Chinese Filipino

Chinese Filipino
Cardinal Sin
Total population
1,146,250
(1.5% of the Philippine population) [1]
Regions with significant populations
 Philippines
(Metro Cebu, Metro Manila, Angeles, Bacolod, Davao, Iligan, Iloilo, Lucena, Sulu, Tarlac, Vigan, Zamboanga)
 United States
elsewhere
Languages
Lan-nang, Hokkien, Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Standard Mandarin, Standard Cantonese, Teochew (Chao Chow), Filipino, English,
other Chinese languages,
other Philippine languages
Religions
Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Buddhism, Chinese folk religion, Confucianism, Taoism
Related ethnic groups
Han Chinese


A Chinese Filipino (Simplified Chinese: 华菲; Traditional Chinese: 華菲; Pinyin: Huáfēi; Hokkien: Huâ-hui; Cantonese: Wàhfèi; Tagalog/Filipino: "Tsinoy" (pronounced: /ʧɪnɔj/) derived from two words: "Tsino" (meaning "Chinese") and "Pinoy" (the slang word for "Filipino") is a person of Chinese ancestry but raised in the Philippines.

Use of the term Chinese Filipino

Many people in the Philippines, including Chinese Filipinos themselves, tend to use the term "Filipino Chinese"/"Filipino-Chinese"[2]. However, this is inconsistent with North American English usage, on which Philippine English is largely based.

The term "Chinese Filipino" may or may not[3][4] be hyphenated. The website of the organization Kaisa para sa Kaunlaran omits the hyphen, adding that Chinese Filipino is the noun where "Chinese" is an adjective to the noun "Filipino." The Chicago Manual of Style and the APA[5], among others, also recommend dropping the hyphen. When used as an adjective, "Chinese Filipino" may take on a hyphenated form or may remain unchanged. For instance, when hyphenated, "Chinese-Filipino community," "Chinese-Filipino Catholic," or "Chinese-Filipino student."[6][7][8] Chicago style, on the other hand, explicitly advises against using the hyphen even when "Chinese Filipino" is used as an adjective. For instance, "Chinese Filipino student" and "Chinese Filipino community"[9][10][11], but "Chinese-Filipino Catholic," given that three consecutive words are capitalized and that Filipino in that sense is linked to Chinese rather than being an adjective to Catholic.[12]

Terminology

Both the Chinese Filipinos and the Filipinos alike espouse different terminologies to refer to the former.
  • Of pure Chinese descent: Chinese (English), Tsino/Chino (Filipino, Spanish), Intsik (Filipino), and Lan-lang (Chinese Minnan Dialect)
  • Of mixed Chinese and Filipino descent: Filipino Chinese/Chinese Filipino/Philippine Chinese (Eng.), Tsinoy/Chinoy (Fil., Sp.), Mistisong Intsik (Fil.), and Chhut-si-ia (Chi. Minnan) (The term Sangley was also used during the Spanish Colonial Period to refer to people of mixed Chinese and Filipino blood, but it is now out of date in terms of usage).
  • Of mixed Chinese and Spanish descent: Tornatras (Eng., Fil., Sp.; archaic)
There's a distinction between the following as well: 華人,華僑,華裔,華菲?
  • 華人 -- Huárén -- Chinese, of pure Chinese descent and nationality
  • 華僑 -- Huáqiáo -- Overseas Chinese, usually China-born Chinese who have immigrated elsewhere
  • 華裔 -- Huáyì -- People of Chinese ancestry, born, living and has citizenship of another country
  • 華菲 -- Huáfēi -- Chinese Filipino
"Filipino Chinese" (Traditional Chinese: 菲律賓華僑; Hanyu Pinyin: Fēilǜbīn Huáqíao; Hokkien: Hui-lu̍t-pin Huâ-kiâo; Cantonese: Fèileuhtbàn Wàhkìuh) is a deprecated term.

Overview

The Chinese Filipinos have always been one of the largest Filipino ethnic groups, making up about 11.5% (9.8 million) of the country's total population. The rate of intermarriage between Filipinos and Chinese is among the highest in Southeast Asia, exceeded only by Thailand. However, intermarriages happened mostly in the Spanish colonial eras because Chinese immigrants to the Philippines up to the 19th century were predominantly male. It was only in the 20th century that Chinese women and children came in comparable numbers. These Chinese mestizos, products of intermarriages in the Spanish colonial era, then often opted to marry other Chinese mestizos (as was the case with the ancestors of national hero Dr. Jose Rizal). Some studies have shown that at least 40% of the Filipino population has some Chinese ancestry - mostly comprising the Filipino social and political elite, and that 50% of Filipino genes are of Chinese origin. Generally, the term Chinese mestizo is reserved for those who have more recent Chinese ancestry; those who still retain, in full or in part, the surnames of their Chinese ancestors; or those who have "Chinese eyes" or fairer complexion compared to the general populace which can be attributed to their Chinese ancestry. By this definition, the Chinese Filipinos, along with the Chinese mestizos, number about 9.8 million.

Ethnicity

Most Chinese in the Philippines belong to either the Fujianese or Cantonese dialect groups of the Han nationality. 98.5% of all unmixed Chinese in the Philippines came from the province of Fujian in China and are thus called Fujianese, or Hoklo. They speak the Lan-nang (Philippine) variant of the Minnan language, which is further subdivided into several dialects. The most common Minnan (Southern Fujianese) dialect in the Philippines is the Amoy dialect, which is mutually intelligible with the Chuanchew dialect, another common dialect in the Philippines. The remaining 1.5% of the unmixed Chinese in the Philippines are mostly of Cantonese origin, with notably large circles of descendants from the Taishan city. They speak the Cantonese dialect group/language, although many are raised to speak only the Minnan dialect. Most are not as economically prosperous as their Fujianese cousins in Philippine society. Some ghettoes of the Cantonese people are found in Santa Mesa, Manila and in Tondo. There are also a minority of Cantonese who have Portuguese ancestry - they are called Macanese. Unmixed Chinese who are of both Fujianese and Cantonese parentage are classified simply as Cantonese. Other non-resident Chinese in the Philippines, such as expatriates and envoys are of Mandarin, Shanghainese, and Hunanese origin .

Mestizos

''See also: Mestizos in the Philippines.
Chinese mestizos are those in the Philippines of mixed Chinese and either Filipino or Spanish (or both) ancestry. They make up about 11.5% of the country's total population (those who are pure Chinese make up 2% of the population). A number of Chinese mestizos have surnames that reflect their heritage, mostly two or three syllables that have Chinese roots (e.g., the full name of a Chinese ancestor) with a Spanish phonetic spelling. The Chinese mestizos may also be known as Tsinoys (alternatively spelled as "Chinoy"), although this term may also refer to the full-blooded Chinese Filipinos; and/or Chinito, a term that largely denotes physical characteristics (referring to slanted eyes) rather than ethnic/cultural.

Starting from the Spanish period, the mestizos have been afforded several opportunities that the full-blooded Chinese or the native Filipinos do not have access to. Historically, the mestizos have been economically more successful than the local population. Even to this day, a large percentage of land or plantation owners in the Philippines are the Chinese mestizos. Due to their fairer complexion, which is a coveted attribute among Filipinos even to this day; a sizeable number of people in the film industry are Chinese or Spanish-Chinese mestizos.

Culture

Language

As many as 98.5% of the Chinese in the Philippines trace their ancestry to the southern part of Fujian province. The Lan-nang variant of Min Nan, also locally known as Fukien or Lán-lâng-oē (咱人話; "our people's language"), is the lingua franca of the Chinese-Filipino community. Most of the other 10% are descendants of migrants from Guangdong, Hong Kong, or Taiwan. The other Chinese dialects that can be heard in the Chinese-Filipino communities are Mandarin Chinese (which is taught in Chinese schools in the Philippines and spoken in varying degrees of fluency by Chinese Filipinos), Taiwanese (which is mutually intelligible with the Chuanchew and Amoy dialects), and Cantonese.

The vast majority of the Chinese in the Philippines, however, are fluent in English as well as Tagalog, and for those residing outside of Metro Manila, the local language of the region, like Ilokano, Cebuano (Cebu, Davao, Iligan, and Zamboanga), and Chabacano.

Mandarin Chinese used to be the medium of instruction in Chinese schools prior to the Filipinization policy of Former President Ferdinand Marcos. Partly as a result of Marcos' measures, Tagalog and English are gradually supplanting Chinese (Minnan and Mandarin) as the preferred medium of communication among the younger generation.

Lifestyle

The Chinese in the Philippines are mostly business owners and their life centers mostly in the family business. These mostly small and medium enterprises play a significant role in the Philippine economy. A handful of these entrepreneurs run large companies and are respected as some of the most prominent business tycoons in the Philippines. Chinese Filipinos attribute their success in business to frugality and hard work, and entrepreneurship is highly valued and encouraged among the young.

Most Chinese Filipinos are urban dwellers. An estimated 60% of the Chinese Filipinos live within Metro Manila, with the rest in the other larger cities of the Philippines. In contrast with the Chinese mestizos, few Chinese are plantation owners. This is partly due to the fact that until recently when the Chinese Filipinos became Filipino citizens, the law prohibited the Chinese from owning land.

As with other Southeast Asian nations, the Chinese community in the Philippines has become a repository of traditional Chinese culture. Whereas in Mainland China many cultural traditions and customs have been suppressed by the Cultural Revolution or simply regarded as old-fashioned and obsolete, these traditions have remained largely untouched in the Philippines. Many new cultural twists have evolved within the Chinese community in the Philippines, distinguishing it from other overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia. These cultural variations are highly evident during festivals such as Chinese New Year and Mid-Autumn Festival. The Chinese Filipinos have developed unique funerary and wedding customs as well.

Religion

The Chinese Filipinos are unique in Southeast Asia in being overwhelmingly Christian. Almost all Chinese Filipinos, including the Chinese Mestizo but excluding the recent immigrants, had or will have their marriages in a Christian church. This proves that the majority of Chinese Filipinos have been baptized in a Christian church, with Catholics forming the largest group.

However, many of Chinese-Filipino Catholics still tend to practice the traditional Chinese religions side by side with Catholicism, although a small number of people practising solely traditional Chinese religions do exist as well. Mahayana Buddhism, Taoism and ancestor worship (including Confucianism) are the traditional Chinese beliefs that continue to have adherents among the Chinese Filipinos. Some may even have Jesus Christ as well as Buddha statues or Taoist gods in their altars. It is not unheard of to venerate the blessed Virgin Mary using joss sticks and Buddhist offerings, much as one would have done for Mazu. Buddhist-Taoist temples can be found where the Chinese live, especially in urban areas like Manila, and the Chinese have the tendency to go to pay respects to their ancestors at least once a year, either by going to the temple, or going to the Chinese burial grounds, often burning incense and bringing offerings like fruits and accessories made from paper. Some Chinese-Filipino Catholics do have problems with this religious duality, but due to Christian proselytization, the elderly vastly outnumber the young in the Chinese temples in the Philippines.

A comparatively large number of Chinese Filipinos are also Protestants. One of the largest evangelical churches in the Philippines, the United Evangelical Church of the Philippines, was founded by Chinese Filipinos, and they form the majority of worshippers.

Surnames

Most of the Chinese Filipinos today have Chinese surnames, the most common of which are Tan (陳), Ong (王), Lim (林), Go/Ngo (吳), Ng/Uy (黃), Chua (蔡), and Lee/Dy(李), though there are also some who have inherited or chosen Filipino or Spanish surnames, like Gatchalian, Chavez, and Ramos, among such others.

Chinese Filipinos as well as Chinese mestizos who trace their roots back to Chinese immigrants to the Philippines during the Spanish colonization usually have Chinese-sounding surnames that have Hispanicized spellings, such as Lacson, Biazon, Tuazon, Ongpin, Yuchengco, Quebengco, Cojuangco, Cukingnan, Yupangco, and Tanbengco, among such others. Many Chinese mestizos (as well as Spanish-Chinese and Tornatras) have also either inherited or took on Spanish or Filipino surnames, like Bautista, Madrigal, or Santos.

History

Presence of peoples from the Chinese mainland in the Philippines have been evident since during the Ice Age, when a land bridge enabled many people from southern China to settle in the Philippines. But they are not to be confused for the later Sinitic-speaking peoples (ethnic Chinese) who came long after the land bridge subsided. These ethnic Chinese sailed down and frequently interacted with the local natives, and this is evidenced by a collection of priceless Chinese artifacts found in the Philippines, dating back right up to the 10th century. Prehistoric evidences attest to the fact that many datus and rajahs (native rulers) in the Philippines were of mixed Filipino and Chinese ancestry. They formed the group which is to be called principalia during the Spanish period, and are given privileges by the Spanish colonial government.

The arrival of the Spaniards to the Philippines attracted many male Chinese traders from China, and maritime trade flourished during the Spanish occupation. The Spanish era restricted the activities of the Chinese. With low chances of employment and prohibited from owning land, most of them engage in trading and other businesses. Many of the Chinese who arrived during the Spanish period were Cantonese, who worked as stevedores and porters, but there were also Fujianese, who entered retail trade. Most of the Chinese who came to the Philippines intermarried with Filipinos or Spaniards. The children of unions between Filipinos and Chinese are called Chinese mestizos, while those between Spaniards and Chinese are called Tornatras and are classified as Spanish mestizos, together with the Spanish-Filipinos. The Chinese revolted three times, against Spanish rule, but their revolts were quickly put down by joint forces of the Filipinos, Mexicans, and the Spaniards. There were three genocides conducted by the Spaniards against the Chinese, two of which have been successful.

During the American colonization, the Chinese Exclusion Act in the United States was also put into act in the Philippines. Nevertheless, the Chinese were able to settle in the Philippines, despite strict American law enforcement. During World War II, the Japanese massacred many unmixed Chinese. Following World War II and the fall of the Chinese mainland to communism, many Chinese moved from Fujian province in China to the Philippines,. This group formed the bulk of the current population of Chinese Filipinos.

After independence, successive Philippine presidents have had ambivalent attitudes about the Chinese Filipinos. Presidents Ramon Magsaysay and Carlos Garcia promoted the Filipino First policies, and put in tough government directives to hinder the ownership of businesses by Chinese Filipinos who are still citizens of the People's Republic of China.

During the Martial Law, Chinese language schools were ordered closed or else to limit the time alloted for Chinese language, history, and culture subjects from 4 hours to 2 hours, and instead devote them to the study of Filipino languages and culture. This method of teaching persists to this very day. Marcos' policy eventually led to the formal assimilation of the Chinese Filipinos into mainstream Filipino society. Following People Power Revolution (EDSA 1), the Chinese Filipinos quickly gained national spotlight as Cory Aquino, a Chinese mestiza, eventually became president. She encouraged free press and cultural harmony, a process which led to the burgeoning of the Chinese language media. Mild racist riots occurred during 1992. when several Filipinos, led by Armando Ducat, Jr., a businessman, campaigned for 'kicking-out the [Chinese-Filipinos] instead of the Americans', referring to the formal closure of the American military bases in the Philippines, and during 1998, when a Chinese mestizo, Senator Alfredo Lim, entered the candidacy for president.

Future

Most of the Chinese Filipinos are descendants of Chinese who migrated three or four generations ago. In the cases of some Chinese mestizos, this can be as far back as five, six, or up to eight generations ago. Unlike in Malaysia and Indonesia where intermarriage is uncommon and people can generally be classified ethnically just by physical appearance, the Philippine definition of who is Chinese Filipino and who is Chinese mestizo can be based on one's cultural beliefs. A full-blooded Chinese who can no longer speak Chinese and no longer practice Chinese culture or beliefs is more often than not identified as a Chinese mestizo. By the same token, a Chinese mestizo who still speaks fluent Chinese and practices Chinese culture might be reintegrated into the Chinese-Filipino culture. As "mestizo" often evokes a person of higher social strata, there is also a tendency to not identify those in the lower class as "mestizo" even if they are in fact of mixed descent.

As of the present day, due to rapid Westernization in the Philippines, there has been a marked tendency to acculturate to Western values. The younger Chinese Filipinos are gradually shifting to English as their preferred language, thus identifying more to the Chinese mestizo culture. Some Chinese mestizos tend also to reintegrate into the Filipino or sometimes Chinese societies. Although at a slower pace than Thailand, assimilation is gradually taking place in the Philippines but integration without losing Chinese culture is advantageous for the Philippines and for the Chinese Filipino ethnic group.

The Chinese in the Philippines cannot be simplistically classified. But generally, some observers claim they can be classified into three types, based on when their ancestors first migrated. Most of the Chinese mestizos, especially the landed gentry trace their ancestry to the Spanish era. They are the "First Chinese," whose descendants nowadays are mostly either the Chinese mestizos or have integrated into the local population. The largest group of Chinese Filipinos in the Philippines are the "Second Chinese," who are descendants of migrants in the first half of the 20th century, between the Manchu revolution in China and the Chinese Civil War. This group accounts for most of the "full-blooded" Chinese. The "Third Chinese" are the recent immigrants from mainland China, after the Chinese economic reform of the 1980s. Generally, the "Third Chinese" are the most entrepreneurial and had not totally lost their Chinese cultural heritage in its purest form and therefore are paradoxically misunderstood or feared by the "Second Chinese" and "First Chinese," most of whom have lost their entrepreneurial drive and have adopted much of the laid-back Spanish cultural values of Philippine society.

List of Chinese-Filipinos with Fujian Chinese ancestry

  • General Ignacio Paua (pure Fujian Chinese) --- pure-blooded Chinese general (from the village of Lao-Na) who supported the Katipuneros in the fight against the Spaniards and later joined Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo’s army in the short-lived war against the Americans. When Aguinaldo proclaimed Philippine independence in Kawit, Cavite and raised the Philippine flag for the first time, Paua cut off his queue (braid). When Garcia and the other comrades teased him about it, Paua said: "Now that you are free from your foreign master, I am also freed from my queue." [The queue was a sign of subjugation of the Chinese race because it was imposed by the Manchu rulers of the Qing dynasty. The Chinese revolutionaries in China cut off their queues only in 1911 when the uprising which toppled the Manchu government succeeded.] Gen. Paua retired in and was elected mayor of, Manito, Albay.
  • Corazón Cojuangco Aquino (Fujian Chinese-Kapampangan-Spanish-Tagalog)---President in 1986 and moral leader of the People Power uprising against the Marcos authoritarian regime, her ancestral roots are in Hong Chiam Village in Tung-An county near Xiamen City of Fujian province, China
  • Kris Aquino (Fujian Chinese-Kapampangan-Spanish-Tagalog) --- Popular TV talk show host and daughter of President Aquino
  • Jose Mari Chan (pure Fujian Chinese)---singer and songwriter, son of Chinese immigrant sugar tycoon Antonio Chan from Fujian, China
  • Amy Chua (pure Fujian Chinese), John M. Duff, Jr. Professor of Law at Yale Law School. Writer on 'market dominant minorities'.
  • Claudio Teehankee (Fujian Chinese-Tagalog) -- Retired Chief Justice
  • Albino SyCip (pure Fujian Chinese) -- Known as the "Dean of Philippine Banking". A lawyer by profession, he earned his law degree from the University of Michigan School of Law in Ann Arbor, Michigan. He co-founded Chinabank and set up branches in Xiamen and Shanghai, China. Father of Washington and Alexander SyCip.
  • Washington SyCip (Fujian Chinese) --- Founder of SyCip Gorres & Verayo -- one of the largest accounting firms in Asia.
  • Alexander SyCip (Fujian Chinese) --- Founder of SyCip Salazar Hernandez & Gatmaitan -- largest and leading law firm in the Philippines.
  • Eduardo "Danding" Cojuangco Jr. (Fujian Chinese-Kapampangan-American)---tycoon and politician, boss of San Miguel Corporation and leader of Nationalist People's Coalition
  • Mikee Cojuangco (Fujian Chinese-Spanish-Tagalog)---former actress
  • David Mendoza Consunji (Fujian Chinese-Spanish-Tagalog)--- civil engineer, construction company founder, former Secretary of Public Works
  • John Gokongwei (pure Fujian Chinese)---self-made tycoon, founder of JG Summit Holdings
  • Ramon A. Cukingnan Jr. (pure Fujian Chinese) ---Prominent Cardiothoracic Surgeon and Professor in UCLA
  • Andrew Gotianum (pure Fujian Chinese)---real estate tycoon
  • Ferdinand Marcos (Fujian Chinese-Japanese-Ilocano)---President from mid-1960s to 1986
  • Imee Marcos (Fujian Chinese-Japanese-Ilocano-Waray-Spanish)---Congresswoman of Ilocos Norte
  • Román Ongpin (pure Fujian Chinese)---patron of artists and revolutionaries against Spanish rule
  • St. Lorenzo Ruiz (Fujian Chinese-Tagalog)---first Filipino saint, said to be surnamed Li
  • Jaime Cardinal Sin (Fujian Chinese-Capiznon)---powerful Philippine Catholic leader
  • Sergio Osmeña (Fujian Chinese-Cebuano-Spanish)---former President of the Philippines
  • Henry Sy (pure Fujian Chinese)---Shopping mall tycoon
  • Lucio Tan (pure Fujian Chinese)---billionaire and patron of Chinese language education
  • Jose Yao Campos (pure Fujian Chinese) --- founder of United Laboratories.
  • Bobby Ongpin (pure Fujian Chinese)---former Trade and Industry Minister in martial law
  • Tony Tan Caktiong (pure Fujian Chinese)---fast food chain tycoon
  • George Ty (pure Fujian Chinese)---banking tycoon
  • Alfonso Yuchengco (Fujian Chinese-Tagalog)---insurance tycoon with roots in Nan'an, Fujian and founder of controversial Pacific Plans
  • Howard Q. Dee (pure Fujian Chinese)---former Philippine Ambassador to the Vatican and Malta, government negotiator with Communist rebels, past President of top pharmaceuticals firm United Laboratories, head of various civic organizations and a great-grandnephew of 19th century lumber pioneer Dy Bo Lan.
  • Tan Yu ---real-estate tycoon and owner of Fuga island in Babuyan group of islands, Cagayan.
  • Gen. Vicente Lim - the first Filipino graduate to West Point.
  • Alfredo Lim (Fujian Chinese-Tagalog) ---current Manila mayor and former senator of the Philippines
  • Enrique T. Yuchengco (Fujian Chinese-Tagalog) ---Insurance tycoon and father of controversial Pacific Plans, Inc. founder Alfonso Yuchengco.
  • Arthur Yap (pure Fujian Chinese) --- Secretary of Department of Agriculture
  • Emilio Yap (pure Fujian Chinese) --- Manila Bulletin, Manila Hotel and Euro-Phil Laboratories owner
  • Simon L. Chua (pure Fujian Chinese) --- famous mathematics educator, founder and president of the Mathematics Trainers' Guild, Philippines, and the first Filipino awardee of the Paul Erdos Award which is considered by the mathematics world as the Nobel Prize of Mathematics.
  • Lim Eng Beng (pure Fujian Chinese) --- Professional basketball player
  • Fortunano "Atoy" Co (pure Fujian Chinese) --- Professional basketball player
  • Kim Chiu (Chinese-Cebuano) --- Pinoy Big Brother Teen Housemate, Actress and Singer.
  • Beatriz Saw (Fujian Chinese-Taiwanese-Bikolano) --- Pinoy Big Brother Season 2 housemate.
  • Enchong Dee (Fujian Chinese-Bikolano) --- Actor and model.

See also

This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

References

1. ^ [1]
2. ^ Lim, Cherry T. (31 January 2003). Filipino-Chinese or Chinese-Filipino? Sun Star Cebu. Cebu.
3. ^ [2] Palanca, Ellen / Clinton (ed.). Chinese Filipinos. 2003.
4. ^ California State University–Los Angeles Editorial Style Guide
5. ^ [3]
6. ^ [4] Mena S.J., Santos. Luceat Lux: The Story of Xavier School. 2005.
7. ^ [5] Dy S.J., Aristotle (ed.). Our Pride and Glory, Xavier School at Fifty. 2006.
8. ^ Gomez, Peter Martin (ed.). The Xavier School Institutional Identity Book. 2005.
9. ^ American Anthropological Association Style Guide
10. ^ Michigan State University Style Sheet
11. ^ Hyphens, en dashes, em dashes. (n.d.) Chicago Style Q&A. Chicago Manual of Style Online. (15th ed.)
12. ^ [6] Dy S.J., Aristotle. Weaving a Dream: Reflections for Chinese-Filipino Catholics Today. 2000.

External links


Jaime Cardinal Sin, also Jaime Lachica Cardinal Sin (August 31, 1928–June 21, 2005) (Chinese name: 辛海梅; 辛海棉 Xīn Hǎiméi; Xīn Hǎimián
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Metro Cebu

Region Central Visayas
(Region VII)
Province Cebu
Divisions      Cities      Municipalities      Barangays      Districts
7
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Metropolitan Manila

Regional center Manila
Population 11,289,368 [1] (2005)
– Density 17,751 per km
Area 636 km
Divisions
– Provinces —
– Cities 16
– Municipalities 1
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City of Angeles
Lungsod ng Angeles
Cuidad ning Angeles


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Nickname: Kuliat
Motto: "Sulong Angeles... Impossible is nothing.
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Bacolod City
Lungsod ng Bakolod


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Nickname: City of Smiles of the Philippines
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Davao City
Lungsod ng Dabaw
Dakbayan sa Dabaw

Metro Davao


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Nickname: The Shopping Capital of The South
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The City of Iligan (Cebuano: Dakbayan sa Iligan; Tagalog: Lungsod ng Iligan) is a highly urbanized city in the province of Lanao del Norte, Philippines, and the province's former capital. It is approximately 795 kilometers southeast of Manila.
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City of Iloilo
Cuidad sang Iloilo
Lungsod ng Iloilo


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Map of Iloilo showing the location of Iloilo City Coordinates: 10.69°N 122.
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For other meanings, see Lucena (disambiguation).


Lucena (pop. 40,000) is a town in southern Spain, in the province of Córdoba, in Andalusia, 72 km southeast of Córdoba, 95 km north of Málaga, 150 km east of Seville, 110 km west of Granada, and 100
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Region: Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM)
Capital: Jolo
Founded:
Population:
2000 census—619,668 (40th largest)
Density—387 per km (13th highest)
Area: 1,600.

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Tarlac City is a 2nd class city in the province of Tarlac, Philippines. It is the capital city of Tarlac.According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 262,481 people in 51,703 households.
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State Party  Philippines
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iv
Reference 502
Region Asia-Pacific

Inscription History
Inscription 1999  (23rd Session)
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The City of Zamboanga (Spanish/Chavacano: Ciudad de Zamboanga; Cebuano: Dakbayan sa Zamboanga; Filipino: Lungsod ng Zamboanga; Bahasa Sug: Daira Sambuwangan; Sinama and Banguingui: Lahat Sambowangan
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Motto
"In God We Trust"   (since 1956)
"E Pluribus Unum"   ("From Many, One"; Latin, traditional)
Anthem
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11,000,000[1]
Regions with significant populations
 United States [USA]
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Lan-nang, or more properly known as 'Lan-nang-oé' (咱人話, also 咱儂話), is the Philippine variant of Min Nan, also known as Southern Fujianese or Hokkien. The name lan-nang-oé means 'our (lán) people's (lâng) language (oé)'.
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Min Nan, Minnan, or Min-nan (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: 閩南語; Pinyin: Mǐnnányǔ
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Tagalog}}} 
Writing system: Latin (Filipino variant);
Historically written in Baybayin 
Official status
Official language of: Philippines (in the form of Filipino)
Regulated by: Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino (Commission on the Filipino language)
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Cebuano, also known as Sinugboanon, is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 20,000,000 people (according to Ethnologue). It is a subgroup or member of Bisaya, Visayan and Binisayâ.
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Ilokano (variants: Ilocano, Iluko, Iloco, and Iloko) is the third most-spoken language of the Republic of the Philippines.

Being an Austronesian language, it is related to such languages as Indonesian, Malay, Fijian, Maori (of New
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Hiligaynon (or "Ilonggo") is an Austronesian language spoken in Western Visayas in the Philippines. Hiligaynon is concentrated in the provinces of Iloilo and Negros Occidental.
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Standard Mandarin, also known as Modern Standard Chinese
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Standard Cantonese is a variant of Cantonese Chinese, generally considered to be the prestige dialect. It is spoken natively in and around the cities of Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Macau in Southern China by 100 million people.
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The Chaozhou language, also called Teochew, Teochiu, Tiuchiu, or Diojiu, is a dialect of the Chinese spoken variant of Min Nan 閩南, spoken in the Chaoshan 潮汕 region of eastern Guangdong 廣東.
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Filipino}}} 
Writing system: Latin (Filipino variant) 
Official status
Official language of: Philippines
Regulated by: Commission on the Filipino Language
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: fil
ISO 639-3: fil
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English}}} 
Writing system: Latin (English variant) 
Official status
Official language of: 53 countries
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: en
ISO 639-2: eng
ISO 639-3: eng  
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Chinese or the Sinitic language(s) (汉语/漢語, Pinyin: Hànyǔ; 华语/華語, Huáyǔ; or 中文, Zhōngwén) can be considered a language or language family.
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There are over 170 languages in the Philippines; almost all of them belong to the Austronesian language family. Of all of these languages, only 2 are considered official in the country, at least 10 are considered major and at least 8 are considered co-official.
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