Dili Massacre

The Dili massacre (also known as the Santa Cruz massacre) was the shooting of East Timorese protesters in the Santa Cruz cemetery in the capital, Dili, on 12 November 1991.

Events of the Massacre

The protesters, mainly students, launched their protest against Indonesian rule following a memorial Mass at Dili's Motael Church for Sebastião Gomes, who had been shot dead outside the church by Indonesian troops on 28 October.

The students had been anticipating the arrival of a parliamentary delegation from Portugal, which was still legally recognised by the United Nations as the administering power. This had been cancelled after Jakarta objected to the inclusion in the delegation of Jill Joliffe, an Australian journalist whom it regarded as supportive of the Fretilin independence movement. [1]

The protest began as a procession from the Motael church through the centre of Dili to the Santa Cruz Cemetery to conduct prayers and burn candles at the grave of Sebastião Gomes. As the procession moved off, students unfurled banners calling for self-determination and independence, displaying pictures of the independence leader Xanana Gusmão. After the leading section of the procession had entered the cemetery, many continued their protest on the street before the cemetery wall, the top of which was lined with agitated protesters. Indonesian troops had been standing by during this time, then a newly-arrived group of soldiers opened fire. Fleeing people ran through the main entrance and deeper into the cemetery and were pursued by the soldiers.

Reports vary on casualty numbers. John Pilger for example cites a total of 400 killed and missing as a result of the protest killings and an alleged second massacre the next day.[2] One of the dead was a New Zealander, Kamal Bamadhaj, a political science student and human rights activist based in Australia.

The massacre was witnessed by two American journalists—Amy Goodman and Allan Nairn (who were also attacked)—and caught on videotape by Max Stahl, who was filming undercover for Yorkshire Television in the UK. The camera crew managed to smuggle the video footage to Australia. They gave it to Saskia Kouwenberg, a Dutch journalist to avoid it being seized and confiscated by the Australian authorities, who had been tipped off by Indonesia and subjected the camera crew to a strip-search when they arrived in Darwin. The video footage was used in the First Tuesday documentary In Cold Blood: The Massacre of East Timor, shown on ITV in the UK in January 1992, as well as numerous other, more recent documentaries.

Aftermath

Enlarge picture
A re-enactment of the Dili massacre, November 1998.
The television pictures of the massacre were shown worldwide, causing the Indonesian government considerable embarrassment. In Portugal and Australia, both of which had sizeable East Timorese communities, there was a public outcry.

Many Portuguese felt badly about their country's effective abandonment of the former colony in 1975, and were moved by the footage of people shouting and praying in Portuguese. Similarly, many Australians felt ashamed at their government's support for the repressive Suharto regime in Indonesia, and what they saw as the betrayal of a people who had fought with Australian troops against the Japanese in the Second World War.

Although it prompted the Portuguese government to step up its diplomatic campaign, for the Australian government, the killings were, in the words of foreign minister Gareth Evans, 'an aberration'.

The massacre (also called the Dili Incident by the Indonesian government) was likened to the Sharpeville massacre in South Africa in 1960, in which unarmed protesters were also shot dead, and which saw the apartheid regime subjected to international condemnation.

Commemorated as a public holiday in now independent East Timor, 12 November is remembered by the East Timorese as one of the bloodiest days in their history, one which drew international attention to their fight for independence.

References

1. ^ Hyland, Tom: "Jakarta 'sabotage Timor visit'", The Age, 28 October 1991. Read at Hamline University Apakabar Site. URL Accessed 26 August 2006.
2. ^ John Pilger's documentary Death of a Nation: The Timor Conspiracy

External links

Motto
"Unidade, Acção, Progresso"   (Portuguese)
"Unity, Action, Progress"
Anthem
Pátria
..... Click the link for more information.
Dili
Map of East Timor showing Dili district
Coordinates:
Country East Timor
District Dili
Settled 1520
Population
 - City ~150,000 Dili
..... Click the link for more information.
November 12 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events


..... Click the link for more information.
19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1960s  1970s  1980s  - 1990s -  2000s  2010s  2020s
1988 1989 1990 - 1991 - 1992 1993 1994

Year 1991 (MCMXCI
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
"Bhinneka Tunggal Ika"   (Old Javanese)
"Unity in Diversity"
National ideology: Pancasila[1]
Anthem
Indonesia Raya
..... Click the link for more information.
parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. The name is derived from the French parlement, the action of parler (to speak): a parlement
..... Click the link for more information.
Anthem
"A Portuguesa"


Capital
(and largest city) Lisbon5

Official languages Portuguese1
..... Click the link for more information.
Headquarters
(and largest city)
Official languages Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
Membership 192 member states
Leaders
 -  Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon
Establishment
 - 
..... Click the link for more information.
Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kalapa, Jayakarta, Batavia and Djakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the Java Island, it has an area of 661.
..... Click the link for more information.
Anthem
Advance Australia Fair [1]


Capital Canberra

Largest city Sydney
..... Click the link for more information.
The Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (Portuguese: Frente Revolucionária de Timor-Leste Independente or FReTiLIn) is a leftist political party in East Timor.
..... Click the link for more information.
self-determination, often seen as a moral and legal right, is that every nation is entitled to a sovereign territorial state, and that every specifically identifiable population should choose which state it belongs to, often by plebiscite.
..... Click the link for more information.
Kay Rala Xanana Gusmão GCL (born José Alexandre Gusmão, on June 20 1946) is a former militant who was the first President of East Timor, serving from May 2002 to May 2007. He later became the fourth Prime Minister of East Timor on 8 August 2007.
..... Click the link for more information.
John Pilger (born October 9, 1939) is an Australian journalist and documentary filmmaker from Sydney, primarily based in London, England.

Life and career

Pilger's career in journalism began in 1958, and he has developed his reputation through both his reporting and the
..... Click the link for more information.
Anthem
"God Defend New Zealand"
"God Save the Queen" 1


Capital Wellington

Largest city Auckland
..... Click the link for more information.
Kamal Bamadhaj was a political science student and human rights activist, who was killed in the Dili Massacre in East Timor on November 12 1991.

Of Malaysian and New Zealand parentage, he was the only foreign national to be killed when Indonesian troops opened fire on a
..... Click the link for more information.
Human rights refers to "the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law.
..... Click the link for more information.
Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. This action is in support of, or opposition to, one side of an often controversial argument.
..... Click the link for more information.
Anthem
Advance Australia Fair [1]


Capital Canberra

Largest city Sydney
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
"In God We Trust"   (since 1956)
"E Pluribus Unum"   ("From Many, One"; Latin, traditional)
Anthem
..... Click the link for more information.
Amy Goodman (b. April 13, 1957 in Bay Shore, New York) is an American progressive broadcast journalist and author.

A 1984 graduate of Harvard University, Goodman is best known as the principal host of Pacifica Radio's Democracy Now!
..... Click the link for more information.
Allan Nairn (b. 1956) is an award-winning U.S. investigative journalist who became well-known when he was imprisoned by the Indonesian military while reporting in East Timor. His writings have focused on U.S.
..... Click the link for more information.
Yorkshire Television

Based in Leeds, West Yorkshire
Broadcast area Yorkshire from 1968 and Lincolnshire from 1974
Launched 29 July 1968



Closed Lost on-air identity 27 October 2002.
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
"Dieu et mon droit" [2]   (French)
"God and my right"
Anthem
"God Save the Queen" [3]
..... Click the link for more information.
Anthem
Advance Australia Fair [1]


Capital Canberra

Largest city Sydney
..... Click the link for more information.
Motto
"Je maintiendrai"   (French)
"Ik zal handhaven"   (Dutch)
"I shall stand fast"1

Anthem
..... Click the link for more information.
Darwin
Northern Territory

Location of Darwin in Australia

Population:
• Density: 105,991 (2006)
35.1/km

Established: 1869

Area: 112.
..... Click the link for more information.
Availability
Terrestrial
Analogue Normally tuned to 3
Freeview Channel 3
Satellite
Sky Digital Channel 103
SES Astra Channel 13
Cable
Virgin Media Channel 103
Tiscali TV Channel 3
UPC Ireland Channel 100 (UTV)
Online Watching
itv.
..... Click the link for more information.
19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1960s  1970s  1980s  - 1990s -  2000s  2010s  2020s
1989 1990 1991 - 1992 - 1993 1994 1995

Year 1992 (MCMXCII
..... Click the link for more information.
Anthem
"A Portuguesa"


Capital
(and largest city) Lisbon5

Official languages Portuguese1
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.