Discrimination

Part of a of articles on
Discrimination
Major forms
Racism
Sexism
Homophobia
Ageism
Antisemitism
Islamophobia
Ableism
Manifestations
Slavery · Racial profiling
Hate speech · Hate crime
Genocide · Ethnocide · Holocaust
Ethnic cleansing · Pogrom
Intolerance · Xenophobia
Religious intolerance/persecution
Movements
Discriminatory
Aryanism · Neo-Nazism
White/Black supremacy
Anti-discriminatory
Abolitionism
Women's/Universal suffrage
Civil rights · Gay rights
Issues
Gay marriage
Zimbabwe land reform
Darfur conflict
Policies
Discriminatory
Segregation:
Racial/Ethnic/Religious/Sexual
Apartheid · Isolationism
Japanese internment
Anti-discrminatory
Emancipation · Civil rights
Integration · Desegregation
Affirmative action · Racial quota
Reparations
Law
Discriminatory
Anti-miscegenation
Alien and Sedition Acts
Jim Crow laws · Black codes
Nuremberg Laws
Apartheid laws
Anti-discriminatory
Equal Rights Amendment
Civil Rights Act
(List article)
Specific forms
Anti-Arabism · Classism
Linguicism · Ethnocentrism
Nationalism · Triumphalism
Economic discrimination
Other topics
Eugenics · Racialism
Prejudice · Political correctness
Reverse discrimination
Most broadly, Discrimination is to recognize qualities and differences of certain things or persons and making choices based on those qualities. This article focuses on discrimination amongst people- that is, discrimination based on personal qualities. Discriminating between people on the grounds of merit is generally lawful in Western democracies. Discrimination on other grounds, such as skin color or religion, generally is not. When unlawful discrimination takes place, it is often described as discrimination against a person or group of people.

Social theories such as Egalitarianism claim that social equality should prevail. In some societies, including most developed countries, each individual's civil rights include the right to be free from government sponsored social discrimination.[1]

In contrast, conservative writer and law professor Matthias Storme has claimed that the freedom of discrimination in human societies is a fundamental human right, or more precisely, the basis of all fundamental freedoms and therefore the most fundamental freedom. Author Hans-Hermann Hoppe, in an essay[2] about his book , asserts that a natural social order is characterized by increased discrimination.

Unlawful discrimination can be characterised as direct or slightly less direct. Direct discrimination involves treating someone less favourably because of their possession of an attribute (e.g., sex, age, race, religion, family status, national origin, military status, disability), compared with someone without that attribute in the same circumstances. An example of direct discrimination would be not giving a woman a job because she is more likely to take maternity leave. Indirect discrimination involves setting a condition or requirement which a smaller proportion of those with the attribute are able to comply with, without reasonable justification. The case of Griggs v. Duke Power Company[1] provides an example of indirect discrimination, where an aptitude test used in job applications was found "to disqualify Negroes at a substantially higher rate than white applicants".

Race discrimination

Racial discrimination differentiates between individuals on the basis of real and perceived racial differences, and has been official government policy in several countries, such as South Africa in the apartheid era.

In the United States, racial profiling of minorities by law enforcement officials has been called racial discrimination.[3] As early as 1866, the Civil Rights Act provided a remedy for intentional race discrimination in employment by private employers and state and local public employers. The Civil Rights Act of 1871 applies to public employment or employment involving state action prohibiting deprivation of rights secured by the federal constitution or federal laws through action under color of law. Title VII is the principal federal statute with regard to employment discrimination prohibiting unlawful employment discrimination by public and private employers, labor organizations, training programs and employment agencies based on race or color, religion, gender, and national origin. Title VII also prohibits retaliation against any person for opposing any practice forbidden by statute, or for making a charge, testifying, assisting, or participating in a proceeding under the statute. The Civil Rights Act of 1991 expanded the damages available in Title VII cases and granted Title VII plaintiffs the right to a jury trial. Title VII also provides that race and color discrimination against every race and color is prohibited, including whites, blacks, hispanics, and Asians.

In the UK the inquiry following the murder of Stephen Lawrence accused the police of institutional racism.
  • Weaver v NATFHE (now part of the UCU) Race/sex discrimination case. An Industrial (Employment) Tribunal in the UK decided that a trade union was justified in not assisting a Black woman member, complaining of racist/sexist harassment because the accused male would lose his job. The Employment Appeal Tribunal upheld the decision. Also known as the Bournville College Racial Harassment issue.

Life after Civil War

African Americans expected that the end of the Civil War in 1867 would mark the end of the division between African Americans and white Americans, but it merely signified the end of slavery.[citation needed] While the formal physical abuse had subsided, African Americans were only given second-class citizenship. Through the Jim Crow Laws, African Americans were given a limited amount of rights. Voting rights were manipulated and through different clauses such as the grandfather clause, it was made so only white Americans could vote. Although African Americans were no longer held against their will as slaves, they were not given equal rights.

Black people were still used for labor but were able to have some sort of growth. Basically, African Americans would oversee the farms and fields of Caucasians. Although they could keep some profit, they were forced to return most of it to the farm owner. This way of life, though degrading, greatly informed African American culture, which became set on a seven day rhythm: work for five days, Saturday for recreation, and Sunday for worship? Saturday evenings established the Blues because African Americans spent the night together expressing their hurt in an artistic way. Slavery widely informed later African American culture.

Age discrimination

Age discrimination is discrimination against a person or group on the grounds of age. Although theoretically the word can refer to the discrimination against any age group, age discrimination usually comes in one of three forms: discrimination against youth, which is also called 'adults'; discrimination against those 40 years old or older [3], and; discrimination against elderly people. In the United States, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act prohibits employment discrimination nationwide based on age with respect to employees 40 years of age or older. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act also addresses the difficulty older workers face in obtaining new employment after being displaced from their jobs, arbitrary age limits.

In many countries, companies more or less openly refuse to hire people above a certain age despite the increasing lifespan and average age of the population. The reasons for this range from vague feelings that younger people are more "dynamic" and create a positive image for the company, to more concrete concerns about regulations granting older employees higher salaries or other benefits without these expenses being fully justified by an older employees' greater experience.

Some people consider that teenagers and youth (around 15-25 years old) are victims of adults, age discrimination framed as a paternalistic form of protection. In seeking social justice, they feel that it is necessary to remove the use of a false moral agenda in order to achieve agency and empowerment. This perspective is based on the grounds that youth should be treated more respectfully by adults and not as second-class citizens. Some suggest that social stratification in age groups causes outsiders to incorrectly stereotype and generalize the group, for instance that all adolescents are equally immature, violent or rebellious, listen to rock tunes and do drugs. Some have organized groups against age discrimination.

Ageism is the causal effect of a continuum of fears related to age. [Citation needed] This continuum includes:
  • Pedi phobia: the fear of infants or small children.
  • Ephebiphobia: the fear of youth.
  • Gerontophobia: the fear of elderly people.
Related terms include:
  • Adultism: Also called adultarchy, adult privilege, and adultcentrism/adultocentrism, this is the wielding of authority over young people and the preference of adults before children and youth.
  • Jeunism: Also called "youthism" is the holding of beliefs or actions taken that preference "younger" people before adults.

Gender discrimination

Gender discrimination is discrimination against a person or group on the grounds of sex or gender identity.

Socially, sexual differences have been used to justify societies in which one sex or the other has been restricted to significantly inferior and secondary roles. While there are non-physical differences between men and women, there is little agreement as to what those differences are. Unfair discrimination usually follows the gender stereotyping held by a society.

The United Nations had concluded that women often experience a "glass ceiling" and that there are no societies in which women enjoy the same opportunities as men. The term "glass ceiling" describes the process by which women are barred from promotion by means of an invisible barrier. In the United States, the Glass Ceiling Commission has stated that between 95 and 97 percent of senior managers in the country's biggest corporations are men. [4]

Another event where women have been discriminated is in Afghanistan under the rule of the Taliban.

Trans gender individuals, both male to female and female to male, often experience problems which often lead to dismissals, under achievement, difficulty in finding a job, social isolation, and, occasionally, violent attacks against them.

Legislation

In the U.S., Title VII of the CRA of 1964 allows a BFOQ for gender (contact prison guards, washroom attendants) but such permission is extremely limited. The Equal Pay Act (part of the Fair Labor Standards Act) prohibits wage discrimination by employers and labor organizations based solely on sex.

In the UK, the principal legislation is found in the Equal Pay Act 1970 (which provides for equal pay for comparable work) and the Sex Discrimination Act 1975, which makes discrimination against women or men (including discrimination on the grounds of marital status) illegal in the workplace. The adoption of the Human Rights Act 1998 in 2000 provides more scope for redressing all forms of discriminatory imbalances.

Employment discrimination

Main article: Employment discrimination

The federal laws that protect against:
  • race, color and national origin discrimination include the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Executive Order Number 11478 among other numerous laws that protect people from race, color and national origin discrimination.
  • Sex and gender discrimination include the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Equal Pay Act of 1963.
  • Age discrimination includes the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967.
  • physical and mental disability discrimination include the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
  • Discrimination includes the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
  • military status discrimination include the Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974
An example of a law suit filed by EEOC in a religion and national origin discrimination case involving Merrill Lynch Company

Language discrimination

People are sometimes subjected to different treatment because their preferred language is associated with a particular group, class or category. Commonly, the preferred language is just another attribute of separate ethnic groups.

"Reverse discrimination", "preferential treatment", and opponents of modern preferential programs

Main article: Reverse discrimination

Reverse discrimination is a term used to describe discriminatory policies or acts that benefit a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (e.g. women, blacks etc), at the expense of a historically socio-politically dominant group (e.g. men, whites etc). Most academic and expert opponents of preferential policies that favor historically-discriminated groups, such as Carl Cohen, would avoid the term "reverse discrimination" on the grounds that "discrimination is discrimination" and that the label "reverse" is a misnomer (a point that experts on both sides of issue generally agree with). Groups such as the American Civil Rights Institute, run by Ward Connery, have opted for the more legally precise terms "race preference", "gender preference," or "preferential treatment" generally, since these terms are contained and defined within existing civil rights law, such as the 1964 Civil Rights Act.

In this vein, Ward Connery has promoted and won a series of ballot initiatives in the states of California (California Proposition 209 (1996)), Washington (1998 - I-200), and Michigan (the Michigan Civil Rights Initiative - MCRI, or Proposal 2, 2006). California's initiative was co-authored by academics Tom Wood and Glynn Custer in the mid-1990s and was taken up by Connery after he was appointed in 1994 by Governor Pete Wilson to the University of California Board of Regents. Each of the ballot initiatives has won, and Connery plans what he calls a "Super-Tuesday" of five additional states in 2008. The language of these ballot initiatives all use the terms "preferential treatment" as their operative clauses.

Academics such as Cohen, who was a supporter of Michigan's Proposal 2, have argued that the term "affirmative action" should be defined differently than "race preference," and that while socio-economically based or anti-discrimination types of affirmative action should be permissible, those that give preference to individuals solely based on their race or gender should not be permitted. Cohen also helped find evidence in 1996 through the Freedom of Information Act that lead to the cases filed by Jennifer Graz and Barbara Gutter against the University of Michigan for its undergraduate and law admissions policy - cases which were decided by the U.S. Supreme Court on June 23, 2003.

Notable[citation needed] national loggers and internet resources against preferential types of affirmative action include John Rosenberg's Discriminations, Tim Fay's Adversity.net, and Chatty Marko’s Power, Politics, & Money.

Disability discrimination

Main article: Ablest

Please help improve this article by expanding this section with: further examples of disability discrimination. See talk page for details. Please remove this message once the section has been expanded.

People with disabilities face discrimination in all levels of society. The attitude that disabled individuals are inferior to non-disabled individuals is called "ablest".

Chronic pain is a debilitating condition which is often neglected in modern society. According to the American Chiropractic Association [5], over 50% of all working US Citizens complain of back pain each year. An estimated 80% of the population will experience back pain at some point in their life. Many times pain can become chronic and debilitating. Ergonomic seating and work environments are not only be a reasonable accommodation for those who suffer, the are also a preventative measure to counteract the soaring cost of medical treatment for pain conditions. Ergonomic seating in all public institutions would be a positive step to providing access to public services for all those who need it. In the United States the Americans with Disabilities Act [6] provides guidelines for providing wheelchair access for public institutions, but ergonomic devices for those who suffer from pain are something that has yet to be implemented. This is just one of many accessibility issues still faced by disabled individuals.

Disabled people may also face discrimination by employers. They may find problems with securing employment due to their being disability being seen as a risk to the company, and once in employment they may find they are overlooked for promotion opportunities. Similarly, if an employee becomes disabled while employed they may also find themselves being managed out the company by HR departments. Unsympathetic employers can make life very difficult for such employees and can often make their health problems worse. Disability discrimination laws mean that in theory the employee has a method of redress in such instances.

References

1. ^ Civil rights. Retrieved on 2006.bbb;
2. ^ [2]Hoppe, Hans-Hermann (2001). Democracy: The God That Failed. Retrieved on 2006.
3. ^ Callahan, Gene, Anderson, William. "The Roots of Racial Profiling", Reason Online, Reason Foundation, 2001 August-September. Retrieved on 2006-07-27. 

See also

External links

Racism has many definitions, the most common and widely accepted being the belief that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races.
..... Click the link for more information.
Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred against people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the individuals.
..... Click the link for more information.
Homophobia (from Greek ὁμο homo(sexual), "same, equal" + φοβία (phobia), "fear") is a non-scientific term[3][4]
..... Click the link for more information.
Discrimination

Major forms
Racism
Sexism
Homophobia
Ageism
Antisemitism
Islamophobia
Ableism

Manifestations
Slavery · Racial profiling
Hate speech · Hate crime
Genocide · Ethnocide · Holocaust
..... Click the link for more information.
a

Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Jews.
..... Click the link for more information.
This page is currently protected from editing until disputes have been resolved.
Protection is not an endorsement of the current [ version] ([ protection log]).
..... Click the link for more information.
Discrimination

Major forms
Racism
Sexism
Homophobia
Ageism
Antisemitism
Islamophobia
Ableism

Manifestations
Slavery · Racial profiling
Hate speech · Hate crime
Genocide · Ethnocide · Holocaust
..... Click the link for more information.
Slavery is a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services.
..... Click the link for more information.
Discrimination

Major forms
Racism
Sexism
Homophobia
Ageism
Antisemitism
Islamophobia
Ableism

Manifestations
Slavery · Racial profiling
Hate speech · Hate crime
Genocide · Ethnocide · Holocaust
..... Click the link for more information.
Discrimination

Major forms
Racism
Sexism
Homophobia
Ageism
Antisemitism
Islamophobia
Ableism

Manifestations
Slavery · Racial profiling
Hate speech · Hate crime
Genocide · Ethnocide · Holocaust
..... Click the link for more information.
Discrimination

Major forms
Racism
Sexism
Homophobia
Ageism
Antisemitism
Islamophobia
Ableism

Manifestations
Slavery · Racial profiling
Hate speech · Hate crime
Genocide · Ethnocide · Holocaust
..... Click the link for more information.
Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction of an ethnic, religious or national group. While precise definition varies among genocide scholars, the legal definition is found in the 1948 United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
..... Click the link for more information.
Ethnocide is a concept related to genocide. Primarily, the term, close to cultural genocide, is used to describe the destruction of a culture of a people, as opposed to the people themselves. It may involve a linguicide, phenomenons of acculturation, etc.
..... Click the link for more information.
Editing of this page by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled due to vandalism.
If you are prevented from editing this page, and you wish to make a change, please discuss changes on the talk page, request unprotection, log in, or .
..... Click the link for more information.


Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically "pure" society.
..... Click the link for more information.
Pogrom (from Russian: погром; from "громить" IPA: [grʌˈmʲitʲ]
..... Click the link for more information.
Discrimination

Major forms
Racism
Sexism
Homophobia
Ageism
Antisemitism
Islamophobia
Ableism

Manifestations
Slavery · Racial profiling
Hate speech · Hate crime
Genocide · Ethnocide · Holocaust
..... Click the link for more information.
Xenophobia is a fear or contempt of foreigners or strangers and people .[1] It comes from the Greek words ξένος (xenos), meaning "foreigner," "stranger," and φόβος (phobos), meaning "fear.
..... Click the link for more information.
Discrimination
General forms
Racism Sexism Ageism Religious intolerance Xenophobia
Specific forms
Social
..... Click the link for more information.
The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed.
Please see the relevant discussion on the .

Part of a of articles on
Discrimination

Major forms
Racism
Sexism
Homophobia
Ageism
Antisemitism
..... Click the link for more information.
Aryan race" is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It derives from the idea that the original speakers of the Indo-European languages and their descendents up to the present day constitute a
..... Click the link for more information.
Neo-Nazism (literally new Nazism) is the ideology of post-World War II political movements seeking to revive Nazism.

The specific policies of neo-Nazi groups differ, but they often include allegiance to Adolf Hitler, antisemitism, racism, xenophobia (towards
..... Click the link for more information.
White supremacy is a racist ideology based on the assertion that white people are superior to other races. The term is sometimes used specifically to describe a political ideology that advocates social and political dominance for whites.
..... Click the link for more information.
Black Supremacy is a racist ideology which holds that black people are superior to other races and is sometimes manifested in bigotry towards persons not of African ancestry, particularly white and Jewish people.
..... Click the link for more information.
Discrimination

Major forms
Racism
Sexism
Homophobia
Ageism
Antisemitism
Islamophobia
Ableism

Manifestations
Slavery · Racial profiling
Hate speech · Hate crime
Genocide · Ethnocide · Holocaust
..... Click the link for more information.
The term women's suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. The movement's origins are usually traced to the United States in the 1820s.
..... Click the link for more information.
Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status.
..... Click the link for more information.
Discrimination

Major forms
Racism
Sexism
Homophobia
Ageism
Antisemitism
Islamophobia
Ableism

Manifestations
Slavery · Racial profiling
Hate speech · Hate crime
Genocide · Ethnocide · Holocaust
..... Click the link for more information.
LGBT social movements share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality, bisexuality, or transgenderism. LGBT refers to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people, and their movements include the Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement
..... Click the link for more information.
This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling.
You can assist by [ editing it] now. A how-to guide is available, as is general .
This article has been tagged since September 2007.
..... Click the link for more information.


This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.