Diphallia

Diphallia, penile duplication (PD), diphallic terata, or diphallasparatus, is a medical condition in which a male infant is born with two penises. This is an extremely rare disorder with only approximately 100 cases of diphallia recorded since the first case reported by Johannes Jacob Wecker in 1609. Its occurrence is one in 5.5 million men in the United States.[1][2]

When diphallia is present, it is usually accompanied by other congenital anomalies such as renal, vertebral, hindgut or anorectal duplication. There is also a higher risk of spina bifida. Infants born with PD and its related conditions have a higher death rate from various infections associated with their more complex renal or colorectal systems.

It is thought diphallia occurs in the fetus between the 23rd and 25th days of gestation when an injury, chemical stress, or malfunctioning homeobox genes hamper proper function of the caudal cell mass of the fetal mesoderm as the urogenital sinus separates from the genital tubercle and rectum to form the penis.

Characteristics

  • Those in possession of a diphallus tend to be sterile, due to either congenital defects or difficulties in application.
  • Urine may be passed by both penises, by only one, or through some other aperture in the perineum.
  • A range of duplication types have been seen, ranging from organs that fissure into two, to the presence of two distinct penises positioned at some distance from each other.
  • Most diphalluses lie side by side and are of equal size, but they can be seated atop one another, with one distinctly larger than the other.
This rare condition has been documented in pigs and other mammals. It is commonly mistaken that all sharks have this condition, but in reality they have a pair of "claspers" which serve a reproductive function.

Diphallia is a medical condition and should not be confused with genital bisection, which is an elective procedure which involves the splitting of the penis.

See also

References

1. ^ Indian man wants op to remove extra organ. Reuters. Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
2. ^ Man wants op to remove extra organ. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved on 2006-08-18.
Medicine is the science and "" of maintaining and/or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. The term is derived from the Latin ars medicina meaning the art of healing.
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For the symbol of the erect penis, see phallus.
The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external sexual organ of certain biologically male organisms.
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Rare is a word used to denote low numbers of abundance.

It can also refer to:
  • Rare species, a conservation category in biology designating the scarcity of an organism and implying a threat to its viability.

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disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions. In human beings, "disease" is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes discomfort, dysfunction, distress, social problems, and/or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems
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Johannes Jacob Wecker (Basel 1528-1586) He was a Swiss physician. Little is known about his life. He published Antidotarum generale, a work about alchemy. His work is known for the elaborate bibliography on chemistry-alchemy.
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Motto
"In God We Trust"   (since 1956)
"E Pluribus Unum"   ("From Many, One"; Latin, traditional)
Anthem
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A congenital disorder is any medical condition that is present at birth. However, a congenital disorder can be recognized before birth (prenatally), at birth, years later, or never. The term congenital does not imply or exclude a genetic cause.
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The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. The medical field that studies the kidneys and diseases of the kidney is called nephrology[1].
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The Vertebral Column (singular: vertebra) are the individual irregular bones that make up the spinal column (aka ischis) — a flexuous and flexible column.
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The hindgut (or epigaster) is the posterior (caudal) part of the alimentary canal. It includes the distal third of the transverse colon and the splenic flexure, the descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum and upper part of the anal canal.
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Anorectal anomalies are medical problems affecting the structure of the anus and rectum. A person with an anorectal anomaly would have some sort of deformative feature of the anus or rectum.
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Spina bifida
Classification & external resources

ICD-10 Q 05. , Q 76.0
ICD-9 741 , 756.17

OMIM 182940
DiseasesDB 12306

eMedicine orthoped/557  

MeSH C10.500.680.
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fetus (or foetus, or fœtus) is a developing mammal or other viviparous vertebrate, after the embryonic stage and before birth. The plural is fetuses (foetuses, fœtuses) or, very rarely, foeti.
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Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. Mammals during pregnancy can have one or more gestations at the same time (multiple gestations).
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A homeobox is a DNA sequence found within genes that are involved in the regulation of development (morphogenesis) of animals, fungi and plants. Genes that have a homeobox are called homeobox genes and form the homeobox gene family.
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In humans and other mammals, the caudal cell mass is the aggregate of undifferentiated cells at caudal end on the spine, sometimes called the tail bud in humans.
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The urogenital sinus (also known as the persistent cloaca) is a part of the human body only present in the development of the urinary and reproductive organs. It is the ventral part of the cloaca, formed after the cloaca separates from the rectum.
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A genital tubercle is a body of tissue present in the development of the urinary and reproductive organs. It forms in the ventral, caudal region of mammalian embryos of both sexes, and eventually develops into a phallus.
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The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. The human rectum is about 12 cm long.
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Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. Infertility may also refer to the state of a woman who is unable to carry a pregnancy to full term.
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A congenital disorder is any medical condition that is present at birth. However, a congenital disorder can be recognized before birth (prenatally), at birth, years later, or never. The term congenital does not imply or exclude a genetic cause.
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Urine is a liquid produced by animals through the kidney, and is collected in the bladder and excreted through the urethra.

Urine formation helps to maintain the balance of minerals and other substances in the body.
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In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light is admitted. More specifically, the aperture of an optical system is the opening that determines the cone angle of a bundle of rays that come to a focus in the image plane.
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In human anatomy, the perineum, also called the "taint", "grundel" or "gooch", is generally defined as the surface region in both males and females between the pubic symphysis and the coccyx.
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organ (Latin: organum, "instrument, tool") is a group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions. Usually there is a main tissue and sporadic tissues. The main tissue is the one that is unique for the specific organ.
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In anatomy, fissure (Latin fissura, Plural fissurae) is a groove, natural division, deep furrow, cleft, or tear in various parts of the body.

Natural fissure

Various types of fissure are:
  • Auricular fissure: found in the temporal bone

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Sus
Linnaeus, 1758

Species

Sus barbatus
Sus bucculentus†
Sus cebifrons
Sus celebensis
Sus domestica
Sus falconeri†
Sus heureni

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Mammalia
Linnaeus, 1758

Subclasses & Infraclasses
  • Subclass †Allotheria*
  • Subclass Prototheria
  • Subclass Theria

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SHARK

General
Vincent Rijmen, Joan Daemen, Bart Preneel, Antoon Bosselaers, Erik De Win
1996

KHAZAD, Rijndael

Cipher detail
Key size(s):| 128 bits

Block size(s):| 64 bits
Substitution-permutation network
6

In cryptography,
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clasper or valva (plural valvae) is a body part of certain male animals, used in mating.

In entomology, it is a structure in male insects that is used to hold the female during copulation.

Male cartilaginous fish also have claspers.
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