Co-amoxiclav

Co-amoxiclav is the British Approved Name, in the British Pharmacopoeia, for the combination antibiotic containing Amoxicillin (as either trihydate or the sodium salt) and Clavulanic acid (as Potassium clavulanate). This name, unlike co-trimoxazole, has not been widely adopted internationally and the combination product is usually referred to by various names such as amoxicillin with clavulanic acid or amoxicillin+clavulanate or simply by the trade name. Co-amoxiclav is currently marketed under various trade names including Augmentin (GlaxoSmithKline formerly Beecham), and for veterinary use as Clavamox/Synulox (Pfizer) and Clavaseptin (Vétoquinol).

The combination of amoxicillin, a β-lactam antibiotic; with clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor; results in an antibiotic with an increased spectrum of action and restored efficacy against β-lactamase producing amoxicillin-resistant bacteria.

Dosage

The proportions of the two constituents are expressed as x/y where x and y are the strengths in milligrams of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid respectively. However, the branded products indicate their strengths as the quantity of amoxicillin, hence co-amoxiclav 250/125 ≡ Augmentin 250 and contains 250 mg of amoxicillin with 125 mg of clavulanic acid. [1] [2] [3]

Standard adult dosages for respiratory tract, urinary, abdominal and dental infections as well as cellulitis and animal bites is co-amoxiclav 250/125 (one tablet Augmentin 375) taken every 8 hours, which may be doubled in severe infections (either as two tablets at a time of Augmentin 375, or a single tablet of co-amoxiclav 500/125 ≡ Augmentin 625). In the US, Augmentin XR (co-amoxiclav 1000/62.5) is marketed for use in community acquired pneumonia with two tablets taken twice a day (giving 4000 mg total daily dose of amoxicillin).

Dosages for children are also given three times a day using suspensions containing co-amoxiclav 250/62 in each 5 mL (Augmentin '250/62 SF' or 312) for those between the ages of 6 - 12 years and co-amoxiclav 125/31 (Augmentin '125/31 SF' or 156) for those between the ages of 1 - 6 years. A more concentrated solution, co-amoxiclav 400/57 (Augmentin Duo), may be administered more conveniently just twice daily to children from as young as 2 months of age; quantities are based on body weight with 2.5 mL from the age of 2 years and 5 mL after the age of 6 years.

Side effects

Amongst the possible side-effects of this medication are diarrhea, vomiting and a few other conditions. These do not usually require medical attention. However, if the patient experiences an allergic reaction to the medication, jaundice, fever or severe diarrhoea, it is necessary to contact a doctor immediately. As with all antimicrobial agents, pseudomembranous colitis has been associated with the use of amoxicillin-clavulanate.

Amoxicillin is a member of the penicillin family of antibiotics, and therefore should not be taken by patients allergic to penicillin.

Veterinary use

The amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination is also used in the treatment of, amongst other infections, periodontitis in dogs and skin infections in cats. The preparation for veterinary use is commonly marketed under the trade names Clavaseptin, and Clavamox (or Synulox in Europe).

Other Notes

Liquid co-amoxiclav must be refrigerated to maintain effectiveness. Many patients find the taste of Augmentin extremely unpleasant.

References

1. ^ [1]
2. ^ [2]
3. ^ [3]

External links

A British Approved Name (BAN) is the official non-proprietary or generic name given to a pharmaceutical substance, as defined in the British Pharmacopoeia (BP). The BAN is also the official name used in many countries across the world, especially those of the Commonwealth of
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Published annually, the British Pharmacopoeia (BP) is a collection of quality standards for UK medicinal substances. It is used by individuals and organizations involved in pharmaceutical research, development, manufacture and testing.
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Amoxicillin (INN) or amoxycillin (former BAN) is a moderate-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms.
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Clavulanic acid (rINN) (IPA: [klævjuˌlænɪk ˈæsəd]) is a beta-lactamase inhibitor (GlaxoSmithKline formerly Beecham) sometimes combined with penicillin group antibiotics to overcome certain types of antibiotic
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Potassium clavulanate or clavulanate potassium is an enhanced property chemical based on the tertiary butylamine salt of clavulanic acid.

It is usually supplied mixed with Avicel (Microcrystalline cellulose), Syloid 244 (Colloidal Silicon dioxide) or Amoxicillin (to
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Co-trimoxazole (abbreviated SXT, TMP-SMX, or TMP-sulfa) is an antibiotic combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, in the ratio of 1 to 5, used in the treatment of a variety of bacterial infections.
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GlaxoSmithKline

Public (LSE:  GSK
NYSE:  GSK )
Founded 2000, by merger of Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham
Headquarters London, England, UK

Key people Sir Chris Gent, Chairman
Dr Jean-Pierre Garnier, Chief Executive
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Stemming from the French name and place Beauchamp

Beecham can refer to:
  • Thomas Beecham (1879-1961) - a British conductor
  • Beecham, a pharmaceutical business

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Synulox® is a widely known brand name of Veterinary Antibiotic, used for treating infections mostly in the lungs, and nasal tract; and as a broad-spectrum antibiotic. The drug is a compound of amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid. See also Co-amoxiclav.
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Pfizer, Inc.

Public (NYSE: PFE )
Founded Brooklyn, New York, USA (1849)
Headquarters New York City, New York, USA

Key people Jeff Kindler, CEO
David Shedlarz, VC
Ian Read, Pres. of Pharma.
Martin Mackay, Pres.
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β-lactam antibiotics are a broad class of antibiotics which include penicillin derivatives, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems and β-lactamase inhibitors; basically any antibiotic agent which contains a β-lactam nucleus in its molecular structure.
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Clavulanic acid (rINN) (IPA: [klævjuˌlænɪk ˈæsəd]) is a beta-lactamase inhibitor (GlaxoSmithKline formerly Beecham) sometimes combined with penicillin group antibiotics to overcome certain types of antibiotic
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Beta-lactamase is an enzyme (EC 3.5.2.6 ) produced by some bacteria that is responsible for their resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics like penicillins, cephalosporins, cephamycins and carbapenems.
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MeSH D003967 Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning "through-flowing").
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Pseudomembranous colitis
Classification & external resources

ICD-10 A 04.7
ICD-9 008.45

DiseasesDB 2820
MedlinePlus 000259
eMedicine med/1942  
MeSH D004761

See also:

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Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN) is a group of beta-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms.
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Periodontal disease
Classification & external resources

This x-ray shows significant bone loss between the two roots of a tooth. The spongy bone has receded due to infection under tooth, reducing the bony support for the tooth.
ICD-10 K 05.
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British National Formulary

The standard cover design is easily identified with each six-monthly edition distinguished by a different jacket colour.
Author British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain
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antibiotic is a chemotherapeutic agent that inhibits or abolishes the growth of micro-organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or protozoans. The term originally referred to any agent with biological activity against living organisms; however, "antibiotic" now is used to refer to
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β-lactam antibiotics are a broad class of antibiotics which include penicillin derivatives, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems and β-lactamase inhibitors; basically any antibiotic agent which contains a β-lactam nucleus in its molecular structure.
..... Click the link for more information.
Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN) is a group of beta-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms.
..... Click the link for more information.
Amoxicillin (INN) or amoxycillin (former BAN) is a moderate-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms.
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Ampicillin is a beta-lactam antibiotic that has been used extensively to treat bacterial infections since 1961. It is considered part of the aminopenicillin family and is roughly equivalent to amoxicillin in terms of spectrum and level of activity.
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Azlocillin is an acylampicillin antibiotic with an extended spectrum of activity and greater in vitro potency than the carboxy penicillins. Azlocillin is similar to mezlocillin and piperacillin.
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Carbenicillin is an antibiotic belonging to the carboxypenicillin subgroup of the penicillins. It has gram-negative coverage which includes Pseudomonas aeruginosa but limited gram-positive coverage.
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Cloxacillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic in the same class as penicillin. It is sold under a number of trade names, including Cloxapen and Orbenin. Cloxacillin is used against staphylococci that produce beta-lactamase.
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Dicloxacillin (INN) is a narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class. It is used to treat infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria. Notably, it is active against beta-lactamase-producing organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus
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Flucloxacillin (INN) or floxacillin (USAN) is a narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class. It is used to treat infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria.
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Mezlocillin is a broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic. It is active against both Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria.

Mechanism of action

Main article: Beta-lactam antibiotic

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Nafcillin sodium is a narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class. As a beta-lactamase-resistant penicillin, it is used to treat infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, particularly species of Staphylococci, that are resistant to other penicillins.
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