Darrow Yannet diagram

A Darrow Yannet diagram is a schematic used in physiology to identify how the volumes of extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid alter in response to conditions such as adrenal insufficiency and SIADH.

It was developed in 1935.[1]

References

1. ^ Darrow D, Yannet H (1935). "The changes in the distribution of body water accompanying increase and decrease in extracellular electrolyte". J Clin Invest 14 (2): 266-75. PMID 16694297. 


Physiology (from Greek: φυσις, physis, “nature, origin”; and λόγος, logos, "knowledge") is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms.
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Extracellular fluid (ECF) usually denotes all body fluid outside of cells. The remainder is called intracellular fluid.

In some animals, including mammals, the extracellular fluid can be divided into two major subcompartments, interstitial fluid and blood plasma.
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The cytosol (cf. cytoplasm, which also includes the organelles) is the internal fluid of the cell, and a portion of cell metabolism occurs here. Proteins within the cytosol play an important role in signal transduction pathways and glycolysis.
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MeSH D000309 In medicine, adrenal insufficiency (or "hypocortisolism") is the inability of the adrenal gland to produce adequate amounts of cortisol in response to stress. See also: Adrenal Fatigue or Hypoadrenia.
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The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. In humans it includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. The analogous organ in invertebrates is the nephridium.
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Human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems.
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Renal physiology is the study of the physiology of the kidneys.

Functions of the kidney

The functions of the kidney can be divided into two groups: secretion of hormones, and extracellular homeostasis.
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Acid-base physiology is the study of the acids, bases and their reactions in the body. For survival, acid base homeostasis is an absolute requirement.

The traditional approach to the study of acid-base physiology has been the empiric approach.
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Filtration is the processe of using a filter to mechanically separate mixtures. Depending on the application, either one or both of the components may be isolated. Examples of filtration include A) a coffee filter to keep the coffee separate from the grounds and B) the use of HEPA
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Ultrafiltration (UF) is a variety of membrane filtration in which hydrostatic pressure forces a liquid against a semipermeable membrane. Suspended solids and solutes of high molecular weight are retained, while water and low molecular weight solutes pass through the membrane.
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Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism used to transfer some property of a fluid from one flowing current of fluid to another across a Semipermeable membrane or thermally-conductive material between them.
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Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone found in most mammals, including humans. One of its most important roles is to regulate the body's retention of water, being released when the body is
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Aldosterone is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland to regulate sodium and potassium balance in the blood.

It was first isolated by Simpson and Tait in 1953.
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Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), or atriopeptin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the homeostatic control of body water, sodium, and adiposity.
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1. Pineal gland 2. Pituitary gland 3. Thyroid gland 4. Thymus 5. Adrenal gland 6. Pancreas 7. Ovary 8. Testes]]

The endocrine system
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Renin (pronounced "Ree-nin" or "Rē-nin" (IPA: /ˈriːnɨn/)), also known as angiotensinogenase
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Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: [ɪˌɹɪθ.ɹoˈpo.ɪ.tɪn], alternative pronunciations:
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Calcitriol (INN) (IPA: [kælsɪˈtraɪɒl, kælˈsɪtrɪɒl]) or 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (abbreviated 1,25-(OH)2D3
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prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. Every prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring.
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In medicine (nephrology) renal function is an indication of the state of the kidney and its role in physiology.

Indirect markers

Most doctors use the plasma concentrations of creatinine, urea, and electrolytes to determine renal function.
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In nephrology, dialysis adequacy is the measurement of renal dialysis for the purpose of determining dialysis treatment regime and to better understand the pathophysiology of renal dialysis. It is an area of considerable controversy in nephrology.
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Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule per unit time.[1] Clinically, this is often measured to determine renal function. Compare to filtration fraction.
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In general, creatinine clearance is the removal of creatinine from the body. In renal physiology, creatinine clearance (CCr) is the volume of blood plasma that is cleared of creatinine per unit time.
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The renal clearance ratio is a measure of the speed at which a constituent of urine passes through the kidneys. It is defined by following equation:

  • X is the analyte substance
  • Cx is the renal plasma clearance of X
  • Cin

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For the Scottish river see: Urr Water

The urea reduction ratio (URR), is a dimensionless number used to quantify hemodialysis treatment adequacy.

Definition



Where:
  • Upre is the pre-dialysis urea level
  • Upost

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In medicine, Kt/V is a number used to quantify hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis treatment adequacy.
  • K - dialyzer clearance of urea
  • t - dialysis time
  • V - patient's total body water

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Standardized Kt/V, also std Kt/V, is a way of measuring (renal) dialysis adequacy. It was developed by Frank Gotch and is used in the USA to measure dialysis. Despite the name, it is quite different from Kt/V.
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Hemodialysis product (HDP) - is a number used to quantify hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis treatment adequacy.

It was proposed by Scribner and Oreopoulous [1] because of their perceived inadequacy of the Kt/V measure of dialysis adequacy.
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Acid-base physiology is the study of the acids, bases and their reactions in the body. For survival, acid base homeostasis is an absolute requirement.

The traditional approach to the study of acid-base physiology has been the empiric approach.
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Fluid balance is the concept that the amount of fluid lost from the body is equal to the amount of fluid taken in.

Routes of fluid loss and gain

Fluid can leave the body in many ways.
  • Some fluid is lost through perspiration and as water vapour in expired air.

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