Chalukyas is a major event in the history of Kannada and Telugu languages. During this time, writing epic narratives and poetry in Sanskrit was very popular. However, during the 9th - 10th century, Kannada language had already seen some of its greatest writers. The three gems of Kannada literature, Adikavi Pampa, Sri Ponna and Ranna belonged to this period.[70] In the 11th century, Telugu literature was born under the patronage of the Eastern Chalukyas with Nannaya Bhatta as its first writer. Famous writers in Sanskrit from this period were Vijnaneshwara who achieved fame by writing Mitakshara a book on Hindu law. Somesvara III was a great scholar and king compiled an encyclopedia of all arts and sciences called Manasollasa.[71]


From the period of the Badami Chalukya however no major Kannada literary work has been recovered, though many works have been referenced in later centuries. The extant Kappe Arabhatta record of 700 in tripadi (three line) metre is considered the earliest work in Kannada poetics. The literary work Karnateshwara Katha, which was quoted later by Jayakirti, belonged to the period of Pulakesi II with the great king himself as the hero.[72] Other Kannada writers of this time were Syamakundacharya of 650 who wrote Prabhrita, the celebrated Srivaradhadeva also called Tumubuluracharya of 650 (who wrote Chudamani, a commentary on Tattvartha-mahashastra in 96,000 verses), King Durvinita, and others.[73][74][75] The Aihole inscription (634) of Pulakesi II written by court poet Ravi Kirti in old Kannada script and Sanskrit language is considered as an excellent piece of poetry.[76][77] In Sanskrit, a few verses of a poetess called Vijayanaka has been preserved.

Badami Chalukya Government

Army

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Badami tank fed by waterfall
The army consisted of infantry, cavalry, elephant corps and a powerful navy. The Chinese traveller Hiuen-Tsiang mentions the Chalukya army had hundreds of elephants which were intoxicated with liquor prior to battle.[78] It was with their navy that they conquered Revatidvipa (Goa) and Puri on east coast of India. Rashtrakuta inscriptions use the term Karnatabala referring to their powerful armies.[79] Taxes were levied and called Herjunka, Kirukula, Bilkode and Pannaya.

Land governance

The empire was divided into Maharashtrakas (provinces), then into smaller Rashtrakas (Mandala), Vishaya (district), Bhoga (group of 10 villages) which is similar to the Dasagrama unit used by the Kadambas. At the lower levels of administration, the Kadamba style fully prevailed. The Sanjan plates of Vikramaditya I even mentions a land unit called Dasagrama.[80] There were many autonomous regions ruled by feudatories like Alupas, Gangas, Banas, Sendrakas etc. Local assemblies looked after local issues. Groups of mahajanas (learned brahmins), looked after agraharas (like Ghatika or place of higher learning) like the ones at Badami (2000 mahajans) and Aihole (500 mahajanas).

Coinage

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Badami Jain Cave No. 4, 6th century
The Badami Chalukyas minted coins that were of a different standard compared to the northern kingdoms.[81] The coins had Nagari and Kannada legends. They minted coins with symbols of temples, lion or boar facing right and the lotus. The coins weighed 4 grams and were called honnu in old Kannada and had fractions such as fana and the quarter fana, whose modern day equivalent being hana (literally means, money). A gold coin called Gadyana is mentioned in some record in Pattadakal which later came to be known a varaha which was also on their emblem.

Religion

The rule of the Badami Chalukya was a period of religious harmony. They were themselves initially followers of Vedic Hindusim, as seen in the various temples dedicated to many popular Hindu deities with Aihole as the experimental laboratory.[82] Pattadakal is the location of their grandest architecture. The worship of Lajja Gauri, the fertility goddess was equally popular. Later from the time of Vikramaditya I took an inclination towards Shaivism and sects like Pashupata, Kapalikas and Kalamukhas existed. However, they actively encouraged Jainsm and attested to by one of the Badami cave temples and other Jain temples in the Aihole complex. Ravikirti, the court poet of Pulakesi II was a Jain. Buddhism was on a decline having made its ingress into Southeast Asia, as confirmed by Hiuen-Tsiang. Badami, Aihole and Kurtukoti, Puligere (Laksmeshwara in Gadag district) were primary places of learning.

Society

The Hindu caste system was present and prostitution was recognised by the government. Some kings had concubines (Ganikas) who were given much respect,[83] sati was perhaps absent as widows like Vinayavathi and Vijayanka are mentioned in records. Devadasis' were present in temples. Sage Bharata's Natyashastra the precursor to Bharatanatyam, the dance of South India was popular as seen in many sculptures and mentioned in inscriptions.[84] Women enjoyed political power in administration. Queens Vijayanka, a noted Sanskrit poetess, Kumkumadevi, the younger sister of Vijayaditya and Lokamahadevi, queen of Vikramaditya II who fought wars stand as examples.

In popular culture

The Chalukya era may be seen as the beginning in the fusion of cultures of northern and southern India making way for the transmission of ideas between the two regions. This is clear from an architectural point of view in that the Chalukyas spawned the Vesara style of architecture which includes elements of the northern nagara and southern dravida styles. The expanding Sanskritic culture mingled in a region where local Dravidian vernaculars were already popular.[85] Dravidian languages maintain these influences even today. This influence also helped enrich literature in these languages.[86] The Hindu legal system owes much to the Sanskrit work Mitakshara by Vijnaneshwara in the court of Chalukya Vikramaditya VI. Perhaps the greatest work in legal literature, Mitakshara is a commentary on Yajnavalkya and is a treatise on law based on earlier writings and has found acceptance in most parts of India. An Englishman Colebrooke later translated into English the section on inheritance giving it currency in the British Indian court system.[87] It was during the Chalukya rule that the Bhakti movement gained momentum in south India in the form of Ramanujacharya and Basavanna later spreading to north India.

A yearly celebration called Chalukya utsava, a three-day festival of music and dance organised by the Government of Karnataka is held every year at Pattadakal, Badami and Aihole.[88] The event is a celebration of the glorious achievements of the Chalukyas in the realms of arts, crafts, music and dance. The program which starts at Pattadakal and ends in Aihole is inaugurated by the Chief Minister of Karnataka. Singers, dancers, poets and other artists from all over the country take part in this event. In the February 26, 2006 celebration, 400 art troupes from different parts of the country had taken part. Colorful cut outs of the Varaha the Chalukya emblem, Satyasraya Pulakesi (Pulakesi II), famous sculptural masterpieces like Durga, Mahishasura-mardhini (Durga killing demon Mahishasura) were seen everywhere. The program at Pattadakal is named Anivaritacharigund vedike after the famous architect of the Virupaksha temple, Gundan Anivaritachari. At Badami it is called Chalukya Vijayambika Vedike and at Aihole, Ravikirti Vedike after the famous poet and minister in the court of Pulakesi II. RaviKirti is the author of the Aihole inscription of 634 which is considered as a masterpiece in medieval Sanskrit poetry written in Kannada script. Souvenirs with Sri Vallabha and Satyasraya written on, were available (these were the titles taken commonly by the kings of the Badami dynasty) and CDs and DVDs detailing the history, culture etc. of the region were sold. Immadi Pulakeshi, a Kannada movie of the 1960s starring Dr. Rajkumar celebrates the life and times of the great king.

See also

Notes

1. ^ N. Laxminarayana Rao and Dr. S. C. Nandinath have asserted that the Chalukyas were Kannadigas (Kannada speakers) and very much the natives of Karnataka in Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p57
2. ^ The Chalukyas were Kannadigas according to D.C.Sircar in Mahajan V.D. (1960),Reprint (2007), Ancient India, Chand and Company, New Delhi, p690, ISBN:81-219-0887-6
3. ^ Natives of Karnataka - Dr.Hans Raj, (2007), Advanced history of India : From earliest times to present times, Part1, Surgeet publications, New Delhi, p339
4. ^ The Chalukyas hailed from present day Karnataka, John Keay, History of India, 2000, Grove publications, p168
5. ^ The Chalukyas of Badami were of indigenous origin-Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p58
6. ^ Jayasimha and Ranaraga, the first members of the Chalukya family were possibly employees of the Kadambas in the northern part of the Kadamba Kingdom - Fleet (Kanarese Dynasties, p343) in Moraes (1931), The Kadamba Kula, A History of Ancient and Medieval Karnataka, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, pp51–52
7. ^ Pulakesi must have been an administrative official of the northern Kadamba territory centered in Badami- George M. Moraes (1931), The Kadamba Kula, A History of Ancient and Medieval Karnataka, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, pp51–52
8. ^ The Chalukya base was Badami and Aihole from where they overthrew their overlords, the Kadambas, Dr. Romila Thapar, The Penguin History of Early India, From Origin to 1300 AD, 2003, Penguin, p328
9. ^ The Badami region constituted their homeland, George Michell (2002), Pattadakal - Monumental Legacy, Oxford University Press, p5
10. ^ Inscriptional evidence proves the Chalukyas were native Kannadigas-Karmarkar, A.P. (1947), Cultural history of Karnataka : ancient and medieval, Karnataka Vidyavardhaka Sangha, Dharwad OCLC 8221605, p26
11. ^ Dr. Lewis's theory has not found acceptance because the Pallavas were in constant conflict with the Kadambas, prior to the rise of Chalukyas, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p57
12. ^ Pulakesi I of Badami who was a feudatory of the Kadamba king Krishna Varman II overpowered his overlord in 540 and took control of the Kadamba kingdom, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p35
13. ^ from the Badami Cliff inscription of Pulakesi I and from the Hyderabad record of Pulakesi II which states their family ancestry, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p56–58
14. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), p154
15. ^ K.V. Ramesh, Chalukyas of Vatapi, 1984, Agam Kala Prakashan, p19
16. ^ K.V. Ramesh, Chalukyas of Vatapi, 1984, Agam Kala Prakashan, p20
17. ^ From the Sanskrit work Vikramanakadevacharitam by Bilhana which claims the early Chalukya family were born from the feet of Lord Brahma implying they were Shudras by caste, while other sources claim they were born in the arms of Brahma, making them Kshatriyas, K.V. Ramesh, Chalukyas of Vatapi, 1984, Agam Kala Prakashan, p15
18. ^ George Michell (2002), Pattadakal - Monumental Legacy, Oxford University Press, p2
19. ^ Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001). A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC, p57
20. ^ Prof. N.L. Rao has pointed out from inscriptions that princess and kings of the dynasty had names like Kattiyarasa (Kirtivarman I), Bittarasa (Kubja Vishnuvardhana) and Mangalarasa (Mangalesa), Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), pp 57–60
21. ^ Historians, Shafaat Ahmad Khan and S. Krishnasvami Aiyangar have mentioned in their book that Arasa is Kannada word, equivalent to Sanskrit word Raja. Journal of Indian History p102, Published by Department of Modern Indian History, University of Allahabad.
22. ^ Dr. Hoernle suggests a non-Sanskrit origin of the name while Dr. S.C. Nandinath has argued that the Chalukyas were of agricultural background from Karnataka region who later took up a martial career, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p57
23. ^ The word Chalukya is derived from a Dravidian root (Kittel in Karmarkar, Cultural history of Karnataka : ancient and medieval, 1947, Dharwad: Karnataka Vidyavardhaka Sangha, p26)
24. ^ Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p6, p10, p57, p59, p67
25. ^ K.V. Ramesh, Chalukyas of Vatapi, 1984, Agam Kala Prakashan, p76, p159, p161–162
26. ^ Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p59
27. ^ K.V. Ramesh, Chalukyas of Vatapi, 1984, Agam Kala Prakashan, p34, p46, p50
28. ^ Azmathulla Shariff. Badami Chalukyans' magical transformation. Deccan Herald, Spectrum, July 26, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
29. ^ Carol Radcliffe Bolon. The Mahakuta Pillar and Its Temples. Artibus Asiae publishers, Vol. 41, No. 2/3 (1979), pp. 253–268. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
30. ^ According to Dr. Romila Thapar, 2003, The Penguin History of Early India, From Origin to 1300 AD) p326
31. ^ Coins with Kannada legends have been discovered from the rule of the Chalukyas, according to Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), pp 12, 57.
32. ^ A total of 140 important inscriptions in Kannada and Sanskrit have been studied and published by K.V. Ramesh, Director (Epigraphy), ASI, in Chalukyas of Vatapi, 1984, Agam Kala Prakashan, pp177–184
33. ^ Archaeological survey of India. Indian inscriptions. South Indian inscriptions, Vol 20, 18, 17, 15, 11 and 9, Saturday, November 18, 2006. What Is India Publishers (P) Ltd.. Retrieved on 2006-10-10.
34. ^ Pulakesi's Maharashtra extended from Nerbudda (Narmada river) in the north to Tungabhadra in the south-C.V. Vaidya, History of Mediaeval Hindu India (Being a History of India from 600 to 1200 AD), vol II, p171, Oriental Book Supplying Agency, 1924
35. ^ Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p60
36. ^ from the notes of Arab traveller Tabari, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p60
37. ^ Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p56
38. ^ According to the Nilagunda Record of Vikramaditya VI which is repeated by poet Bilhana, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), pp 56
39. ^ The Eastern Chalukyas concocted a mythical genealogy seeking to carry the antiquity of this royal dynasty not merely to the period of the epics and Vedas but to the moment of their very creation in the heavens by denoting Narayana (Lord Vishnu) as the first of the fifty nine kings, K.V. Ramesh, Chalukyas of Vatapi, 1984, Agam Kala Prakashan, p16
40. ^ the Eastern Chalukyan dynasty came into existence when Pulakesi II established the Viceroyalty of Vengi under his brother Vishnuvardhana in 624 CE, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p60
41. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), p136
42. ^ Dr. Romila Thapar, The Penguin History of Early India, From Origin to 1300 AD., 2003, Penguin p326
43. ^ According to scholars, the popular theories regarding the name is Puli-"tiger" in Kannada and Kesin-"haried" in Sanskrit, another theory is Pole-lustrous in Kannada from his earliest Badami cliff inscription that literally spells Polekesi. Yet another explanation is Pole- from Tamil word Punai (to tie a knot)-K.V. Ramesh, Chalukyas of Vatapi, 1984, Agam Kala Prakashan, pp31–32
44. ^ The name probably meant "the great lion", Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), p 134
45. ^ K.V. Ramesh, Chalukyas of Vatapi, 1984, Agam Kala Prakashan, p76
46. ^ Dr. S.U. Kamath calls him one of the great kings of India. He successfully defied the expansion of king Harshavardhana of Northern India into the deccan. The Aihole inscription by Ravi Kirti describes how king Harsha lost his Harsha or cheerful disposition after his defeat. The Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsiang also confirms Pulakesi's victory over Uttarapathesvara in his travelogue. Pulakesi II took the title Dakshinapatha Prithviswamy, or lord of the south, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), pp 58–60
47. ^ K.V. Ramesh calls the rule of Pulakesi II as one of the most eventfull careers in Indian History - K.V. Ramesh, Chalukyas of Vatapi, 1984, Agam Kala Prakashan, p76
48. ^ Immadi in old Kannada means 'the second', B. N. Sri Sathyan, Mysore State Gazetteer, p62
49. ^ Poet Bilhana's Sanskrit work Vikramadeva Charitam and Ranna's Kannada work Gadayuddha and inscriptions from Nilagunda, Yevvur, Kauthem and Miraj claim Tailapa II was son of Vikramaditya IV, seventh in descent from Bhima, brother of Vikramaditya II, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p100
50. ^ Dr. Fleet, Dr. Bhandarkar and Dr. Altekar claim that unlike the Badami Chalukyas, the Kalyani Chalukyas did not mention to being Harithiputhras of Manavysya gotra. The use of titles like Tribhuvannamalla marked them of as a distinct line, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p100
51. ^ According to historian, Dr. B.R. Gopal, kings of the Chalukya line of Vemulavada, who were certainly from the Badami Chalukya family used this title often, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p100
52. ^ The reign of Kalyani Chalukya produced prolific literature in Kannada and Sanskrit, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), pp114–115
53. ^ Later legends and tradition hailed Tailapa as an incarnation of the God Krishna who fought 108 battles against the race of Ratta (Rashtrakuta) and captured 88 fortresses from them, Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), p162
54. ^ Dr. Romila Thapar mentions his era (samvat) along with the Satavahana Vikrama era of 58 BC, Shaka era of 78, and Harshavardhana era of 606. She mentions Kashmiri poet Bilhana who wrote in his Vikramanakadeva Charita that lord Shiva himself advised Chalukya Vikramaditya VI to replace his elder brother from the throne. Dr. Romila Thapar, The Penguin History of Early India, From Origin to 1300 AD, 2003, Penguin, pp 468–469
55. ^ Sanskrit scholar of that time Vijnyaneshavara wrote of him as a king like none other says Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p106
56. ^ The work Vikramankadevacharita by Bilhana elucidates the achievements of the great king in 18 cantos, Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), p315
57. ^ Pulakesi II made Vishnuvardhana the Yuvaraja or crown prince who later went on to become the founder of the Eastern Chalukya empire, Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), pp 134–135, p312
58. ^ Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001). A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p8
59. ^ C.V. Vaidya, History of Mediaeval Hindu India (Being a History of India from 600 to 1200 AD), vol II, p171, Oriental Book Supplying Agency, 1924
60. ^ R. Narasimhacharya, History of Kannada Literature, 1988, Asian Educational Services, 1988, p68
61. ^ The Eastern Chalukya inscriptions show a gradual shift towards Telugu with the appearance of Telugu stanzas from the time of king Gunaga Vijayaditya (Vijayaditya III) in the middle of 9th century, Dr. K.S.S. Seshan, University of Hyderabad. APOnline-History of Andhra Pradesh-ancient period-Eastern Chalukyas. Revenue Department (Gazetteers), Government of Andhra Pradesh. Tata Consultancy Services. Retrieved on 2006-11-12.
62. ^ The first work of Telugu literature is a translation of Mahabharata by Nannaya during the rule of eastern Chalukya king Rajaraja Narendra(1019–1061), Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), p367
63. ^ as evidenced by the presence of dancing girls and various musical instruments like veena, flute, conch and drums in Badami Chalukya sculptures, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p67
64. ^ Adam Hardy. [https://www.vedamsbooks.com/no10217.htm Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation—The Karnata Dravida Tradition 7th to 13th Centuries,1995]. Vedams Books from India, Vedams eBooks (P) Ltd. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
65. ^ Takeo Kamiya. Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent, 20 September 1996. Gerard da Cunha-Architecture Autonomous, Bardez, Goa, India. Retrieved on 2006-11-12.
66. ^ Over 125 temples exist in Aihole alone, Michael D. Gunther, 2002. Monuments of India. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
67. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), pp407-408
68. ^ The Badami Chalukya introduced in the western Deccan a glorious chapter alike in heroism in battle and cultural magnificence in peace said art critic K.V. Sounderrajan. They have influenced the architecture in Vengi and Gujarat- Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p68
69. ^ Percy Brown in Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002)
70. ^ These three Jain poets are considered the gems of Kannada literature, Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), p356
71. ^ The work is one on various topics including traditional medicine, music, precious stones, dance etc., Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p106
72. ^ According to Dr. Chidananda Murthy - Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p67
73. ^ In the opinion of Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), p355
74. ^ R. Narasimhacharya, History of Kannada Literature, 1988, Asian Educational Services, p4
75. ^ Dr. Jyotsna Kamat. History of Kannada Literature. Kamat's Potpourri, November 04,2006. Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved on 2006-11-12..
76. ^ In this composition, the poet deems himself an equal to Sanskrit scholars of lore like Bharavi and Kalidasa. An earlier inscription in Mahakuta, in prose style is comparable to works of Bana, Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), p312
77. ^ Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p59
78. ^ Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p64
79. ^ From Rashtrakuta inscriptions, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), pp 57,65
80. ^ In fact the break up of land into mandalas, vishaya also existed in the Kadamba administrative machinery, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), pp 36, 65
81. ^ However, the Early Chalukya issued gold coins that weighed 120 grams, in imitation of the Gupta dynasty says noted historian and numismatist Dr. A.V. Narasimha Murthy, - Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p65
82. ^ Sculptures testify to the popularity of deities like Vishnu, Shiva, Kartikeya, Ganapathi, Shakti, Surya and Sapta Matrikas (seven mothers), Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p66
83. ^ Vinopoti, a concubine of king Vijayaditya is mentioned with due respect in an inscription, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p67
84. ^ One record mentions an artist called Achala as being well versed in Natya Shastra, Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p67
85. ^ Dr. Romila Thapar, The Penguin History of Early India, From Origin to 1300 AD, 2003, Penguin, p326
86. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), p309
87. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955), A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, (Reprinted 2002), p324
88. ^ Staff correspondent. Chalukya Utsava: Depiction of grandeur and glory. NewIndia Press, Sunday February 26, 2006. NewIndia Press. Retrieved on 2006-11-12..

References

  • Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955). A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, New Delhi (Reprinted 2002) ISBN 0-19-560686-8.
  • Kamath, Suryanath U. [1980] (2001). A concise history of Karnataka : from pre-historic times to the present. Bangalore: Jupiter books. LCCN 809-5179. OCLC 7796041. 
  • Dr. Romila Thapar, The Penguin History of Early India, From Origin to 1300 AD., 2003, Penguin, New Delhi, ISBN 0-14-302989-4.
  • K.V. Ramesh, Chalukyas of Vatapi, 1984, Agam Kala Prakashan, Delhi ISBN 3987-10333.
  • R. Narasimhacharya, History of Kannada Literature, 1988, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, Madras,1988, ISBN 81-206-0303-6.
  • John Keay, History of India, 2000, Grove publications, New York, ISBN 0-8021-3797-0, BINC: 6494766
  • Chalukyan Art by Dr. Jyotsna Kamat, Kamat's Potpourri, November 04], 2006]. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  • Emperor among Temples. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  • The Mahakuta Pillar and Its Temples, Carol Radcliffe Bolon, Artibus Asiae publishers, Vol. 41, No. 2/3 (1979), pp. 253–268. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  • Vaidya, C.V. [1924]. History of Mediaeval Hindu India (Being a History of India from 600 to 1200 A.D.). Poona: Oriental Book Supply Agency. OCLC 6814734. 
  • Karmarkar, A.P. [1947] (1947). Cultural history of Karnataka : ancient and medieval. Dharwad: Karnataka Vidyavardhaka Sangha. OCLC 8221605. 



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The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. This century is widely considered to mark the end of Classical Antiquity and the beginning of the Dark Ages.
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Pulakesi I (543 – 566 CE) established the Chalukya dynasty in then western Deccan and his descendants ruled over an empire that comprised of the entire state of Karnataka and most of Andhra Pradesh. Pulakesi overthrew the Kadambas to establish the Chalukya kingdom.
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An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. It is typically the language used in a nation's legislative bodies, though the law in many nations requires that government documents be produced in other
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Kannada}}} 
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Official language of:  India (Karnataka)
Regulated by: Various academies and the Government of Karnataka
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ISO 639-1: kn
ISO 639-2: kan
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Sanskrit}}}  | style="padding-left: 0.5em;" | Writing system: | colspan="2" style="padding-left: 0.5em;" | Devanāgarī and several other Brāhmī-based scripts  ! colspan="3" style="text-align: center; color: black; background-color: lawngreen;"|Official
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capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has a second meaning based on an alternative sense of "capital") is the center of government.
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Coordinates: Badami (Kannada: ಬದಾಮಿ), formerly known as Vatapi, is a panchayat town in the Bagalkot District of Karnataka, India. It was the regal capital of the Badami Chalukyas from 540 to 757 AD.
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Coordinates: Badami (Kannada: ಬದಾಮಿ), formerly known as Vatapi, is a panchayat town in the Bagalkot District of Karnataka, India. It was the regal capital of the Badami Chalukyas from 540 to 757 AD.
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Pulakesi II (Kannada: ಇಮ್ಮಡಿ ಪುಲಿಕೇಶಿ) (610 - 642 CE) is the most famous ruler of the Chalukya dynasty. In his reign the Chalukyas of Badami saw their kingdom extend over most of the Deccan.
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The Kadamba Dynasty (Kannada:ಕದಂಬರು) (345 - 525 CE) was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka that ruled from Banavasi in present day Uttara Kannada district.
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The Rashtrakuta Dynasty (Sanskrit: राष्ट्रकूट rāṣṭrakūṭa, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) was a royal Indian dynasty ruling large parts
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Kannada}}} 
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Official language of:  India (Karnataka)
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ISO 639-1: kn
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ISO 639-3: kan

Kannada
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South India is a commonly used term that is used in India to refer to the South-of-India or Southern India. The Southern part of the Indian peninsula is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu
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The geography of India is diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, rainforests, hills, and plateaus. India comprises most of the Indian subcontinent situated on the Indian Plate, the northerly portion of the Indo-Australian Plate.
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The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. This century is widely considered to mark the end of Classical Antiquity and the beginning of the Dark Ages.
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As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages and is sometimes called the Age of the Cistercians.
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Coordinates: Badami (Kannada: ಬದಾಮಿ), formerly known as Vatapi, is a panchayat town in the Bagalkot District of Karnataka, India. It was the regal capital of the Badami Chalukyas from 540 to 757 AD.
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The Kadamba Dynasty (Kannada:ಕದಂಬರು) (345 - 525 CE) was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka that ruled from Banavasi in present day Uttara Kannada district.
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Banavasi (Kannada: ಬನವಾಸಿ) is an ancient temple town on the border of Uttara Kannada District and Shivamogga district in the south Indian state of Karnataka.
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Pulakesi II (Kannada: ಇಮ್ಮಡಿ ಪುಲಿಕೇಶಿ) (610 - 642 CE) is the most famous ruler of the Chalukya dynasty. In his reign the Chalukyas of Badami saw their kingdom extend over most of the Deccan.
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Eastern Chalukyas were a South Indian dynasty whose kingdom was located in the present day Andhra Pradesh. Their capital was Vengi and their dynasty lasted for around 500 years from the 7th century until c. 1130 C.E. when the Vengi kingdom merged with the Chola empire.
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Deccan Plateau (Marathi: डेक्कन) , also known as "The Great Countrie", is a vast elevated tableland area with widely varying terrain features making up the majority of southern India located between three ranges and extending over eight states.
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Vengi kingdom extended from the Godavari River in the north to Mount MahendraGiri in the southeast and to just south of the banks of River Krishna in the south of India.

During the Mauryan times North Vengi was under Kalinga domination.
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As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100.

In the history of European culture, this period is considered the early part of the High Middle Ages.
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The Rashtrakuta Dynasty (Sanskrit: राष्ट्रकूट rāṣṭrakūṭa, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) was a royal Indian dynasty ruling large parts
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The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era.

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During this century the Middle East, the coast of North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula comes rapidly under Islamic Arab domination.
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