Coprosma

Coprosma

Coprosma petriei
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
Division:Magnoliophyta
Class:Magnoliopsida
Order:Gentianales
Family:Rubiaceae
Subfamily:Rubioideae
Tribe:Anthospermeae
Genus:Coprosma
J.R.Forster & G.Forster
Species


Coprosma acerosa
Coprosma acutifolia
Coprosma antipoda
Coprosma arborea
Coprosma areolata
Coprosma astonii
Coprosma australis
Coprosma banksii
Coprosma brunnea
Coprosma chathamica
Coprosma cheesmanii
Coprosma ciliata
Coprosma colensoi
Coprosma crassifolia
Coprosma crenulata
Coprosma cuneata
Coprosma depressa
Coprosma dodonaeifolia
Coprosma foetidissima
Coprosma grandifolia
Coprosma intertexta
Coprosma linariifolia
Coprosma lucida
Coprosma macrocarpa
Coprosma microcarpa
Coprosma obconica
Coprosma parviflora
Coprosma petiolata
Coprosma petriei
Coprosma polymorpha
Coprosma propinqua
Coprosma pseudocuneata
Coprosma pumila
Coprosma quadrifida
Coprosma repen
Coprosma rhamnoides
Coprosma rigida
Coprosma robusta
Coprosma rotundifolia
Coprosma rubra
Coprosma rugosa
Coprosma serrulata
Coprosma spathulata
Coprosma tenuicaulis
Coprosma tenuifolia
Coprosma virescens
Coprosma wallii
Coprosma is a genus of about 90 species that are found in New Zealand (45 spp), Hawaii (c. 20 spp) and in Borneo, Java, New Guinea, islands of the Pacific Ocean to Australia[1]. Many species are small shrubs with tiny evergreen leaves, but a few are small trees and have much larger leaves. The flowers have insignificant petals and are wind-pollinated, with long anthers and stigmas. Natural hybrids are common. The fruit is a non-poisonous juicy berry, most often bright orange (but can be dark red or even light blue), containing two small seeds. It is said that coffee can be made from the seeds, Coprosma being related to the coffee plants. A notable feature (also found in other genera of the Rubiaceae) is that the leaves contain hollows in the axils of the veins; in these, and on the leaf stipules, nitrogen-fixing bacteria grow.

The name Coprosma means smelling like dung and refers to the smell (methanethiol) given out by the crushed leaves of a few species.

Common species include:
  • Coprosma acerosa (Tataraheke/Sand Coprosma), a small shrub with linear leaves
  • Coprosma foetidissima, a small New Zealand tree with foul-smelling leaves
  • Coprosma grandifolia (Kanono) a large bush with leaves 15 cm long or more; its bark contains an orange dye
  • Coprosma lucida (Karamu), a small tree
  • Coprosma robusta (Karamu), a small tree more common in northern areas of New Zealand than C. lucida
  • Coprosma repens (Taupata), a small tree with many variegated varieties and hybrids, grown extensively for the foliage in gardens in New Zealand, Australia, California and other temperate climates and known horticulturally as mirror plant.
  • Coprosma rhamnoides, a small shrub with small round leaves and dark red berries.
  • Coprosma quadrifida, a small Australian shrub with small ovate leaves, small orange or reddish berries, and a tendency for the ends of branches to form thorns.
The orange fruit of the larger species were eaten by Māori children, and are also popular with birds.

References

External links

Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. Scientific classification also can be called scientific taxonomy, but should be distinguished from folk taxonomy, which lacks scientific basis.
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Plantae
Haeckel, 1866[1]

Divisions

Green algae
  • Chlorophyta
  • Charophyta
Land plants (embryophytes)
  • Non-vascular land plants (bryophytes)

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Magnoliophyta

Classes

Magnoliopsida - Dicots
Liliopsida - Monocots

The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. The flowering plants and the gymnosperms comprise the two extant groups of seed plants.
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Magnoliopsida
Brongniart

Orders

See text.
Dicotyledons, or "dicots", is a name for a group of flowering plants whose seed typically contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons.
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Gentianales
Lindley

Families

Gentianaceae (gentian family)
Apocynaceae (dogbane family)
Gelsemiaceae
Loganiaceae (logania family)
Rubiaceae (coffee family)

Gentianales
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Rubiaceae
Juss.

Type genus
Rubia
L.

Genera

See text
For a full list, see: List of Rubiaceae genera

Rubiaceae is a family of flowering plants, variously called the madder, bedstraw, or coffee family.
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Johann Georg Adam Forster (November 27 1754[1] – January 10 1794) was a German naturalist, ethnologist, travel writer, journalist, and revolutionary. At an early age, he accompanied his father on several scientific expeditions, including James Cook's second voyage
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Anthem
"God Defend New Zealand"
"God Save the Queen" 1


Capital Wellington

Largest city Auckland
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State of Hawaii
Mokuʻāina o Hawaiʻi


Flag of Hawaii Seal of Hawaii
Nickname(s): The Aloha State

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Borneo <nowiki />

Topography of Borneo

Geography <nowiki/>
Location South East Asia
Coordinates <nowiki />
Archipelago
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Java
Native name: Jawa<nowiki />

Topography of Java

Geography
<nowiki/>
Location Southeast Asia
Coordinates <nowiki />
Archipelago
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New Guinea<nowiki />

Political division of New Guinea

Geography
<nowiki/>
Location Island north of Australian continent
Coordinates
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Earth's oceans
(World Ocean)
  • Arctic Ocean
  • Atlantic Ocean
  • Indian Ocean
  • Pacific Ocean
  • Southern Ocean


The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin name Mare Pacificum
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Anthem
Advance Australia Fair [1]


Capital Canberra

Largest city Sydney
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evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves all year round. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose all their foliage for part of the year.

Leaf persistence in evergreen plants may vary from only a few months (with new leaves constantly being grown and old
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leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. For this purpose, a leaf is typically flat (laminar) and thin, to expose the cells containing chloroplast (chlorenchyma tissue, a type of parenchyma) to light over a broad area, and to allow light to penetrate
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stamen (plural stamina, from Latin stamen meaning "thread of the warp") is the male organ of a flower. Each stamen generally has a stalk called the filament (from Latin filum, meaning "thread"), and, on top of the filament, an anther
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Stigma (plural: stigmata) may refer to:

In biology:
  • Stigma (anatomy), a small spot, mark, scar, or minute hole
  • Stigma (flower), the terminal portion of a carpel that has no epidermis and is fitted to receive pollen

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In botany, stipule (Latin stipula: straw, stalk[1]) is a term coined by Linnaeus<ref name="CED" /> which refers to outgrowths borne on either side of the base of a leafstalk (the petiole).
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Methanethiol (also known as methyl mercaptan) is a colorless gas with a smell like rotten cabbage. It is a natural substance found in the blood, brain, and other tissues of people and animals. It is released from animal feces.
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Coprosma
J.R.Forster & G.Forster

Species

Coprosma lucida
Coprosma robusta

Karamu is the Māori name given to Coprosma robusta and Coprosma lucida, two of the 45 Coprosma
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Coprosma
J.R.Forster & G.Forster

Species

Coprosma lucida
Coprosma robusta

Karamu is the Māori name given to Coprosma robusta and Coprosma lucida, two of the 45 Coprosma
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