Close central unrounded vowel

See also: IPA, Consonants
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i • y
ɨ • ʉ
ɯ • u
ɪ • ʏ
• ʊ
e • 
ɘ • ɵ
ɤ • o
ɛ • œ
ɜ • ɞ
ʌ • ɔ
a • ɶ
ɑ • ɒ
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Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right
represents a rounded vowel.
IPA – number317
IPA – textɨ
IPA – image
Entityɨ
X-SAMPA1
Kirshenbaumi"
Sound sample 


The close central unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɨ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is 1. The IPA symbol is the letter i with a horizontal bar. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as "barred-i".

Features

Occurrence

/ɨ/ is a rare phoneme in most Indo-European languages. However, it is very common as a separate phoneme in the indigenous languages of the Americas and is often in phonemic contrast with other close vowels such as /i/ and /u/ both in modern living languages as well as reconstructed proto-languages (e.g. proto-Uto-Aztecan). Campbell et al. (1986) identify the presence of this vowel phoneme as an areal feature of a Mesoamerican Sprachbund (although this is not a defining feature of the entire area).

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Amharicሥር[sɨr]'root'Often transcribed as <ə>
Angor''hüfı[xɨβə]'hot'
English (some dialects)roses[ˈɹoʊzɨz]'roses'Reduced vowel, other dialects have [ɪ] in this place. See English phonology.
Guaraníyvy[ɨʋɨ]'earth'
Kaingangfy[ɸɨ]'seed'
Mapudungantrukür[tʴuˈkɨɹ]'fog'See Mapudungun phonology
Polishwy[vɨ]'you' (plural)See Polish phonology
Romanianînspre[ɨnspre]'toward'See Romanian phonology
Russianты[tɨ]'you' (singular)Only occurs after unpalatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Sahaptin[kʼsɨt]'cold'
Sirionó[eˈsɨ]'dry wood'
Tupiyby[ɨβɨ]'earth'
Võrosysar[sɨsarʲ]'sister'
WelshNorthern dialects''Cymru[ˈkəmrɨ]'Wales'

Bibliography

  • Campbell, Lyle; Kaufman, Terrence; & Smith-Stark, Thomas C. (1986). Meso-America as a linguistic area. Language, 62 (3), 530-570.
  • Firestone, Homer L. (1965). Description and classification of Sirionó: A Tupí-Guaraní language. Janua linguarum, Series Practica (No. 16). London: Mouton & Co.
  • Gómez, Paula. (1999). Huichol de San Andrés Cohamiata, Jalisco. Archivo de lenguas indígenas de México. México: El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios.
  • Koehn, Edward; & Koehn, Sally. (1986). Apalai. In D. C. Derbyshire & G. K. Pullum (Eds.), Handbook of Amazonian linguistics (Vol. 1, pp. 33-127). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Payne, Doris L.; & Payne, Thomas E. (1990). Yagua. In D. C. Derbyshire & G. K. Pullum (Eds.), Handbook of Amazonian linguistics (Vol. 2, pp. 252-474). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
vowel is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by an open configuration of the vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure above the glottis. This contrasts with consonants, which are characterized by a constriction or closure at one or more points along the
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International Phonetic Alphabet

Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.

The International
Phonetic Alphabet
History
Nonstandard symbols
Extended IPA
Naming conventions
IPA for English The
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consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. The word consonant
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