Dallas, Texas

City of Dallas

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Seal
Nickname: Big D, D-Town, Triple D, The 2-1-4
Motto: Live Large. Think Big.
Location in Dallas County and the state of Texas
Coordinates:
Country United States
State Texas
Counties Dallas, Collin, Denton, Rockwall, Kaufman
Incorporated 2 February 1856
Government
 - Mayor Tom Leppert
Area
 - City  385.0 sq mi (997.1 km)
 - Land  342.5 sq mi (887.2 km)
 - Water  42.5 sq mi (110.0 km)
Elevation  430 ft (131 m)
Population (2007)
 - City 1,280,500
 - Density 3,739/sq mi (1368/km)
 - Metro 6,000,000
Time zone Central (UTC-6)
 - Summer (DST) Central (UTC-5)
Area code(s) 214, 469, 972
FIPS code 48-19000GR2
GNIS feature ID 1380944GR3
Website: [1]
The City of Dallas (pronounced [ˈdæl.əs] or [ˈdæl.ʊs]) is the second-largest (according to 2000 census) city in the state of Texas and the ninth-largest city in the United States. The city covers 385 square miles (997 km) and is the county seat of Dallas County.[1] As of July 1, 2006, U.S. Census estimates put Dallas at a population of 1,250,280.[1]The city is the main cultural and economic center of the 12-county Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area—at 6 million people, it is the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the United States.[2] Dallas is listed as a gamma world city by the Loughborough University Globalization and World Cities Study Group & Network.[3]

Dallas was founded in 1841 and formally incorporated as a city on 2 February 1856. The city is well known for its role in the petroleum industry, telecommunications, computer technology, banking, and transportation. It is the core of the largest inland metropolitan area in the United States and lacks any navigable link to the sea[4]—Dallas's prominence despite this comes from its historical importance as a center for the oil and cotton industries, its position along numerous railroad lines, and its powerful industrial and financial tycoons.[5]

History



Before Texas was claimed in the 1500s as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain by the Spanish Empire, the Dallas area was inhabited by the Caddo Native Americans. Later, France also claimed the area, but in 1819 the Adams-Onís Treaty made the Red River the northern boundary of New Spain, officially placing Dallas well within Spanish territory.[6] The area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain and the area became part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, the Republic of Texas broke off from Mexico to become an independent nation.[7] In 1839, four years into the Republic's existence, John Neely Bryan surveyed the area around present-day Dallas. He then left for Arkansas, but returned in 1841 and founded the city of Dallas. In 1846 the Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States and Dallas County was established.

According to the City of Dallas, the origin of the name “Dallas” is a mystery, despite claims to the contrary. Bryan stated only that it was named “after my friend Dallas.” It has often been claimed that both the county and the city were named after George Mifflin Dallas, the eleventh Vice President of the United States. However, there is no evidence that Bryan ever met George Mifflin Dallas, and the area was called Dallas several years before the latter was elected. Another idea, was that the name was influenced from a small town in Pennsylvania, named "Dallas" [8]

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Dallas in 1905


Other leading candidates for Dallas's eponym are:

1. Commodore Alexander James Dallas, brother of George Mifflin Dallas, stationed in the Gulf of Mexico;
2. Walter R. Dallas, who fought at San Jacinto;
3. James L. Dallas, Walter's brother and a Texas Ranger;
4. Joseph Dallas of Arkansas, who lived in the Cedar Springs area in 1843, and moved from Washington County (near Bryan's land holdings in Crawford County) to the Dallas area a few years after Bryan's arrival. This possibility has much support, in that founder John Neely Bryan stated that he had named the town after "his friend," and he was indeed friends with Joseph Dallas at the time.[9]


A notable fact is that, while the namesake of the city of Dallas is not known for certain, the namesake of the county of Dallas is clear, as noted in the transcripts of the Texas legislature. Dallas County was named after Vice-President George Mifflin Dallas, leading to the intriguing possibility that the county seat was named for a different person than the county of the same name.[10]

Dallas was founded in 1841 and formally incorporated as a city on 2 February 1856[5] The city had a few slaves, mostly brought by settlers from Alabama and Georgia. Dallas was just another small town dotting the Texas frontier until after the American Civil War in which it was part of the Confederate States of America, and only legally became a city in 1871. The city paid the Houston and Texas Central Railroad US$5,000 to shift its route 20 miles (32 km) to the west and build its north-south tracks through Dallas, rather than through Corsicana as planned. A year later, Dallas leaders could not pay the Texas and Pacific Railroad to locate there, so they devised a way to trick the Railroad. Dallas had a rider attached to a state law which required the railroad to build its tracks through Browder Springs—which turned out to be just south of Main Street. In 1873, the major north-south and east-west Texas railroad routes intersected in Dallas, thus ensuring its future as a center.[8]

By the turn of the twentieth century Dallas was the leading drug, book, jewelry, and wholesale liquor market in the Southwestern United States. It also quickly became the center of trade in cotton, grain, and even buffalo. It was the world's leading inland cotton market, and continued to lead the world in manufacture of saddlery and cotton gin machinery.[5] As it further entered the 20th century, Dallas transformed from an agricultural center to a center of banking, insurance, and other businesses.

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A parade down Main Street c. 1920


In 1930, oil was discovered 100 miles (160 km) east of Dallas and the city quickly became the financial center for the oil industry in Texas and Oklahoma.[8] In 1958 the integrated circuit was invented in Dallas by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments, which punctuated the Dallas area's development as a center for high-technology manufacturing. During the 1950s and 1960s, Dallas became the nation's third-largest technology center, with the growth of such companies as Ling-Temco-Vought (LTV Corporation) and Texas Instruments. In 1957 two developers, Trammell Crow and John M. Stemmons, opened a Home Furnishings Mart that grew into the Dallas Market Center, the largest wholesale trade complex in the world.[11] On 22 November 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Elm Street while his motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in downtown Dallas.



In the 1970s and 1980s, Dallas underwent a building boom that produced a distinctive contemporary profile and prominent skyline for downtown Dallas. The 1980s also saw many oil industry companies relocate to Houston in order to be closer to offshore operations and the Port of Houston. However, Dallas was beginning to benefit from a burgeoning technology boom at the same time, driven by the growing computer, microchip, and telecommunications industries. Dallas also remained a strong center of banking, insurance, and business. The mid-to-late 1980s were tumultuous for the city when many Dallas banks collapsed from the Savings and Loan crisis. The hit effectively threw the city's economy to its knees and plans for hundreds of millions of dollars worth of development were scrapped. The city remained in recession during the 1990s but the explosive growth of technology-based businesses kept the city's economy fairly stable—During the 1990s, Dallas became known as the Silicon Prairie, similar to California's Silicon Valley.[12]

Recession continued to plague the city into the early 21st century. From 1988 to 2005, not a single high-rise structure was built within the downtown freeway loop, and the city was running out of developable land in north Dallas and Lake Highlands. Totally hemmed in on the north by suburbs, most new housing was being built in Carrollton, Coppell, Frisco, McKinney, Plano and Richardson. By the mid-2000s, the dried up downtown market began to turn around with the construction of multiple art venues, office towers, residential towers, and residential conversions. Downtown housed little over 1,600 residents in 2000, but by the year 2010, the North Central Texas Council of Governments expects over 10,000 residents to be living in the neighborhood.[13] Just north, Uptown is one of the hottest real estate markets in the country, and major advances are taking place in the underdeveloped south Dallas and Oak Cliff areas, including the construction of the University of North Texas at Dallas.

Geography

Dallas is the county seat of Dallas County. Portions of the city extend into neighboring Collin, Denton, Kaufman, and Rockwall counties.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 385 square miles (0 km)342.5 square miles (0 km) of it is land and 42.5 square miles (0 km) of it (11.03%) is water. Dallas makes up one-fifth of the much larger urbanized area known as the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex—about a quarter of all Texans live in the Dallas/Fort Worth/Arlington metropolitan area.[14]

Topography



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The DFW Metroplex at night, photographed from the International Space Station in early 2003. Dallas is the larger of light on the right (east), Fort Worth the smaller on the left (west).


Dallas, and its surrounding area, is mostly flat and lies at an elevation ranging from 450 feet (137 m) to 550 feet (168 m). The western edge of the Austin chalk formation, a limestone escarpment, rises 200 feet (61 m) and runs roughly north-south through Dallas County. The uplift is particularly noticeable in the neighborhood of Oak Cliff and the adjacent cities of Cockrell Hill, Cedar Hill, Grand Prairie, and Irving. Marked variations in terrain are also found in cities immediately to the west in Tarrant County surrounding Fort Worth.

The Trinity River is a major Texas waterway that passes from the city of Irving into west Dallas, where it is paralleled by Interstate 35E along the Stemmons Corridor, then flows alongside western downtown, and through and alongside south Dallas and Pleasant Grove, paralleled by Interstate 45, where it exits into unincorporated Dallas County and heads southeast to Houston. The river is flanked on both sides by 50 feet (15 m) tall earthen levees to protect the city from floods.[15] The river has been treated much like a drainage ditch throughout Dallas's history, but as Dallas began shifting towards a postindustrial society, public outcry about a lack of aesthetic and recreational use for the river ultimately gave way to the Trinity River Project. The project, which began in the early 2000s and is scheduled to reach completion in the 2010s, will result in lakes, new park facilities and trails, and transportation improvements.[16]

White Rock Lake is Dallas's other significant water feature. The lake and surrounding park is a popular destination among boaters, rowers, joggers, and bikers in the Lakewood/Casa Linda Estates neighborhoods of east Dallas. The 66 acre (0 m) Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden lies on the lake's eastern shore.[17] Bachman Lake, just northwest of Love Field, is a smaller lake and park also used for recreation. Lake Ray Hubbard, a 22,745 acre (92 km) lake, is a vast and popular recreational lake located in an extension of Dallas surrounded by Garland, Rowlett, Rockwall, and Sunnyvale.[18] Mountain Creek Lake is a small lake along Dallas's border with Grand Prairie and is home to the (defunct as of September 1998) Naval Air Station Dallas (Hensley Field).[19] North Lake, a small lake in an extension of Dallas surrounded by Irving and Coppell, served primarily as a water source for a nearby power plant, but the surrounding area is now being targeted for redevelopment due to its proximity to Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (a plan that the neighboring cities oppose).[20]

Climate

Averages
High Low Precip.
Jan 55 F (13 C)36 F (2 C)1.89 in (48 mm)
Feb 61 F (16 C)41 F (5 C)2.31 in (59 mm)
Mar 69 F (20 C)49 F (9 C)3.13 in (80 mm)
Apr 77 F (25 C)56 F (13 C)3.46 in (88 mm)
May 84 F (29 C)65 F (18 C)5.30 in (135 mm)
Jun 92 F (33 C)73 F (23 C)3.92 in (100 mm)
Jul 98 F (36 C)77 F (25 C)2.43 in (62 mm)
Aug 96 F (35 C)76 F (24 C)2.17 in (55 mm)
Sep 89 F (31 C)69 F (20 C)2.65 in (67 mm)
Oct 79 F (26 C)58 F (14 C)4.65 in (118 mm)
Nov 66 F (19 C)47 F (8 C)2.61 in (66 mm)
Dec 57 F (14 C)39 F (4 C)2.53 in (64 mm)
Year 77 F (25 C)57 F (14 C)37.1 in (942 mm)
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The spring and fall seasons are pleasant in Dallas, as seen in this March photograph from an Oak Cliff park
Dallas has a humid subtropical climate, yet this part of Texas also tends to receive warm, dry winds from the north and west in the summer. Winters are generally mild, although strong cold fronts from the north sometimes pass through Dallas, occasionally plummeting nightly lows between 10  (0 ) and 20  (0 ). Snowfall is seen on average 5 days out of the year and snow accumulation is seen 3 days out of the year.[21] Occasionally, warm and humid air from the south overrides cold, dry air, leading to freezing rain, which usually causes major disruptions in the city for a day or two if the roads and highways become dangerously slick.

Spring and autumn bring very pleasant weather to the area and are usually the best times to visit. In the spring months, residents and visitors appreciate the beauty of the vibrant wildflowers (such as the bluebonnet, Indian paintbrush and other flora) which bloom in spring and are planted around the highways throughout Texas.[22] In the spring the weather can be quite volatile and can change dramatically in a matter of minutes. Barring storms, springtime is very mild and enjoyable in the city. The weather in Dallas is also very pleasant between late September and early November, and unlike springtime, major storms rarely form in the area.

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Snow seen on the campus of Southern Methodist University
In the spring, cool fronts moving from Canada collide with warm, humid air streaming in from the Gulf Coast. When these fronts meet over northern and central Texas, severe thunder storms are generated with spectacular lightning shows, occasional torrents of rain, hail, and at times, a few tornadoes. Over time, tornadoes are perhaps the biggest threat to the city. Dallas was hit by a powerful tornado on 2 April 1957, The tornado would have likely been an F3.[23] On March 28, 2000, the “Fort Worth Tornado” impacted Dallas's neighbor Fort Worth's downtown,amd tornado in Arlington, Texas also happened that day damaging some homes. Even though Dallas lies at the lower end of the "Tornado Alley", that day had the worst tornadoes to happen to the metroplex in the last 50 years.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture places the city of Dallas in Plant Hardiness Zone 8a.[24] Dallas has the 12th worst ozone air pollution in the nation according to the American Lung Association, ranking it behind Los Angeles and Houston.[25] Much of the air pollution in Dallas, and the DFW Metroplex in general, comes from a hazardous materials incineration plant in the southern-most suburb of Midlothian, as well as concrete installations in neighboring Ellis County.[26] Another major contributor to air pollution is exhaust from automobiles. Due to Dallas's spread out nature and high amount of urban sprawl, automobiles are the only available mode of transportation for many. All time recorded high is 113F,and all time recorded low is 2F.

The average daily low in Dallas is 57  (0 ) and the average daily high in Dallas is 77  (0 ).[27] Dallas receives approximately 37.1 inches (0 mm) of rain per year, much of which is delivered in the spring or summer.

Cityscape

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Dallas skyline from the Trinity River floodplain

Architecture

See also:
Dallas's skyline contains several buildings over 700 feet (0 m) in height and the city is considered the fifteenth-tallest city on earth while Houston, its intra-state rival is ranked 7th in the world.[28]

Most of the notable architecture in Dallas is modernist and postmodernist. Iconic examples of modernist architecture include I. M. Pei's Fountain Place, the Bank of America Plaza, Renaissance Tower, and Reunion Tower. Examples of postmodernist architecture include the JPMorgan Chase Tower and Comerica Bank Tower. Several smaller structures are fashioned in the Gothic Revival (Kirby Building) and neoclassical (Davis and Wilson Buildings) styles. One architectural “hotbed” in the city is a stretch of homes along Swiss Avenue, which contains all shades and variants of architecture from Victorian to neoclassical.[29]

Neighborhoods

The City of Dallas has many communities and neighborhoods. Major areas in the city include:

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Near the Farmers Market in downtown
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The Good-Latimer tunnel in Deep Ellum- Now destroyed by 2007 construction
Central Dallas is anchored by Downtown, the center of the city and the epicenter of urban revival, coupled with Oak Lawn and Uptown Dallas, new urbanist areas anchored by dense retail, restaurants, and nightlife. Downtown Dallas has a variety of neighborhoods, including the West End Historic District, the Arts District, the Main Street District, Farmers Market District, the City Center business district, the Convention Center District, the Reunion District and Victory Park. North of downtown is Oak Lawn, a densely-populated area that contains parks along Turtle Creek and the popular Uptown area with LoMac, Cityplace and the West Village.

The east side of Dallas contains the community of east Dallas, home to Deep Ellum, a trendy arts area close to downtown, homey Lakewood, the historic Vickery Place, Bryan Place, and historically and architecturally significant homes on Swiss Avenue. Above the Park Cities is north Dallas, home to mansions as palatial as Versailles in Preston Hollow, strong middle and upper-class communities north into Bent Tree and Far North Dallas, and high-powered shopping at Galleria Dallas, NorthPark Center, and Preston Center. East of north Dallas and north of east Dallas is Lake Highlands, one of the most unified middle-class areas in the city, with the strongest definition—it is in the northeastern part of the city above White Rock Lake and east Dallas.[30]

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Kidd Springs Park in Oak Cliff
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The West Village in Oak Lawn


The southern portion of Dallas is home to Oak Cliff, a hilly area in southwest Dallas that is predominantly Hispanic and includes entertainment districts such as the Bishop Arts District. South Oak Cliff became a predominantly African American district after the early 1970s and has struggled with high rates of poverty and crime.[31] To the east, south Dallas lays claim to the Cedars, an eclectic artist hotbed south of downtown, Fair Park, and areas west of the Trinity River and east of Interstate 35E. The University of North Texas at Dallas, currently located south of Oak Cliff along Interstate 20,[32] is being built in the area along Houston School Road.[33] Further east, above (north and east of) the Trinity River, is Pleasant Grove—once an independent city, it is a predominantly black collection of neighborhoods stretching to Seagoville to the southeast.

The city is further surrounded by many suburbs and encloses the following enclaves: Cockrell Hill, Highland Park, and University Park.


See also:

Culture

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Pedestrians in downtown


In a larger context, the Dallas-area is seen as right-wing politically, with a heavy cultural emphasis placed on Protestant Christianity and close historical and cultural ties to both the rugged American West and agricultural South. The popular television series Dallas bolstered this view epitomizing the city with wealthy oil barons, big hair, and cowboy hats. However, a closer look at the city proves this image to be nothing more than an outdated stereotype.

Politics

Present-day Dallas as a singular entity can be seen as fairly moderate, exceptionally so relative to its position in what is seen as an extremely conservative area (The nearby suburb of Plano was ranked as the 5th most conservative city in America by The Bay Area Center for Voting Research). In 2004, only 25% of votes cast in the City of Dallas were cast for conservative candidates, while they narrowly won Dallas County as a whole.[34][35] In the 2006 elections for Dallas County judges, 41 out of 42 seats went to Democrats.

In 2004, Lupe Valdez was elected Sheriff of Dallas County the first Hispanic, first woman, and first openly lesbian ever to fill that role. She is currently the only female sheriff in the state of Texas.[36]

In 2006, Republican Tom Leppert defeated Ed Oakley by a margin of 58% to 42% to become the Mayor of Dallas, though the city's elections are non-partisan.

Cuisine

Dallas is renowned for barbecue, authentic Mexican, and Tex-Mex cuisine. Famous products of the Dallas culinary scene include the frozen margarita and the restaurants La Calle Doce, Sonny Bryan's Smokehouse, Enchilada's, Mi Cocina, Bone Daddy's Barbecue, and The Mansion on Turtle Creek.[37] The French Room at the Hotel Adolphus in downtown Dallas was named the best hotel restaurant in the US by Zagat. Several nationally ranked steak and chop houses can be found in the Dallas area including Bob's Steak & Chop House which is currently ranked #3 according to the USDA Prime Steakhouses chart.[38] On average, Dallasites eat out about four times every week, which is the third highest rate in the country, behind Houston and Austin, and Dallas has more restaurants per capita than New York City.[39][40]

Arts

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The Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center in the Arts District
The Arts District in downtown is home to several arts venues, both existing and proposed. Notable venues in the district include the Dallas Museum of Art, the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center, The Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art, the Nasher Sculpture Center,The Dallas Contemporary, The Dallas Children's Theatre. Venues under construction or planned include the Winspear Opera House and the Dallas Center for the Performing Arts.[41][42] The district is also home to DISD's Booker T. Washington High School for the Performing and Visual Arts, which is currently being expanded.[43]

Deep Ellum originally became popular during the 1920s and 1930s as the prime jazz and blues hotspot in the south.[44] Artists such as Blind Lemon Jefferson, Robert Johnson, Huddie “Leadbelly” Ledbetter, and Bessie Smith played in original Deep Ellum clubs such as The Harlem and The Palace. Today, Deep Ellum is home to hundreds of artists who live in lofts and operate in studios throughout the district alongside bars, pubs, and concert venues.[45] One major art infusion in the area is the city's stance on graffiti; consequently, several public ways including tunnels, sides of buildings, sidewalks, and streets are covered in murals. One major example, the Good-Latimer tunnel, was torn down in late 2006 to accommodate the construction of a light rail line through the site.[46]

The Cedars has a growing population of studio artists and an expanding roster of entertainment venues. The area's art scene began to grow in the early 2000s with the opening of Southside on Lamar, a Sears warehouse converted into lofts, studios, and retail.[47] Current attractions include Gilley's Dallas and Poor David's Pub.[48][49] Entrepreneur Mark Cuban purchased land along Lamar Avenue near Cedars Station in September 2005 and locals speculate that he is planning an entertainment complex for the site.[50]

The Bishop Arts District in Oak Cliff is home to a number of studio artists living in converted warehouses. Walls of buildings along alleyways and streets are painted with murals and the surrounding streets contain many eclectic restaurants and shops.[51]

Dallas has an Office of Cultural Affairs as a department of the city government. The City of Dallas Office of Cultural Affairs is responsible for six cultural centers located throughout the city, funding for local artists and theatres, public art projects and running the city owned radio station WRR.[52]

Sports

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American Airlines Center in Victory Park
Dallas is home to the Dallas Desperados (Arena Football League), Dallas Mavericks (National Basketball Association), and Dallas Stars (National Hockey League). All three teams play at the American Airlines Center. The Major League Soccer team FC Dallas, formerly the Dallas Burn, used to play in the Cotton Bowl but moved to Pizza Hut Park in Frisco upon the stadium's opening in 2005.[53] However, the college Cotton Bowl football game is still played at the stadium. The Dallas Sidekicks, a former team of the Major Indoor Soccer League, used to play in Reunion Arena.[54] The Texas Tornado, three-time defending champions of the North American Hockey League, plays at the Deja Blue Arena in Frisco.[55]

Nearby Irving is home to the Dallas Cowboys of the National Football League while Arlington is home to the Texas Rangers of Major League Baseball. By 2009, the Dallas Cowboys will be located in Arlington at a new facility.[56][57]

Other teams in the Dallas area include the Dallas Harlequins of the USA Rugby Super League, and the Frisco RoughRiders of Minor League Baseball in Frisco.[58] The Dallas Diamonds, the two-time national champions of the Women's Professional Football League Women's American football team, plays in North Richland Hills.[59][60] McKinney is home to the Dallas Revolution, an Independent Women's Football League Women's American football team.[61]

Club League Sport Venue Established Championships
Texas RangersMLBBaseballRangers Ballpark in Arlington19720 World Series
Dallas CowboysNFLFootballTexas Stadium19605 Super Bowls
Dallas MavericksNBABasketballAmerican Airlines Center19800 NBA Titles
Dallas StarsNHLHockeyAmerican Airlines Center19931 Stanley Cup
Dallas DesperadosAFLArena FootballAmerican Airlines Center20020 ArenaBowls
FC DallasMLSSoccerPizza Hut Park19950 MLS Cups

Recreation

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A local league softball game at Reverchon Park
The City of Dallas maintains and operates 406 parks on 21,000 acres (85 km) of parkland. Its flagship park is the 260 acre (0 km) Fair Park which was originally developed to host the Texas Centennial Exposition in 1936. The city is also home to Texas's first and largest zoo at 95 acre (0 km) — the Dallas Zoo, which opened in 1888.[62]

The city's parks contain 17 separate lakes, including White Rock and Bachman lakes, spanning a total of 4,400 acre (0 km). The city is traversed by 61.6 mile (0 km) of bike & jogging trails, including the Katy Trail, and is home to 47 community and neighborhood recreation centers, 276 sports fields, 60 swimming pools, 232 playgrounds, 173 basketball courts, 112 volleyball courts, 126 play slabs, 258 neighborhood tennis courts, 258 picnic areas, six 18-hole golf courses, two driving ranges, and 477 athletic fields.[63]

To the west of Dallas in Arlington is Six Flags Over Texas. Hurricane Harbor, a large water park, is also in Arlington.

Media

Dallas has numerous local newspapers, magazines, television stations and radio stations that serve the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex as a whole, which is the 5th-largest media market in the United States.[64]

Dallas has one daily newspaper, The Dallas Morning News, which was founded in 1885 by A. H. Belo and is Belo Corp's flagship newspaper. The Dallas Times Herald, started in 1888, was the Morning News's major competitor until Belo purchased the paper on 8 December 1991 and closed the paper down the next day. Other daily papers are Al Día, a Spanish-language paper, and Quick, a free, summary-style version of The News, both published by Belo.

Other paper-publications include the Dallas Observer and the North Texas Journal , both alternative weekly newspapers, and D Magazine, a monthly magazine about business, life, and entertainment in the Metroplex.

In terms of the larger metro area, the Fort Worth Star-Telegram is another significant daily newspaper, covering Fort Worth/Tarrant County and other suburban areas to the west and northwest of Dallas. The Denton Record-Chronicle covers the City of Denton and Denton County.

The Dallas area television stations for the major broadcasting networks—KDFW 4 (FOX), KXAS 5 (NBC), WFAA 8 (ABC) (also owned by Belo), KTVT 11 (CBS), KERA 13 (PBS), KTXA-21 (IND), KUVN 23 (UNI), KDFI 27 (MNTV), KDAF 33 (The CW) and KXTX 39 (TMD).

63 radio stations operate within range of Dallas.[65] The City of Dallas operates WRR 101.1 FM, a classical music radio station broadcast from city offices in Fair Park.[66] It was licensed in 1948 and is the oldest commercially operated radio station in Texas and the second-oldest in the United States, after KDKA (AM) in Pittsburgh.[67] Because of the city's centrally-located position and lack of nearby mountainous terrain, high-power class A mediumwave stations KRLD and WBAP in neighboring Fort Worth can broadcast as far as North Dakota at night and can be used for emergency broadcasts when broadcasting is down in other major metropolitan areas in the United States.

Hispanic Broadcasting Corporation (HBC), the largest company in the Spanish language radio station business, was based in Dallas.[68] In 2003, HBC was acquired by Univision and became Univision Radio Inc., but the radio company remains headquartered in Dallas.[69]

See also: , , , and

Religion

There is a large Protestant Christian influence in the Dallas community as the city is deep within the Bible BeltMethodist and Baptist churches are prominent in many neighborhoods and anchor the city's two major private universities. The Cathedral of Hope, an LGBT Protestant church, is the largest congregation of its kind in the world.[70] The city is also home to a sizable Mormon community, which led The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to build a major temple in the city in 1984.

The Catholic Church is also a significant organization in the community—it operates the University of Dallas, a liberal-arts university in the Dallas suburb of Irving. The Cathedral Santuario de Guadalupe in the Arts District oversees the second-largest membership in the United States: 70 parishes in the Dallas Diocese. Dallas is also home to three Eastern Orthodox Christian churches.[71]

The city also houses a large Jewish community, especially notable in eastern and northern Dallas[72], including Temple Emanu-El, the largest synagogue in the South and Southwest. Dallas's most significant Muslim community lies in the city's northern and northeastern suburbs. A strong Hindu community exists in the city limits,[73] as well as in Irving and other suburbs.

Events

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The UT-OU Red River Shootout in 2006
The most notable event held in Dallas is the State Fair of Texas which has been held annually at Fair Park since 1886. The fair is a massive event for the state of Texas and brings an estimated US$350 million to the city's economy annually. The Red River Shootout (UT-OU) game at the Cotton Bowl and other Cotton Bowl games also bring significant crowds to the city.

Other festivals in the area include Cinco de Mayo festivities hosted by the city's large Mexican population, Saint Patrick's Day parades in Irish communities especially along east Dallas's Lower Greenville Avenue, Juneteenth festivities, the Greek Food Festival of Dallas, and an annual Halloween parade on Cedar Springs Road.

Economy

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A portion of the downtown skyline
In its beginnings, Dallas relied on farming, neighboring Fort Worth's cattle market, and its prime location on trade routes with Indians to sustain itself. Dallas's real key to growth came in 1873 though with the building of multiple rail lines through the city. As Dallas grew and technology developed, cotton became its boon—by 1900 Dallas was the largest inland cotton market on Earth and led the world in cotton gin machinery manufacturing. By the early 1900s, Dallas was a hub for economic activity all over the Southwestern United States and was selected in 1914 as the seat of the Eleventh Federal Reserve District; by 1925, Texas churned out more than ⅓ of the nation's cotton crop, and 31% of Texas cotton was produced within a 100 mile (161 km) radius of Dallas. In the 1930s, oil was discovered east of Dallas near Kilgore, Texas, and Dallas's proximity to the discovery put it at the center of the nation's oil market. Oil discoveries in the Permian Basin, the Panhandle, the Gulf Coast, and Oklahoma in the following years further solidified Dallas's position as the hub of the market as it was roughly the geographic center of all 5 regions.[74]

After World War II, Dallas was seeded with a nexus of communications engineering and production talent by companies such as Collins Radio Corp. The telecommunication and information revolutions that ensued still drive a great deal of the local economy. The city is sometimes referred to as Texas's Silicon Valley or the Silicon Prairie because of a high concentration of telecommunications companies—the epicenter of which lies along the Telecom Corridor, home to more than 5,700 companies.[75] The corridor is also home to Texas Instruments and regional offices for Alcatel Lucent, AT&T, Ericsson, Fujitsu, MCI, Nokia, Rockwell, Sprint, and Verizon, as well as the national offices of CompUSA and Canadian Nortel.

In the 1980s, Dallas was a real estate hotbed, with populations skyrocketing and the demand for housing and jobs soaring along with it. Downtown Dallas's largest buildings are the fruit of this boom, but over-speculation and the Savings and Loan crisis knocked the area to its knees. Between the late 1980s and the early 2000s, Dallas suffered a lengthy recession and has only recently bounced back—like much of the country, the real estate market has improved significantly in recent years.

Dallas is no longer a hotbed for manufacturing like it was in the early 20th century—partially due to constraints placed by the DFW Ozone Nonattainment Area—but plenty of goods are still manufactured in the city.[76] Texas Instruments employs 10,400 people at its corporate headquarters and chip plants in Dallas and neighboring Richardson.[77] Oak Farms Dairy also headquarters and has a plant in the city.[78]

Companies headquartered in Dallas, Irving or Mesquite include ExxonMobil, the largest company in the world (by revenue),[79] 7-Eleven, Brinker International, id Software, Blockbuster, ENSCO Offshore Drilling, Kimberly-Clark, Energy Future Holdings Corporation, Mary Kay Cosmetics, Southwest Airlines, CompUSA, Texas Instruments, Fluor, Zales and Comerica Bank. Corporate headquarters in the northern suburb of Plano include EDS, Frito Lay, Dr Pepper, and JCPenney.

The Dallas metroplex has more shopping centers per capita than any other United States city or metro, and is also home to the second shopping center in the United States, Highland Park Village, which opened in 1931.[80] The city itself is also home to 12 billionaires—concentrated in the Preston Hollow area of north Dallas—placing it 9th worldwide among cities with the most billionaires.[80][81] When combined with the 8 billionaires who live in Dallas's neighboring city of Fort Worth, the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex is one of the greatest concentrations of billionaires in the world.
See also: List of companies in Dallas, Texas
See also: List of foreign consulates in Dallas
See also: List of shopping malls in Dallas, Texas

Law and government

The city uses a council-manager government with Tom Leppert serving as Mayor, Mary Suhm serving as city manager, and 14 council members serving as representatives to the 14 council districts in the city.[82][83][84] This organizational structure was recently contested by some in favor of a strong-mayor city charter only to be rejected by Dallas voters.

In the 2006-2007 fiscal year, the city's total budget (the sum of operating and capital budgets) was US$2,344,314,114.[85] The city has seen a steady increase in its budget throughout its history due to sustained growth: the budget was $1,717,449,783 in 2002-2003,[86] $1,912,845,956 in 2003-2004,[86] $2,049,685,734 in 2004-2005,[87] and $2,218,345,070 in 2005-2006.[87]

F
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House of RepresentativesSenate
NamePartyDistrictNameParty
Sam JohnsonRepublicanDistrict 3Kay Bailey HutchisonRepublican
Ralph HallRepublicanDistrict 4John CornynRepublican
Jeb HensarlingRepublicanDistrict 5
Kenny MarchantRepublicanDistrict 24
Eddie Bernice JohnsonDemocratDistrict 30
Pete SessionsRepublicanDistrict 32
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[88]
Texas Legislature
NamePartyDistrictNamePartyDistrict
Bob Deuell [2]RepublicanDistrict 2John Carona [3]RepublicanDistrict 16
Florence Shapiro [4]RepublicanDistrict 8Royce West [5]DemocratDistrict 23
Chris Harris [6]RepublicanDistrict 9Craig Estes [7]RepublicanDistrict 30
Enlarge picture
The Dallas Police headquarters in the Cedars neighborhood.


The United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas, which exercises original jurisdiction over 100 counties in North and West Texas, convenes in the Earle Cabell Federal Building and Courthouse in the Government District of downtown. The same building additionally houses United States Bankruptcy and Magistrate Courts and a United States Attorney office. Dallas also is the seat of the Fifth Court of Appeals of Texas.

See also:  and

Crime and enforcement

Policing in Dallas is provided predominantly by the Dallas Police Department, which has 2,977 officers.[1] The Dallas chief of police is David Kunkle.[89] The central police station is located in the Cedars, a south Dallas neighborhood near downtown.

According to the FBI, a city to city comparison of crime rates is not meaningful, because recording practices vary from city to city, citizens report different percentages of crimes from one city to the next, and the actual number of people physically present in a city is unknown. [8] Also, most of the violent crime in a city is concentrated in a few bad neighborhoods. With that in mind, however, Dallas's violent crime rate (12.06) is lower than such major cities as St Louis (24.81 per thousand), Detroit (24.22), Baltimore (16.96), Philadelphia (15.62), Atlanta (15.54), Cleveland (15.47), Miami (15.09), Washington DC (14.48), Kansas City (14.44) and Boston (13.39). Dallas's violent crime rate trails such cities as Houston (11.69), Los Angeles (7.87) and New York City (6.38). [9]

Fire protection

Fire protection and emergency medical service in the city is provided by Dallas Fire-Rescue, which has 1,670 firefighters and 55 working fire stations in the city limits.[1][90] The Dallas Fire & Rescue chief is Eddie Burns, Sr.[89] The department also operates the Dallas Firefighter's Museum at Dallas's oldest remaining fire station, built in 1907, along Parry Avenue near Fair Park. The Dallas Fire Department operates in mutual aid agreements with several surrounding municipalities.

In 1995, the Dallas Fire Department Training Academy (now the Chief Dodd Miller Training Academy) began to host firefighter recruits from other Metroplex municipalities in its 22 week basic firefighter training school, effectively becoming a regional training center. The Academy is reverently known as “the Tower” by instructors and graduates, referring to the facility's most taxing structure/activity: a six story tower whose staircase is routinely climbed three times in rapid succession by recruits in full gear and hi-rise hose packs.

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.%
1860678
18703,0000%
188010,3580%
189038,0670%
190042,6390%
191092,1040%
1920158,9760%
1930260,4750%
1940294,7340%
1950434,4620%
1960679,6840%
1970844,4010%
1980904,0780%
19901,006,8770%
20001,188,5800%
Est. 20051,213,8250%
[91][92]
As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 1,188,580 people, 451,833 households, and 266,581 families residing in Dallas proper. The population density was 3,469.9 people per square mile (1,339.7/km²). There were 484,117 housing units at an average density of 1,413.3 per square mile (545.7/km²).

There were 451,833 households out of which 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.8% were married couples living together, 14.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.0% are classified as non-families by the United States Census Bureau. Of 451,833 households, 23,959 are unmarried partner households: 18,684 heterosexual, 3,615 same-sex male, and 1,660 same-sex female households. 32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.37.

In the city the population was spread out with 26.6% under the age of 18, 11.8% from 18 to 24, 35.3% from 25 to 44, 17.7% from 45 to 64, and 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 101.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,628, and the median income for a family was $40,921. Males had a median income of $31,149 versus $28,235 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,183. About 14.9% of families and 17.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.1% of those under age 18 and 13.1% of those aged 65 or over. In 2006 the median price for a house was $123,800, and save a 2003 recession, Dallas has seen a steady increase in the cost of homes over the past 6 years.[93]

The racial makeup of Dallas was 48.89% White, 40.41% Hispanic or Latino of any race, 25.88% Black or African American, 0.54% Native American, 2.91% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 20.24% from other races, and 5.33% from two or more races. Hispanics outnumbered African-Americans for the first time in the 2000 census as the largest minority group in Dallas.

The city has historically been predominantly white but its population diversified as it grew in size and importance over the 20th century—almost 25% of Dallas's population is foreign born.[94] The largest minority group in the city is the Hispanics—Dallas is a major destination for Mexican immigrants seeking opportunity in the United States because Texas makes up part of the U.S-Mexico border. The southwest area of the city, especially Oak Cliff, is a mixture of black and hispanic people Hispanic. The southern and southeastern areas of the city, especially Pleasant Grove and south Dallas, are predominantly black. The northern and eastern parts of the city are mostly white and the northwestern portion of the city is home to a fairly equal mix of Hispanics and Asians. The city also contains localized populations of Caribbean, Chinese, Taiwanese, Korean, Indian, Vietnamese, German, Muslim, Polish, Romanian, Russian and Jewish peoples. In addition Dallas has a high gay population and is estimated to have the ninth largest gay population in the United States. [95]

Education

Colleges and universities

Further information: List of colleges and universities in Dallas, Texas
Enlarge picture
Dallas Hall at Dedman College at Southern Methodist University
Dallas is a major center of education for much of the South Central United States. The city itself contains several universities, colleges, trade schools, and educational institutes. Several major Universities also lie in enclaves, satellite cities, and suburbs of Dallas.

The University of Texas at Dallas, part of the public UT system, is located in the city of Richardson, adjacent to Dallas in an area known as the Telecom Corridor. UT Dallas, or UTD as longtime residents refer to it, is renowned for its work in combining the arts and technology, as well as for its programs in engineering, computer science, economics, international political economy, neuroscience, speech and hearing, pre-health, pre-law and management. UT Dallas has many collaborative research relationships with UT Southwestern (see below). UT Dallas is home to approximately 15,000 students.

Southern Methodist University (SMU) is a private, coeducational university in University Park, an enclave of Dallas. It was founded in 1911 by the Southern Methodist Church and now enrolls 6,500 undergraduates, 1,200 professional students in the law and theology departments, and 3,500 postgraduates.[96][97]

The University of Texas Southwestern Medical School is a medical school located in the Stemmons Corridor of Dallas. It is part of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, again one of the largest facilities of its kind in the world. The school is highly selective, admitting around 200 students a year. The facility enrolls 3,255 postgraduates and is home to four Nobel Laureates: three in physiology/medicine and one in chemistry.

Dallas Baptist University (DBU) is a private, coeducational university located in the Mountain Creek area of southwestern Dallas. Originally in Decatur, it moved to Dallas in 1965.[98] The school currently enrolls over 5,100 students.[99]

Paul Quinn College is a private, historically Black college located in southeast Dallas. Originally in Waco Texas, it moved to Dallas in 1993 and is housed on the campus of the former Bishop College, another private, historically Black college. Dallas billionaire and entrepreneur Comer Cottrell, Jr., founder of ProLine Corporation, bought the campus of Bishop College and it to Paul Quinn College in 1993.[100] The school enrolls 3,000 undergraduate students.

The University of North Texas at Dallas, currently located at a temporary site south of Oak Cliff along Interstate 20, is being built in south Dallas along Houston School Road.[33] The school will be the first public university within Dallas city limits.[32]

The University of Dallas in the adjacent suburb of Irving, Texas is an enclave of traditional Roman Catholicism in the Protestant landscape of Dallas. St. Albert the Great Dominican Priory and Holy Trinity Seminary are located on campus. The Cistercian Monastary and Cistercian Preparatory School are located just to the southeast, and The Highlands School, a PK-12 Legionary school, is connected to the east by jogging trails. The Cistercian Monastery continues to be notable in scholastic developments in theology.

Also in the nearby suburbs and neighboring cities are the University of North Texas in Denton and the University of Texas at Arlington in Arlington.

Primary and secondary schools

Public schools

The city of Dallas is mostly within the Dallas Independent School District, the twelfth-largest school district in the United States.[101] The school district operates independently of the city and enrolls over 161,000 students.[101] In 2006, one of the district's magnet schools, The School for the Talented and Gifted, was named the best school in the United States (among public schools) by Newsweek and retained said title in 2007. Another one of DISD's schools, the Science and Engineering Magnet, came in at number eight in the same survey in 2006 and moved up to the #2 seat in 2007.[102] Other DISD schools named to the list were Hillcrest, W. T. White and Woodrow Wilson high schools. Woodrow Wilson High School was also named the top comprehensive high school in Dallas by local publication D Magazine.

Dallas also extends into several other school districts including Carrollton-Farmers Branch, Duncanville, Garland, Highland Park, Mesquite, Plano, and Richardson. The Wilmer-Hutchins Independent School District once served portions of southern Dallas, but it was shut down for the 2005-2006 year. WHISD students started attending other Dallas ISD schools during that time. Following the close, the Texas Education Agency consolidated WHISD into Dallas ISD.

Many school districts in Dallas County, including Dallas ISD, are served by a governmental agency called Dallas County Schools. The system provides busing and other transportation services, access to a massive media library, technology services, strong ties to local organizations for education/community integration, and staff development programs.[103]

Private schools

There are also private schools in Dallas, most notably St. Mark's School of Texas, Ursuline Academy of Dallas, Jesuit College Preparatory School of Dallas, Episcopal School of Dallas, Bishop Dunne Catholic School, Bishop Lynch High School, First Baptist Academy, and The Hockaday School . Many Dallas residents also attend Cistercian Preparatory School and The Highlands School in adjacent Irving and Greenhill School in adjacent Addison. Ursuline Academy of Dallas, founded by a group of Ursuline nuns in 1874, is credited with being the oldest school in the city.

Libraries

The city is served by the Dallas Public Library system. The system was originally created by the Dallas Federation of Women's Clubs with efforts spearheaded by then-president Mrs. Henry (May Dickson) Exall. Her work raising money led to a grant from philanthropist and steel baron Andrew Carnegie, which enabled the construction of the first branch in 1901.[104] Today the library operates 22 branch locations throughout the city including the J. Erik Jonsson Central Library, the 8-story main branch in the Government District of downtown.[105]

Infrastructure

Health systems

The city of Dallas has many hospitals within its bounds and a number of medical research facilities. One major research center is UT Southwestern Medical Center in the Stemmons Corridor, along with its affiliate medical school, UT Southwestern Medical School. The system includes Parkland Memorial Hospital and Children's Medical Center Dallas.

The city also has a VA hospital in south Dallas, the Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Dallas is the home of a Consolidated Mail Outpatient Pharmacy (CMOP), part of an initiative by the Department of Veterans Affairs to provide mail order prescriptions to veterans using computerization at strategic locations throughout the United States.

Other hospitals include Baylor University Medical Center in east Dallas, Methodist Dallas Medical Center in Oak Cliff, Methodist Charlton Medical Center near Duncanville, Medical City Dallas Hospital and Presbyterian Hospital in north Dallas, and the Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children in Oak Lawn.

Transportation

Enlarge picture
North Central Expressway (US 75) southbound towards downtown Dallas
The primary mode of local transportation in the city is the automobile, though efforts have been made to increase the availability of alternative modes of transit including the construction of light rail lines, biking and walking paths, wider sidewalks, and more efficient public transportation. The city is much like other United States cities developed primarily in the late 20th century—criss-crossed by a vast network of highways which has led to and contributes to Dallas being a very low-density city.

The city of Dallas is at the confluence of a large number of major interstate highways—Interstates 20, 30, 35E, and 45 all run through the city. The city's freeway system, as it has no major geographical inhibitors surrounding it, is set up in the popular hub-and-spoke system, much like a wagon wheel. Starting from downtown Dallas, there is the main downtown freeway loop, the Interstate 635/20 Lyndon B. Johnson loop, and ultimately the tolled President George Bush Turnpike. Inside these freeway loops are other partially-limited-access and parkway-style loops including Loop 12 and Belt Line Road. Another beltway around the city is planned upwards of 45 miles (72 km) from downtown in Collin County. Radiating out of downtown as the spokes of the system are Interstates 30, 35E, and 45, US 75, US 175, SH Spur 366, the tolled Dallas North Tollway, and further out SH 114, US 80 and US 67. Other major highways within the city that do not serve primarily as spokes include SH 183 and SH Spur 408. The recently completed interchange for Interstate 635 and Central Expressway, called the High Five Interchange, contains five stacks and is one of the largest freeway interchanges in the United States.

Enlarge picture
Passengers at White Rock Station on DART's Blue Line
Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) is the Dallas area public transportation authority, providing buses, rail, and HOV lanes. DART began operating the first light rail system in the Southwest United States in 1996 and continues to expand its coverage. Currently, two light rail lines are in service. The Red Line travels through Oak Cliff, South Dallas, downtown, Uptown, north Dallas, Richardson and Plano. The Blue Line goes through south Dallas, downtown, Uptown, east Dallas, Lake Highlands, and Garland. The Red and Blue lines are conjoined in between 8th & Corinth Station in Oak Cliff and Mockingbird Station in north Dallas. The two lines service Cityplace Station, the only subway station in the Southwest. DART has also begun construction on its Green and Orange lines, which will serve DFW Airport, Irving and Las Colinas, Carrollton, Farmers Branch, the Stemmons Corridor, Victory Park, downtown, Deep Ellum, Fair Park, south Dallas and Pleasant Grove.

Fort Worth's smaller public transit system, The T, connects with Dallas's via a commuter rail line, the Trinity Railway Express, connecting downtown Dallas's Union Station with downtown Fort Worth's T&P Station and several points in between. The system of light rail transit, especially through downtown, has skyrocketed land values and has led to a flurry of residential and transit-oriented development.

Enlarge picture
Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport serves most passengers flying in and out of the Metroplex
Dallas is served by two commercial airports: Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (known as DFW International) and Dallas Love Field. In addition, Dallas Executive Airport (formerly Redbird Airport), is a general aviation airport located within the city limits, and Addison Airport is another general aviation airport located just outside the city limits in the suburb of Addison. Two more general aviation airports are located in the outer suburb of McKinney, and two more general aviation airports are in Fort Worth, on the west side of the Metroplex.

DFW International Airport is located in the suburbs north of and equidistant to downtown Fort Worth and downtown Dallas. In terms of size, DFW is the largest airport in the state, the second largest in the United States, and third largest in the world. In terms of traffic, DFW is the busiest in the state, third busiest in the United States, and sixth busiest in the world. The headquarters of American Airlines, the largest air carrier in the world, is located less than a mile from DFW, in Fort Worth. Love Field is located within the city limits of Dallas, 6 miles (10 km) northwest of downtown, and is headquarters to Southwest Airlines.

Utilities

Dallas is served by Dallas Water Utilities, which operates several waste treatment plants and pulls water from several area reservoirs.[106] The city's electric system is maintained by TXU Electric Delivery,[107] whose parent company, Energy Future Holdings Corporation, headquarters in the city.[108] The city offers garbage pickup and recycling service weekly through its Sanitation Services department.[109] Telephone networks are available from several companies and broadband Internet and cable television service is available for the majority of the city.

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2. ^ United States Census Bureau - “Estimates of Population Change for Metropolitan Statistical Areas and Rankings: July 1, 2005 to July 1, 2006.” Retrieved on 8 April 2007.
3. ^ Globalization and World Cities Study Group & Network - Inventory of World Cities. Retrieved on 21 October 2006.
4. ^ side note: In ascending order from the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex (in terms of metropolitan population): Chicago via Lake Michigan, Los Angeles via the Pacific Ocean, and New York City via the Atlantic Ocean.
5. ^ Handbook of Texas Online - DALLAS, TX. By Jackie McElhaney and Michael V. Hazel. Retrieved on 20 April 2006.
6. ^ Herbert E. Bolton, “Athanase de Mezieres and the Louisiana-Texas Frontier 1768-1780,” Cleveland: Arthur H Clark Company, 1914.
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14. ^ DFW Metroplex population: 6,003,967 per A. Texas population: 23,507,783 per B; 6,003,967/23,507,753 = 0.24935538 or 25.54%.
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Further reading

  1. Herbert E. Bolton, “Athanase de Mezieres and the Louisiana-Texas Frontier 1768-1780,” Cleveland: Arthur H Clark Company, 1914.
  2. John William Rogers, “The Lusty Texans of Dallas,” E P Dutton, 1951

External links

City of Dallas
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Dallas most commonly refers to the City of Dallas in the U.S. state of Texas.

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The current flag of Dallas, Texas (USA) was adopted 13 February 1967.

About

It is bisected horizontally by a thin white line (a fimbriation, approximately 1/27th of the flag's height) with a dark red top and a dark blue bottom.
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Coat of arms elements
A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization.
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Dallas County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas within the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington metropolitan area (colloquially referred to as the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex). As of the 2000 U.S. Census, the county had a population of 2.
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State of Texas

Flag of Texas Seal
Nickname(s): Lone Star State
Motto(s): Friendship.
Before Statehood Known as
The Republic of Texas

Official language(s) No official language

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country, state, and nation can have various meanings. Therefore, diverse lists of these entities are possible. Wikipedia offers the following lists:

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Motto
"In God We Trust"   (since 1956)
"E Pluribus Unum"   ("From Many, One"; Latin, traditional)
Anthem
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United States of America

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the United States




Federal government
Constitution
Taxation

President Vice President
Cabinet


Congress
Senate
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State of Texas

Flag of Texas Seal
Nickname(s): Lone Star State
Motto(s): Friendship.
Before Statehood Known as
The Republic of Texas

Official language(s) No official language

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Dallas County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas within the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington metropolitan area (colloquially referred to as the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex). As of the 2000 U.S. Census, the county had a population of 2.
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Collin County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. In 2000, its population was 491,675; in 2006 the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that its population had reached 698,851. Its seat is McKinney6.
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Denton County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. In 2000, its population was 432,976; in 2006 the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that its population had reached 584,238.
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Rockwall County, a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. It is Texas's smallest county in land area. In 2000, its population was 43,080. Its seat is Rockwall6. Rockwall County forms part of the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex.
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Kaufman County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. In 2000, its population was 71,313. Its seat is Kaufman6, and the county is part of the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. Both the county and the city are named for David Spangler Kaufman, a U.S.
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A municipal corporation is a legal definition for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs.
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February 2 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events

  • 672 - Death of Saint Chad, whose feast day this is.

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18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1820s  1830s  1840s  - 1850s -  1860s  1870s  1880s
1853 1854 1855 - 1856 - 1857 1858 1859

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "larger", "greater") is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer.

In many systems, the mayor is an elected politician who serves as chief executive and/or ceremonial official of many types of
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In office
June 25 2007 - present
Preceded by
Succeeded by



Born March 22 1955 (1955--) (age 52)
Phoenix, Arizona
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Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. The term Surface area is the summation of the areas of the exposed sides of an object.

Units

Units for measuring surface area include:
square metre = SI derived unit

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city is an urban settlement with a particularly important status which differentiates it from a town.

City is primarily used to designate an urban settlement with a large population. However, city may also indicate a special administrative, legal, or historical status.
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square mile is an imperial and US unit of area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. It should not be confused with the archaic miles square, which refers to the number of miles on each side squared.
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elevation of a geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point, often the mean sea level. Elevation, or geometric height, is mainly used when referring to points on the Earth's surface, while altitude or geopotential height
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1 foot =
SI units
0 m 0 mm
US customary / Imperial units
0 yd 0 in
A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes,
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1 metre =
SI units
1000 mm 0 cm
US customary / Imperial units
0 ft 0 in
The metre or meter[1](symbol: m) is the fundamental unit of length in the International System of Units (SI).
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city is an urban settlement with a particularly important status which differentiates it from a town.

City is primarily used to designate an urban settlement with a large population. However, city may also indicate a special administrative, legal, or historical status.
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Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, humans in particular.

Biological population densities


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metropolitan area is a large population centre consisting of a large metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence, or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central cities and their zone of influence.
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time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. Most adjacent time zones are exactly one hour apart, and by convention compute their local time as an offset from UTC (see also Greenwich Mean Time).
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