Couronians

The Kursenieki are also known as Curonians.
Enlarge picture
Curonians in the context of the other Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE. The Eastern Balts are shown in brown hue while the Western Balts are shown in green. The boundaries are approximate.


The Curonians (Curonian: Kursi; German: Kuren; Latvian: Kurši; Lithuanian: Kuršiai; Estonian: Kuralased) were an extinct Baltic tribe that later formed the part Latvian and Lithuanian nations. They gave their name to the region of Courland (Kurzeme). They spoke the Curonian language. The Curonians lived in Latvia and Lithuania from the 5th to the 16th centuries.

The Curonians were known as fierce warriors, excellent sailors and pirates. They were involved in several wars and alliances with Swedish, Danish, and Icelandic Vikings. Grobin was their main center during the Vendel Age. Chapter 46 of Egils Saga describes one Viking expedition by the Vikings Thorolf and Egill Skallagrímsson in Courland. They took part in attacking Sweden's main city Sigtuna in 1187. Curonians have had temporary settlements established in oversea regions including the Eastern Sweden, Gotland and Bornholm islands.

The Curonians were especially religious people, worshipping pagan gods and their sacred animal, the horse. However, the Curonians were one of the first Baltic tribes to accept Christianity, although pagan customs were continued by their descendants after the 19th century. Some of the most important writing sources about the Curonians are the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia, the Livländische Reimchronik, the Egils Saga, and Saxo Grammaticus's Gesta Danorum.

The Curonians were conquered by the Livonian Order in 1266 and eventually merged with other tribes. Descendents of the Curonians include the Kursenieki of the Curonian Spit and the so-called Curonian Kings of Courland.

Administrative division

The territory inhabited by the Curonians was divided into certain administrative districts or lands (south to north):
  • *Pilsāt(a)s - the smallest land of around 200 km², in the western part of modern Klaipėda district and nothwestern part of Šilutė district of Lithuania;
  • *Mēguva - (mentioned as Negouwe in chronicles) 500 km², in modern Palanga, Kretinga and Šventoji environs;
  • *Ceklis - (Cecklis) the largest land of 1500 km² west of Venta River in Samogitia, up to the Lithuanian-Latvian border;
  • *Duvzare - (Dovsare) further north in Courland of modern Latvia;
  • *Bandava - (Bandowe) north of Duvzare, in Courland.
Kursenieki (Curonians; German: Kuren; Lithuanian: Kuršininkai; Latvian: Kursenieki) (sg.
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The term Curonian language (German: Kurisch; Latvian: kuršu valoda; Lithuanian: kuršių kalba
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German language (Deutsch, ] ) is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages.
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Latvian}}} 
Official status
Official language of: Latvia, European Union
Regulated by: State Language Center
Language codes
ISO 639-1: lv
ISO 639-2: lav
ISO 639-3: lav Latvian (latviešu valoda
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Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is the official state language of the Republic of Lithuania, spoken by about 4 million native speakers.

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Estonian}}} 
Official status
Official language of:  Estonia
 European Union
Regulated by: Institute of the Estonian Language / Eesti Keele Instituut (semi-official)
Language codes
ISO 639-1: et
ISO 639-2: est
ISO 639-3:
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Balts or Baltic peoples (Latvian: balti; Lithuanian: baltai; Latgalian: bolti
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Latvians or Letts (Latvian: latvieši), the indigenous Baltic people of Latvia, occasionally refer to themselves by the ancient name of Latvji, which may have originated from the word Latve
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Lithuanians are the Baltic ethnic group native to Lithuania, where they number a little over 3 million. [1] Another million or more make up the Lithuanian diaspora, largely found in countries such as the United States, Brazil, Canada and Russia.
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Courland (Latvian: Kurzeme; German: Kurland; Latin: Curonia / Couronia; Lithuanian: Kuršas
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The term Curonian language (German: Kurisch; Latvian: kuršu valoda; Lithuanian: kuršių kalba
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Motto
"Tēvzemei un Brīvībai"   ( Latvian)
"For Fatherland and Freedom"
Anthem
Dievs, svētī Latviju!   (Latvian)
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Motto
"Tautos jėga vienybėje"
"The strength of the nation lies in unity"
Anthem
Tautiška giesmė


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Motto
(Royal) "För Sverige - I tiden" 1
"For Sweden – With the Times" Â²

Anthem
Du gamla, Du fria
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Motto
none
(Royal motto: Guds hjælp, Folkets kærlighed, Danmarks styrke
"The Help of God, the Love of the People, the Strength of Denmark" )
Anthem
Der er et yndigt land  (national)
Kong Christian
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Anthem
Lofsöngur

Location of  Iceland

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Viking, also called Norseman or Northman, refers to a member of the Scandinavian seafaring traders, warriors and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 8th to the 11th century[1]
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Vendel era (550-793) is the name given to a part of the Germanic Iron Age (or, more generally, the Age of Migrations).

The migrations and the upheaval in Central Europe had lessened somewhat, and two power regions had appeared in Europe: the Merovingian kingdom and the
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Egils saga is an epic Icelandic saga possibly by Snorri Sturluson (1179-1241 A.D.), who may have written the account between the years 1220 and 1240 A.D. It is an important representative of the sagas and has much to say about the end of the Viking era.
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Egill Skallagrímsson[1] (910-c.990) was a Viking skald and the great anti-hero of Icelandic literature.

Several accounts tell of him slaughtering as many as 20 or more armed men singlehandedly and even dispatching a feared berserker with relative ease.
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Sigtuna is a city in central Sweden in the metropolitan area of Stockholm. It has a population of 7,000 and is the namsesake of Sigtuna Municipality, even though the seat, Märsta, has 23,000 inhabitants.
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Motto
(Royal) "För Sverige - I tiden" 1
"For Sweden – With the Times" Â²

Anthem
Du gamla, Du fria
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Gotland   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the largest island in the Baltic Sea.
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Bornholm Island
Island |

Coat of arms |


Country | Denmark

Region |
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Christianity

Foundations
Jesus Christ
Church Theology
New Covenant Supersessionism
Dispensationalism
Apostles Kingdom Gospel
History of Christianity Timeline
Bible
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Books Canon Apocrypha
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The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia (Latvian: Indriķa hronika, Latin: Heinrici Cronicon Lyvoniae, Estonian: Henriku Liivimaa kroonika) is a historic document describing the history of Latvia and Estonia from 1180 to 1227.
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The Livonian Rhymed Chronicle (German: Livländische Reimchronik) was a chronicle written in Low German by an anonymous writer.
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Egils saga is an epic Icelandic saga possibly by Snorri Sturluson (1179-1241 A.D.), who may have written the account between the years 1220 and 1240 A.D. It is an important representative of the sagas and has much to say about the end of the Viking era.
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Saxo Grammaticus (c. 1150 – 1220) was a Danish medieval historian of whose life practically nothing is known. The sixteen books of Danish history of this time, known as the Gesta Danorum,
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Gesta Danorum ("Deeds of the Danes") is a work of Danish history, by 12th century author Saxo Grammaticus ("Saxo the Literate", literally "the Grammarian"). It is the most ambitious literary undertaking of medieval Denmark and an essential source for the nation's early history, one
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