City Beautiful movement

The City Beautiful movement was a Progressive reform movement in North American architecture and urban planning that flourished in the 1890s and 1900s with the intent of using beautification and monumental grandeur in cities to counteract the perceived moral decay of poverty-stricken urban environments. The movement, which was originally most closely associated with Chicago, Detroit, and Washington, D.C., did not seek beauty for its own sake, but rather as a social control device for creating moral and civic virtue among urban populations.[1] Advocates of the movement believed that such beautification could thus provide a harmonious social order that would improve the lives of the inner-city poor.

History

Origins and impact

The movement arose in the United States in response the perceived wretched conditions of inner-city poverty in crowded tenement districts, itself a product of increased immigration and consolidation of rural populations into cities. The movement flourished only for several decades, but in addition to the classicizing monuments it left, it also achieved great influence in urban planning that extended throughout the 20th century, in particular in regard to the later creation of housing projects in the United States. The "Garden City" movement in Britain influenced the contemporary planning of some newer suburbs of London, and there was cross-fertilization between the two esthetics, one based in formal garden plans and urbanization schemes of the Baroque the other, with its "semi-detached villas" evoking a more rural atmosphere. Critics of the movement asserted that the uniformity and high-mindedness of the style created dullness and sterility in urban environments, ironically contributing to an increase in the urban blight that the original advocates of the movement were seeking to ameliorate.

Architectural idioms

The particular architectural style of the movement borrowed heavily from the contemporary Beaux-Arts movement, which emphasized the necessity of order, dignity, and harmony. The movement also borrowed from classical monumental planning but differed from the true neoclassical style in that in the City Beautiful movement, the classical idiom was adopted only partially, mixed with Beaux-Arts elements, and subjugated as means to the end of creating uniformity and harmony in style.

World Columbian Exposition

The first large-scale elaboration of the City Beautiful is considered to have been the "White City", as it came to be called, at the World Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago. The planning of the exposition was headed by architect Daniel Burnham, who brought in architects from the eastern United States, as well as the sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens, to build large-scale Beaux-Arts monuments that were vaguely classical with uniform cornice height. The exposition displayed a model city of grand scale, with clean state-of-the-art transport systems and no visible poverty. The exposition is credited with leading to the wide-scale embrace of the monumental idiom in American architecture for the next 15 years. Richmond, Virginia's Monument Avenue is one expression of this initial movement.

McMillan Plan

Main article: McMillan Plan
Enlarge picture
Axial plan of The Mall, Washington, D.C.: the Reflecting Pool and Lincoln Memorial extend the central axis
The first attempt to use City Beautiful ideal for a city plan with intent of creating social order through beautification was the McMillan Plan, which arose from the Senate Park Commission's redesign of the monumental core of Washington, D.C. to commemorate the city's centennial and to fulfill unrealized aspects of the city plan of Pierre Charles L'Enfant a century earlier.

The Washington planners, who included Burnham, Saint-Gaudens, Charles McKim of McKim, Mead, and White, and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., visited many of the great cities of Europe with the intent of putting Washington on par with the European capitals of the era and creating a sense of the legitimacy of government in a time of social upheaval in the United States. The essence of the plan surrounded the U.S. Capitol with monumental government buildings to replace "notorious slum communities". At the heart of the design was the creation of the National Mall and eventually included Burnham's Union Station. The implementation of the plan was interrupted by World War I but resumed after the war, culminating in the construction of the Lincoln Memorial in 1922.

Influence in other cities

The movement's success in Washington is credited with influencing subsequent plans for beautification in many other cities, including Chicago, Cleveland, Columbus, Montreal, Denver, Madison (with the axis from the capitol building through State Street and to the University of Wisconsin campus), New York City (notably the Manhattan Municipal Building), Pittsburgh (the Oakland neighborhood of parks, museums, and universities), and San Francisco (manifested by its Civic Center). In New Haven, John Russell Pope drew up a plan for Yale University that swept away substandard housing, but banished the urban poor to the peripheries.
See also:

Denver

Enlarge picture
Capitol building in Denver
''Main article: Civic Center, Denver
In Denver the energy behind extensive City Beautiful planning came from Mayor Robert Speer, whose plan centered round a Civic Center, disposed along a grand esplanade that led to the Colorado State Capitol. The plan was partly realized, on a reduced scale, with the Greek amphitheater, Voorhies Memorial and the Colonnade of Civic Benefactors, completed in 1919. The Andrew Carnegie Foundation funded the Denver Public Library (1910), which was designed as a three-story Greek Revival temple with a colossal Ionic colonnade across it front; inside it featured open shelves, an art gallery and a children's room. Monuments capping vistas were an essential feature of City Beautiful urban planning: in Denver Paris-trained American sculptor Frederick MacMonnies was commissioned to design a monument marking the end of the Smoky Hill Trail. The bronze Indian guide he envisaged was vetoed by the committee and replaced with an equestrian Kit Carson.

Decline

The movement waned after World War I when it came under assault from planners and critics who disliked its expensive, impractical, and allegedly elitist and superficial characteristics.

Notes

1. ^ Daniel M. Bluestone, Columbia University, (September 1988).Detroit's City Beautiful and the Problem of Commerce Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. XLVII, No. 3, pp. 245-62.

See also

External links

Progressivism

Schools
American Progressivism
New Deal liberalism
Educational progressivism
Progressive libertarianism

Ideas
Democracy
Freedom
..... Click the link for more information.


North America is a continent [1] in the Earth's northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. It is bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southeast by the Caribbean Sea, and on the south and west
..... Click the link for more information.
Architecture is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. A wider definition often includes the design of the total built environment: from the macrolevel of town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture to the microlevel of construction details and,
..... Click the link for more information.
Urban, city, or town planning is the discipline of land use planning which explores several aspects of the built and social environments of municipalities and communities.
..... Click the link for more information.
Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century

1860s 1870s 1880s - 1890s - 1900s 1910s 1920s
1890 1891 1892 1893 1894
1895 1896 1897 1898 1899

- -
- The 1890s
..... Click the link for more information.
Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century

1870s 1880s 1890s - 1900s - 1910s 1920s 1930s
1900 1901 1902 1903 1904
1905 1906 1907 1908 1909

- -
-

Events and trends

Technology


..... Click the link for more information.
Beauty is commonly defined as a characteristic present in a person, place, object or idea that provides a perceptual experience of pleasure, meaning or satisfaction to the mind or to the eyes, arising from sensory manifestations such as a shape, color, personality, sound, design or
..... Click the link for more information.
monument is a statue, building, or other edifice created to commemorate a person, event or as an artistic object. They are frequently used to improve the appearance of a city or location. Cities that are planned such as Washington D.C. and Brasília are often built around monuments.
..... Click the link for more information.
The introduction to this article may be too long. Please help improve the introduction by moving some material from it into the body of the article according to the suggestions at Wikipedia's .
..... Click the link for more information.
city is an urban settlement with a particularly important status which differentiates it from a town.

City is primarily used to designate an urban settlement with a large population. However, city may also indicate a special administrative, legal, or historical status.
..... Click the link for more information.
City of Chicago

Flag
Seal
Nickname: "The Windy City", "The Second City", "ChiTown", "Hog Butcher for the World", "City of the Big Shoulders", "The City That Works"
Motto: "Urbs in Horto
..... Click the link for more information.
City of Detroit

Flag
Seal
Nickname: Motor City, Motown, Rock City, The D
Motto: "Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus"
..... Click the link for more information.
Washington, D.C.

Flag
Seal
Nickname: DC, The District
Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All)
Location of Washington, D.C.
..... Click the link for more information.
Social control refers to social mechanisms that regulate individual and group behavior, leading to conformity and compliances to the rules of a given society or social group.
..... Click the link for more information.
Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ἀρετή) is moral excellence of a person. A virtue is a trait valued as being good. The conceptual opposite of virtue is vice.
..... Click the link for more information.
worldwide view of the subject.
Please [ improve this article] or discuss the issue on the talk page.
An apartment building, block of flats or tenement is a multi-unit dwelling made up of several (generally four or more) apartments (US) or flats (UK).
..... Click the link for more information.
Immigration is the movement of people from one place to another. While human migration has existed throughout human history, immigration implies long-term permanent residence (and often eventual citizenship) by the immigrants: tourists and short-term visitors are not considered
..... Click the link for more information.
twentieth century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000, according to the Gregorian calendar. Some historians consider the era from about 1914 to 1991 to be the Short Twentieth Century.
..... Click the link for more information.
Public housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. Social housing is an umbrella term referring to rental housing which may be owned and managed by the state, by not-for-profit organizations, or
..... Click the link for more information.
garden city movement is an approach to urban planning that was founded in 1898 by Ebenezer Howard in England. Garden cities were to be planned, self-contained communities surrounded by greenbelts, and containing carefully balanced areas of residences, industry, and agriculture.
..... Click the link for more information.
London
Canary Wharf is the centre of London's modern office towers
London shown within England
Coordinates:
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
..... Click the link for more information.
Baroque was a Western cultural epoch, commencing roughly at the turn of the 17th century in Rome, that was exemplified by drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music..
..... Click the link for more information.
Semi-Detached
(1998) Suicide Pact - You First
(1999) |

Semi-Detached (1998) was Therapy?'s last album for A&M Records.

Track listing

  1. "'Church of Noise'" (Cairns)
  2. "'Tightrope Walker'" (Cairns/McKeegan/Hopkins)

..... Click the link for more information.
villa was originally an upper-class country house, though since its origins in Roman times the idea and function of a villa has evolved considerably. After the fall of the Republic, a villa became a small, fortified farming compound, gradually re-evolving through the Middle
..... Click the link for more information.
Urban decay is a process by which a city, or a part of a city, falls into a state of disrepair. It is characterized by depopulation, property abandonment, high unemployment, fragmented families, political disenfranchisement, crime, and desolate and unfriendly urban landscapes.
..... Click the link for more information.
Beaux Arts architecture[1] denotes the academic classical architectural style that was taught at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. The style "Beaux Arts"
..... Click the link for more information.
The term Classical Architecture has a specific archaeological meaning, relating to the architecture of Classical Greece. However the term is used by architectural historians to refer to a number of styles derived, directly or loosely, from this source.
..... Click the link for more information.
monument is a statue, building, or other edifice created to commemorate a person, event or as an artistic object. They are frequently used to improve the appearance of a city or location. Cities that are planned such as Washington D.C. and Brasília are often built around monuments.
..... Click the link for more information.
Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw upon Western classical art and culture (usually that of
..... Click the link for more information.
World's Columbian Exposition (also called The Chicago World's Fair), a World's Fair, was held in Chicago in 1893, to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' "discovery" of the New World. Chicago bested New York City, Washington, D.C. and St.
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.