Cryptophyta

Cryptomonads
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Rhodomonas salina

Rhodomonas salina
Scientific classification
Domain:Eukaryota
Kingdom:Chromalveolata
Phylum:Cryptophyta
Class:Cryptophyceae
Typical genera


Order Cryptomonadales    Campylomonas
   Chilomonas
   Chroomonas
   Cryptomonas
   Falcomonas
   Geminigera
   Guillardia
   Hemiselmis
   Plagioselmis
   Proteomonas
   Storeatula
   Rhodomonas
   Teleaulax
Order Goniomonadales
   Goniomonas
The cryptomonads are a small group of flagellates, most of which have chloroplasts. They are common in freshwater, and also occur in marine and brackish habitats. Each cell is around 10-50 μm in size and flattened in shape, with an anterior groove or pocket. At the edge of the pocket there are typically two slightly unequal flagella.

Cryptomonads distinguished by the presence of characteristic extrusomes called ejectisomes, which consist of two connected spiral ribbons held under tension. If the cells are irritated either by mechanical, chemical or light stress, they discharge, propelling the cell in a zig-zag course away from the disturbance. Large ejectisomes, visible under the light microscope, are associated with the pocket; smaller ones occur elsewhere on the cell.

Cryptomonads have one or two chloroplasts, except for Chilomonas which has leucoplasts and Goniomonas which lacks plastids entirely. These contain chlorophylls a and c, together with phycobiliproteins and other pigments, and vary in color from brown to green. Each is surrounded by four membranes, and there is a reduced cell nucleus called a nucleomorph between the middle two. This indicates that the chloroplast was derived from a eukaryotic symbiont, shown by genetic studies to have been a red alga.

A few cryptomonads, such as Cryptomonas, can form palmelloid stages, but readily escape the surrounding mucus to become free-living flagellates again. Cryptomonad flagella are inserted parallel to one another, and are covered by bipartite hairs called mastigonemes, formed within the endoplasmic reticulum and transported to the cell surface. Small scales may also be present on the flagella and cell body. The mitochondria have flate cristae, and mitosis is open; sexual reproduction has also been reported.

Originally the cryptomonads were considered close relatives of the dinoflagellates because of their similar pigmentation. Later botanists treated them as a separate division, Cryptophyta, while zoologists treated them as the flagellate order Cryptomonadida. There is considerable evidence that cryptomonad chloroplasts are closely related to those of the heterokonts and haptophytes, and the three groups are sometimes united as the Chromista. However, the case that the organisms themselves are closely related is not very strong, and they may have acquired chloroplasts independently.
Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. Scientific classification also can be called scientific taxonomy, but should be distinguished from folk taxonomy, which lacks scientific basis.
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Chromalveolata
Cavalier-Smith, 1998

Phyla
Heterokontophyta
Haptophyta
Cryptophyta
Alveolata
  • Ciliophora
  • Apicomplexa
  • Dinoflagellata


Chromalveolata
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Cryptomonas

Cryptomonas is the name-giving genus of the cryptomonads. It is common in freshwater habitats and often forms blooms in greater depths of lakes, or during winter beneath the ice.
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Flagellates are cells with one or more whip-like organelles called flagella. Some cells in animals may be flagellate, for instance the spermatozoa of most phyla. Higher plants and fungi do not produce flagellate cells, but the closely related green algae and chytrids do.
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Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. Chloroplasts absorb sunlight and use it in conjunction with water and carbon dioxide to produce sugars, the raw material for energy and biomass production in all green plants
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Distances shorter than 10 µm
  • 10 µm — width of cotton fibre
  • 10-24 µm — dust mite excreta ¹
  • 10.6 µm — wavelength of light emitted by a carbon dioxide laser
  • 15 µm — width of silk fibre

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A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a long, slender projection from the cell body, composed of microtubules and surrounded by the plasma membrane.
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Extrusomes are membrane-bound structures in some eukaryotes which, under certain conditions, discharge their contents outside the cell. There are a variety of different types, probably not homologous, and serving various functions.
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Leucoplasts are a category of plastid and as such are organelles found in plant cells. They are non-pigmented, in contrast to other plastids such as the chloroplast.
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Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Its name is derived from ancient Greek: chloros = green and phyllon = leaf.
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Phycobiliproteins are water-soluble proteins present in cyanobacteria and certain algae (rhodophytes, cryptomonads, glaucocystophytes) that capture light energy which is then passed on to chlorophylls during photosynthesis.
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nucleus (3) ribosome (4) vesicle (5) rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (6) Golgi apparatus (7) Cytoskeleton (8) smooth ER (9) mitochondria (10) vacuole (11) cytoplasm (12) lysosome (13) centrioles]]

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl.
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Nucleomorphs are small, reduced eukaryotic nuclei found in certain plastids. So far, only two groups of organisms are known to contain a nucleomorph: the cryptomonads of the supergroup Chromista and the chlorarachniophytes of the supergroup Rhizaria.
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Rhodophyta
Wettstein, 1922

Possible classes
  • Florideophyceae
  • Bangiophyceae
  • Cyanidiophyceae
The red algae (Rhodophyta, IPA:
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Cryptomonas

Cryptomonas is the name-giving genus of the cryptomonads. It is common in freshwater habitats and often forms blooms in greater depths of lakes, or during winter beneath the ice.
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Cristae (singular crista) are the internal compartments formed by the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. They are studded with proteins, including ATP synthase and a variety of cytochromes. The maximum surface for chemical reactions to occur within the mitochondria.
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Sexual reproduction is a union that results in increasing genetic diversity of the offspring. It is characterized by two processes: meiosis, involving the halving of the number of chromosomes; and fertilisation, involving the fusion of two gametes and the restoration of the
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Dinoflagellata
Bütschli 1885

Classes

Dinophyceae
Noctiluciphyceae
Syndiniophyceae

The dinoflagella are a large group of flagellate protists. Most are marine plankton, but they are common in fresh water habitats as well.
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Heterokontophyta

Typical classes

Colored groups
Chrysophyceae (golden algae)
Synurophyceae
Actinochrysophyceae (axodines)
Pelagophyceae
Phaeothamniophyceae
Bacillariophyceae (diatoms)
Bolidophyceae
Raphidophyceae
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Haptophyta

Orders

Class Pavlovophyceae
   Pavlovales
Class Prymnesiophyceae
   Prymnesiales
   Phaeocystales
   Isochrysidales
   Coccolithales

The
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The Chromista are a paraphyletic eukaryotic supergroup, which may be treated as a separate kingdom or included among the Protista. They include all algae whose chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and c
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