Dismissal of U.S. attorneys controversy

The dismissal of U.S. Attorneys controversy is an ongoing United States political dispute initiated by the unprecedented midterm dismissal of seven United States Attorneys on December 7, 2006 by the George W. Bush administration's Department of Justice. The U.S. attorneys were dismissed without explanation and replaced with interim appointees, under the then-recent provisions of the 2005 Patriot Act reauthorization.[1][2][3][4][5] The dismissed U.S. Attorneys had all been appointed by President George W. Bush and confirmed by the Senate, more than four years earlier.[6][7] At least two other attorneys were dismissed without explanation or cause in 2005-2006. Twenty-six or more U.S. Attorneys had been under consideration for dismissal during this time period.[8][9][10] The firings received attention via hearings in Congress in January 2007 and by March 2007 the controversy had national visibility. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales stated that the U.S. Attorneys "serve at the pleasure of the president" and described the affair as "an overblown personnel matter."[11][12]

Congressional investigations have focused on whether the Department of Justice and the White House were using the U.S. Attorney positions for political advantage. Allegations are that some of the attorneys were targeted for dismissal to impede investigations of Republican politicians or that some were targeted for their failure to initiate investigations that would damage Democratic politicians or hamper Democratic-leaning voters.[13][14] Clear explanations for the dismissals remain elusive, however, with several administration officials providing contradictory testimony or testimony contradicted by documents requested or formally subpoenaed by Congressional committees and subsequently made public.[15][16][17]

Critics argue that the scandal has undermined both the integrity of the Department of Justice and the nonpartisan tradition of U.S. Attorneys.[18][19][20][21][22] Many members of Congress from both parties had called for Attorney General Gonzales's resignation.[23] By mid-September 2007, eight senior staff of the Department of Justice most closely associated with the controversy had resigned, and many DOJ senior officials not directly involved with the controversy had also resigned.[24][25][26][27] The most prominent resignations include:
* Attorney General Alberto Gonzales[28][29][30][31]
* Deputy Attorney General Paul McNulty;
* Acting Associate Attorney General William W. Mercer (who also withdrew his nomination for the office);
* Chief of Staff for the Attorney General Kyle Sampson
* Chief of Staff for the Deputy Attorney General Michael Elston;
* Director of the Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys (EOUSA) Michael A. Battle;
* the subsequently appointed Director to the EOUSA, Bradley Schlozman, who was also the former acting Assistant Attorney General for the Civil Rights Division;
* and the DOJ's White House Liaison Monica Goodling.


Dismissal of U.S. Attorneys Controversy    [ e] )
Articles
Administration Officials Involved
Involved Administration Officials that Resigned
U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary
U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary

Issues in brief

The following sections briefly summarize aspects of the controversy. More thorough analyses are further below, or in the related articles.

Changed interim appointment law in 2006

The controversy publicized an unnoticed 2006 change in the law governing appointments of U.S. Attorneys. The re-authorization of the USA PATRIOT Act in 2006 eliminated the 120-day term limit on interim appointments of U.S. Attorneys made by the United States Attorney General to fill vacancies. The change gave the Attorney General greater appointment powers than the President, because presidential appointees must be confirmed by the Senate, but the Attorney General's do not require Senate confirmation.[32] Bills to rescind the provision were approved by very large majorities in the Senate and the House prior to the end of March, 2007. Ultimately S.214 was signed into law by the President on June 14, 2007, designated Public Law No: 110-34.[33][34][35] The new law specifies that all interim attorneys in office shall serve terms ending 120 days from the signing of the bill. As of June 14, 2007, the Department of Justice has more than twenty United States attorney positions that are not presidential appointees, which are filled by either acting US attorneys (held by civil service first U.S. attorneys) or interim U.S. attorneys appointed by the Attorney general. (Terms of district court-appointed interim US Attorneys are unaffected by the new law--there was one when the bill was signed: Paula D. Silsby of Maine, appointed in 2001.)[36]
''See also: The appointment process for U.S. Attorneys.

Administration rationale unclear

The reasons for the dismissal of each individual U.S. Attorney remain unclear. A suggested motivation is the administration wanted to make room for U.S. Attorneys that were more sympathetic to the administration's political agenda, and to advance promising conservatives.[37][38][39] The administration and its supporters say the attorneys were dismissed for job-performance reasons "related to policy, priorities and management," and that U.S. Attorneys serve at the pleasure of the President. Critics say that the attorneys were fired for failing to prosecute Democratic politicians, particularly in relation to claims of election fraud, or were fired in retribution for prosecuting Republican politicians.

See also: Carol Lam, Rick Renzi, and Paul Charlton

Administration testimony contradicted by documents

Members of Congress investigating the dismissals have found that sworn testimony from Department of Justice officials appears to contradict internal Department memoranda and e-mail, and that possibly Congress was deliberately misled. The White House role in the dismissals remains unclear despite hours of testimony by Attorney General Gonzales and senior DOJ staff in congressional committee hearings.[40][41] The Bush administration has issued changing and contradictory statements about the timeline of the planning of the firings, persons who ordered the firings, and reasons for the firings.[42][43][44][45] The origin and evolution of the list of attorneys to be dismissed remains unclear.[46][47][48][49]

Politicization of hiring at the Department of Justice

Attorney General Gonzales, in a confidential March 1, 2006 order, not published in the Federal Register, formally delegated authority to senior DOJ staff Monica Goodling and Kyle Sampson to hire and dismiss political appointees and some civil service positions.[50][51] On May 2, 2007 the Department of Justice announced that two separate investigations into hirings conducted by Goodling had been intiated several weeks earlier: one by the department's Inspector General, and a second by the Office of Professional Responsibility.[41] In testimony before the House Judiciary Committee, on May 23, 2007, Goodling stated that she had "crossed the line" and broke civil service laws regulating hiring for civil service positions, and had improperly weighed political factors in assessing applicants.[53]

In a May 30, 2007 letter to the Senate Judiciary Committee, the United States Department of Justice Office of the Inspector General and Counsel for the Office of Professional Responsibility confirmed that they were expanding their investigation beyond "the removals of United States Attorneys" to also include "DOJ hiring and personnel decisions" by Monica Goodling and other Justice Department employees.[54][55]

Dismissed attorneys and elections

The controversy surrounding the U.S. Attorneys dismissals is often linked to elections or voter-fraud issues. Allegations are that some of the U.S. Attorneys were dismissed for failing to instigate investigations damaging to Democratic politicians, or for failing to more aggressively pursue voter-fraud cases.[56][57] Such allegations have been made by some of the dismissed U.S. Attorneys themselves to suggest reasons they may have been dismissed.[58] The background to the allegations is the recent tendency for elections in parts of the United States to be very close; an election outcome can be affected by a mere announced investigation of a politician. The use of U.S. Attorneys for partisan purposes is highly improper, particularly given the strong non-partisan traditions of the U.S. Attorneys. To date, the evidence supporting the notion that some of the dismissals were motivated by electoral interference remains circumstantial.
See also: Pete Domenici, Heather Wilson and Bradley Schlozman
''See also: Other related controversies under Bush presidency

Related articles

Appointment of U.S. Attorneys and the 2005 Patriot Act reauthorization

The appointment process for U.S. Attorneys

The President of the United States has the authority to appoint U.S. Attorneys, with the consent of the United States Senate, and the President may remove U.S. Attorneys from office.[59] In the event of a vacancy, the United States Attorney General is authorized to appoint an interim U.S. Attorney. Before March 9, 2006, such interim appointments expired after 120 days, if a Presidential appointment had not been approved by the Senate. Vacancies that persisted beyond 120 days were filled through interim appointments made by the Federal District Court for the district of the vacant office.[60]

Senate-confirmed appointments to the Department of Justice (DOJ) offices, particularly U.S. Attorneys, are political in nature. Appointments to U.S. Attorney positions are often made in consultation with individual senators of the same party as the President.
For further information:
  • Dismissal of U.S. attorneys controversy#Law references
  • United States Attorney#History of interim U.S. Attorney appointments

Revised interim appointment process in March 2006

The USA PATRIOT Act Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005, signed into law March 9, 2006, amended the law for the interim appointment of U.S. Attorneys by deleting two provisions: (a) the 120-day maximum term for the Attorney General's interim appointees, and (b) the subsequent interim appointment authority of Federal District Courts. (See Law references for the text to the statute (28 U.S.C.  546), and its amendments.) With the revision, an interim appointee can potentially serve indefinitely (though still removable by the President), if the President declines to nominate a U.S. Attorney for a vacancy, or the Senate either fails to act on a Presidential nomination, or rejects a nominee that is different than the interim appointee.

The change was written into the bill by Republican Senator Arlen Specter when the bill was modified in joint conference committee, reconciling the Senate and House versions of the bill.[61] During Senate hearings on February 6, 2007, Senator Specter stated that Brett Tolman, a committee staffer, had inserted the clause on behalf of the Department of Justice.[62] Specter stated that the change in the law had been partly to address separation of powers concerns expressed by a number of court districts, the issue being the interim appointments of U.S. Attorneys (executive branch) by the courts (judicial branch).[62] The courts had appointed U.S. Attorneys for over a hundred years, however.[63] The Department of Justice had been seeking a way to appoint U.S. Attorneys without Senate approval prior to 2005.[64]

On March 20, 2007, the Senate voted 94-2 to re-instate the 120-day term limit on interim attorneys appointed by the Attorney General.[65] On March 26, the U.S. House voted to reinstate the 120-day term limit as well, by a vote of 329-78.[66] The bill was eventually passed in identical form by both houses in May 2007 and was signed into law by the President on June 14, 2007.[35][68]<ref name='WP-Eggen-2007-06-17' />

Related USA Patriot Act provision

Another change to the laws governing the appointment of U.S. Attorneys concerned the residency requirements. The Patriot Act re-authorization included a provision that allowed U.S. Attorneys to reside outside of their appointed state. William W. Mercer authored the change in the law. He held two positions at the same time, the U.S. Attorney for Montana, and the Acting Associate Attorney General while residing in Washington. D.C. Senator Jon Tester (D,Montana) called for Mercer to resign.[69] In the summer of 2007, Mercer resigned from his Acting Associate Attorney General office, and withdrew his presidential nomination for the same office, and returned to Montana to his other position, U.S. Attorney for the District of Montana.

Dismissal of U.S. Attorneys under previous administrations

By tradition, U.S. Attorneys are replaced only at the start of a new White House administration. U.S. Attorneys hold a "political" office, and therefore they are considered to "serve at the pleasure of the President." At the beginning of a new presidential administration, it is traditional for all 93 U.S. Attorneys to submit a letter of resignation. When a new President is from a different political party, almost all of the resignations will be eventually accepted.[70] The attorneys are then replaced by new political appointees, typically from the new President's party.[70][71][70]

A Department of Justice list noted that "in 1981, Reagan's first year in office, 71 of 93 districts had new U.S. attorneys. In 1993, Clinton's first year, 80 of 93 districts had new U.S. attorneys." Similarly, a Senate study noted that "Reagan replaced 89 of the 93 U.S. attorneys in his first two years in office. President Clinton had 89 new U.S. attorneys in his first two years, and President Bush had 88 new U.S. attorneys in his first two years."[73]

In contrast to the 2006 dismissals, Presidents rarely dismiss U.S. attorneys they appoint.[70][71] Kyle Sampson, Chief of Staff at the Department of Justice, noted in a January 9, 2006, e-mail to Harriet Miers: "In recent memory, during the Reagan and Clinton Administrations, Presidents Reagan and Clinton did not seek to remove and replace U.S. Attorneys they had appointed, but instead permitted such U.S. Attorneys to serve indefinitely under the holdover provision." (underlining original).[75] There is no precedent for a President to dismiss several U.S attorneys at one time while in the middle period of the presidential term in office.[76][77]

The few examples of forced dismissals available are based on misconduct. The Congressional Research Service investigated the precedent of dismissing U.S. Attorneys over the 25 years 1981-2006 and identified 54 attorneys who did not serve their full 4-year term. Of these, only two were documented involuntary dismissals: William Kennedy in 1982 and J. William Petro in 1984. Both were Reagan appointees. Kennedy was dismissed for "for asserting that the CIA had pressured DOJ to pressure him not to pursue a case," and Petro was dismissed for "disclosing information about an indictment."[78] [79] (However, all of the U.S. Attorneys dismissed in 2006 were in office longer than four years, and appointments lasting into a President's second term were beyond the scope of the study.[80][81] ) Before 1981, President Carter replaced U.S. Attorney David Marston at the request of Democratic Representative Joshua Eilberg. Marston had been investigating corruption charges against Eilberg and Daniel Flood, another Democratic Representative.[82] The probe continued after the attorney was replaced, however, and Eilberg lost his 1978 reelection bid. Eilberg was eventually sentenced to five years probation and a $10,000 fine,[83] [82] and Flood was censured for bribery by 96th United States Congress.[84]

Administration planning to replace U.S. Attorneys

In January 2005, deputy White House chief of staff Karl Rove asked deputy counsel David Leitch "how we planned to proceed regarding U.S. Attorneys, whether we were going to allow all to stay, request resignations from all and accept only some of them, or selectively replace them, etc."[85] In reply, Kyle Sampson, then Department of Justice counsel to Attorney General John Ashcroft, wrote that it would be "weird to ask them to leave before completing at least a 4-year term", that they "would like to replace 15–20 percent of the current U.S. Attorneys" and that the rest "are doing a great job, are loyal Bushies, etc."[85] The White House at one time suggested that the plan for dismissals came from White House counsel Harriet Miers, who left the White House in January 2007 before the dismissal received public attention.[86]

In February 2005, Sampson became Deputy Chief of Staff and Counselor to Attorney general Alberto Gonzales.

In March 2005, Sampson "came up with a checklist. He rated each of the U.S. attorneys with criteria that appeared to value political allegiance as much as job performance. He recommended retaining 'strong U.S. Attorneys who have... exhibited loyalty to the President and Attorney General.' He suggested 'removing weak U.S. Attorneys who have... chafed against Administration initiatives'".[87]

In September 2005, Sampson became Gonzales's Chief of Staff at the Department of Justice.

Sampson wrote in January 2006 to Miers that he recommended that the Department of Justice and the Office of the Counsel to the President work together to seek the replacement of a limited number of U.S. Attorneys, and that by limiting the number of attorneys "targeted for removal and replacement" it would "mitigat[e] the shock to the system that would result from an across-the-board firing."[86]

On February 12, 2006, Monica Goodling sent a spreadsheet of each U.S. Attorney's political activities and memberships in conservative political groups, in an email to senior Administration officials, with the comment "This is the chart that the AG requested".[89]

(In late February 2006, the White House and the Senate had a minor dispute over the nomination of a U.S. Attorney to Utah. The White House favored Kyle Sampson for the position, while Senator Hatch (R, Utah) favored Brett Tolman. Tolman was eventually nominated by President Bush and confirmed by the Senate.[90])

Sampson strongly urged using changes to the law governing U.S. Attorney appointments to bypass Congressional confirmation, writing in a September 17, 2006 memo to Harriet Miers: "I am only in favor of executing on a plan to push some USAs out if we really are ready and willing to put in the time necessary to select candidates and get them appointed...It will be counterproductive to DOJ operations if we push USAs out and then don't have replacements ready to roll immediately...I strongly recommend that as a matter of administration, we utilize the new statutory provisions that authorize the AG to make USA appointments...[By avoiding Senate confirmation] we can give far less deference to home state senators and thereby get 1.) our preferred person appointed and 2.) do it far faster and more efficiently at less political costs to the White House."[86]

In October 2006, George W. Bush told Alberto Gonzales that he had received complaints that some of the U.S. Attorneys had not pursued certain voter-fraud investigations.[86] The complaints came from Republican officials, who demanded fraud investigations into a number of Democratic campaigns. The 2006 United States general election was forthcoming (November) and Republicans were concerned about losing Congressional seats to Democrats. (The election in fact did overturn Congressional control to the Democratic Party.)

Furthermore, "The documents show that in one case, officials were eager to free up the prosecutor’s slot in Little Rock, Ark., so it could be filled by Timothy Griffin, a GOP operative close to White House political guru Karl Rove — at all costs."[87] According to Newsweek, "Kyle Sampson, Gonzales's chief of staff, developed the list of eight prosecutors to be fired last October—with input from the White House."[93]

On November 21, 2006, Sampson sent an e-mail [94] to an assistant in the Attorney General's office, scheduling a meeting in Gonzales' conference room with senior Justice Department advisors to discuss "U.S. Attorney Appointments." Those asked to be scheduled in the meeting included Gonzales, Sampson, Monica Goodling, Deputy Attorney General Paul McNulty, Associated Deputy A.G. William Moschella, Michael Elston, and Michael Battle. On November 27, 2006, Gonzales met with senior advisors to discuss the plan.[95] The Justice Department did not receive White House approval for the firings until early December. As late as December 2, Sampson had written to Michael Elston that the Justice department was "[s]till waiting for green light from White House" with regards to the firing. Deputy White House counsel William K. Kelley responded on December 4, 2006, stating that "We're a go for the U.S. Atty plan... [the White House office of legislative affairs], political, communications have signed off and acknowledged that we have to be committed to following through once the pressure comes."[96]

On December 7, 2006, Justice Department official Michael A. Battle informed seven U.S. Attorneys that they were being dismissed.[97]

Although seven attorneys were dismissed on December 7, 2006, subsequent disclosures show that three or more additional attorneys were dismissed under similar circumstances between 2005-2006.[98] U.S. Attorney Bud Cummins in Arkansas had been informed in June 2006 that he was to be replaced, and he resigned, effective December 20, 2006, several days after the public announcement of the appointment of his successor Timothy Griffin.[99]
Dismissed U.S. Attorneys Summary    [ e] )
Dismissed
Attorney
Effective Date
of Resignation
Federal District Replacement1
Dismissed December 7, 2006
1.David IglesiasDec 19, 2006New MexicoLarry Gomez
2.Kevin V. RyanJan 16, 2007Northern CaliforniaScott Schools
3.John McKayJan 26, 2007Western WashingtonJeffrey C. Sullivan
4.Paul K. CharltonJan 31, 2007ArizonaDaniel G. Knauss
5.Carol LamFeb 15, 2007Southern CaliforniaKaren Hewitt
6.Daniel BogdenFeb 28, 2007NevadaSteven Myhre
7.Margaret ChiaraMar 16, 2007Western MichiganRussell C. Stoddard
Others dismissed in 2006
1.Todd GravesMar 24, 20062Western MissouriBradley Schlozman6
2.Bud CumminsDec 20, 20063Eastern ArkansasTimothy Griffin5
Dismissed in 2005
1.Thomas M. DiBiagioJan 2, 20054MarylandAllen F. Loucks
2.Kasey WarnerJul 20054Southern W. VirginiaCharles T. Miller
1Source: Department of Justice, U.S. Attorneys Offices
2Informed of dismissal January 2006.
3Informed of dismissal June 2006.
4Date resignation requested by the Department of Justice is unknown.
5Subsequently submitted resignation on May 30, 2007, effective June 1, 2007.
6Subsequently returned to positions at the Department of Justice in Washington

Reactions and congressional investigation

January 2007: Initial reaction

The initial reaction was from the senators of the affected states. The U.S. Senate convened for the 110th Congress on January 4 with its new Democratic majority. The Senate Judiciary Committee has oversight over the U.S. Attorneys. In a letter to Gonzales on January 9, 2007 Senators Feinstein (D, California) and Leahy (D, Vermont; Chair of the Committee) of the Senate Judiciary Committee expressed concern that the confirmation process for U.S. attorneys would be bypassed, and on January 11, they, together with Senator Pryor (D, Arkansas), introduced legislation "to prevent circumvention of the Senate’s constitutional prerogative to confirm U.S. Attorneys," called Preserving United States Attorney Independence Act of 2007, S 214 and H 580. Feinstein issued a press release about the bill.[100][101][102] The initial concern was about the Patriot Act and the confirmation process, rather than the politicization of the U.S. Attorneys that later dominated the controversy.

Gonzales testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee on January 18. He assured the committee that he did not intend to bypass the confirmation process and denied the firings were politically motivated.[103]

On January 18 2007, in an opinion piece for the Las Vegas Review-Journal, Jane Ann Morrison reported that "A GOP source [had indicated] that the decision to remove U.S. attorneys, primarily in the West, was part of a plan to 'give somebody else that experience' to build up the back bench of Republicans by giving them high-profile jobs."[104] Marisa Taylor, writing for McClatchey Newspapers noted that, "The newly appointed U.S. attorneys all have impressive legal credentials, but most of them have few, if any, ties to the communities they've been appointed to serve, and some have had little experience as prosecutors. The nine recent appointees identified [as replacements] held high-level White House or Justice Department jobs, and most of them were handpicked by Gonzales..." "Being named a U.S. attorney 'has become a prize for doing the bidding of the White House or administration,' said Laurie Levenson, a former federal prosecutor who is a professor at the Loyola Law School in Los Angeles."[105]

February 2007: The controversy blossoms

The concerns expressed by Senators Feinstein and Pryor were followed up by hearings before the Senate Judiciary Committee called by Senator Schumer (D, New York) in February.[106][107] Deputy Attorney General Paul McNulty testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee on February 6. He underscored that the seven were fired for job performance issues, and not political considerations. In subsequent closed-door testimony on April 27, 2007 to the committee, McNulty said that days after the February hearing, he learned that White House officials had not revealed to him White House influence and discussions on creating the list.[108][109] McNulty in February called Senator Schumer by telephone to apologize for the inaccurate characterization of the firings.[110] At least six of the seven had recently received outstanding job performance ratings. McNulty testified that Bud Cummins, the U.S. Attorney for Arkansas, was removed to install a former aide to Karl Rove and Republican National Committee opposition research director, the 37-year-old Timothy Griffin.[111] Cummins, apparently, "was ousted after Harriet E. Miers, the former White House counsel, intervened on behalf of Griffin."[112][108]

However, McNulty's testimony that the attorneys were fired for "performance related issues" caused the attorneys to come forward in protest.[114][115][108] Indeed, there is some evidence that the administration was concerned about the attorneys going public with complaints prior to this time.[117]

Salon reported: "at least three of the eight fired attorneys were told by a superior they were being forced to resign to make jobs available for other Bush appointees, according to a former senior Justice Department official knowledgeable about their cases."[118]

These proceedings were politically charged. At one point Senator Schumer was criticized by Senator Specter (R, Pennsylvania), also on the Judiciary Committee, for having a conflict of interest by being a lead investigator of the affair while also chairing the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee; such criticism was short-lived.[119][120]

March 2007: Transition to scandal

Battle resignation

On March 5, 2007 effective March 16, Michael A. Battle resigned his position of Director of the Executive Office for United States Attorneys (EOUSA).[121][122]

On March 6, 2007, Gonzales responded to the controversy in an editorial in USA Today in which he said, "To be clear, [the firing] was for reasons related to policy, priorities and management — what have been referred to broadly as "performance-related" reasons — that seven U.S. attorneys were asked to resign last December.... We have never asked a U.S. attorney to resign in an effort to retaliate against him or her or to inappropriately interfere with a public corruption case (or any other type of case, for that matter). Like me, U.S. attorneys are political appointees, and we all serve at the pleasure of the president. If U.S. attorneys are not executing their responsibilities in a manner that furthers the management and policy goals of departmental leadership, it is appropriate that they be replaced...While I am grateful for the public service of these seven U.S. attorneys, they simply lost my confidence. I hope that this episode ultimately will be recognized for what it is: an overblown personnel matter."[123]

Sampson resignation

On March 12, 2007, Sampson resigned from the Department of Justice.[96] On March 13, Gonzales stated in a news conference that he accepted responsibility for mistakes made in the dismissal and rejected calls for his resignation that Democratic members of Congress had been making. He also stood by his decision to dismiss the attorneys "I stand by the decision and I think it was the right decision," Gonzales said.[96] Gonzales admitted that "incomplete information was communicated or may have been communicated to Congress" by Justice Department officials.[125][126]

Gonzales lost more support when records subsequently challenged some of these statements at the March 13 press conference. At that press conference he stated: "I never saw documents. We never had a discussion about where things stood." But DOJ records released on March 23 showed that on his November 27 schedule "he attended an hour-long meeting at which, aides said, he approved a detailed plan for executing the purge."[127].

Although the Department of Justice released 3,000 pages of its internal communications related to this issue, none of those documents discussed anything related to a performance review process for these attorneys before they were fired. Questions were also raised regarding the use of non governmental emails. For example, J. Scott Jennings, an aide to Karl Rove communicated with Justice Department officials "concerning the appointment of Tim Griffin, a former Rove aide, as U.S. attorney in Little Rock, according to e-mails released in March, 2007. For that exchange, Jennings, although working at the White House, used an e-mail account registered to the Republican National Committee, where Griffin had worked as a political opposition researcher."[128]

Sampson's replacement as the A.G's temporary chief of staff was U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of Virginia, Chuck Rosenberg, who soon initiates a DOJ inquiry into political nature of Goodling's hiring practices for non-political civil service staff. Rosenberg learned of the complaint of Jeffrey A. Taylor, interim U.S. attorney for the District of Columbia, and his effort to hire a new career prosecutor in the fall of 2006. Taylor went around Monica Goodling, and demanded Sampson's approval to make the hire. The candidate, Seth Adam Meinero, a Howard University law school graduate who had worked on civil rights cases at the Environmental Protection Agency had been serving as a special assistant prosecutor in Taylor's office. Goodling judged Meinero too "liberal" and had declined to approve the hire.[129]

Calls for Gonzales resignation

On March 14, 2007, Senator John E. Sununu (R, New Hampshire) became the first Republican lawmaker to call for Gonzales' resignation. Sununu cited not only the controversial firings but growing concern over the use of the USA PATRIOT Act and misuse of national security letters by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.[130] By May 16, at least twenty-two Senators and seven Members of the House of Representatives — including Senators Hillary Clinton (D, New York) and Mark Pryor (D, Arkansas)— had called for Gonzales' resignation.[131] (See Alberto Gonzales#Calls for resignation for further details.)

Executive Privilege claims

Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Patrick Leahy stated that Congress has the authority to subpoena Justice Department and White House officials including chief political advisor to the president Karl Rove and former White House counsel Harriet Miers.[132] On March 20, President Bush declared in a press conference that his aides would not testify under oath on the matter if subpoenaed by Congress.[133] Bush explained his position saying "The President relies upon his staff to provide him candid advice. The framers of the Constitution understood this vital role when developing the separate branches of government. And if the staff of a President operated in constant fear of being hauled before various committees to discuss internal deliberations, the President would not receive candid advice, and the American people would be ill-served.... I will oppose any attempts to subpoena White House officials.... My choice is to make sure that I safeguard the ability for Presidents to get good decisions."[134]

Despite the President's position against aides testifying, on March 21 the House Judiciary Committee authorized the subpoena of five Justice Department officials,[135] and on March 22, the Senate Judiciary Committee authorized subpoenas as well.[136]
Taylor testimony
On July 11, 2007, Sara Taylor, former top aide to Karl Rove, testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee. She was granted the unusual allowance of having her attorney, Neil Eggleston, next to her at the witness table to advise her on which questions she could answer and remain in accord with Bush's claim of Executive Privilege. Throughout Taylor's testimony she refused to answer many questions, saying "I have a very clear letter from [White House counsel] Mr. [Fred] Fielding. That letter says and has asked me to follow the president's assertion of executive privilege."[137] Chairman Patrick Leahy (D-VT) dismissed the claims and warned Taylor she was "in danger of drawing a criminal contempt of Congress citation."[137] Senator Ben Cardin (D-MD) took issue with the claim as well, telling Taylor "You seem to be selective in the use of the presidential privilege. It seems like you're saying that, 'Yes, I'm giving you all the information I can,' when it's self-serving to the White House, but not allowing us to have the information to make independent judgment."[137] Leahy added "I do note your answer that you did not discuss these matters with the president and, to the best of your knowledge, he was not involved is going to make some nervous at the White House because it seriously undercuts his claim of executive privilege if he was not involved."[137] He also said "It's apparent that this White House is contemptuous of the Congress and feels it does not have to explain itself to anyone, not to the people's representatives in Congress nor to the American people."[138] At one point Taylor said "I took an oath and I take that oath to the president very seriously."[139] She was corrected by Leahy who pointed out that her oath had been to uphold the Constitution, "Your oath is not to uphold the president."[139] After she agreed with his statement, Leahy said "We understand your personal loyalty to President Bush. I appreciate you correcting that your oath was not to the president, but to the Constitution. But you also have legal obligations to honor your oath to tell the truth, the whole truth. And failures to produce documents and no recalls, those are very difficult for me to accept as chairman of this committee."[138] Sen. Arlen Specter (R-PA) told Taylor "You might have been on safer legal ground if you'd said absolutely nothing.... You are between a rock and a hard place. There's no way you can come out a winner. And I don't think any U.S. attorney anywhere, as the appointee of the president, is going to bring a criminal contempt citation. But if this committee asks for one, it will be a big cloud over you, a big smear that'll last the rest of your life."[139][138]

In summary, Taylor told the Senate that she "did not talk to or meet with President Bush about removing federal prosecutors before eight of them were fired", she had no knowledge on whether Bush was involved in any way in the firings, her resignation had nothing to do with the controversy, "she did not recall ordering the addition or deletion of names to the list of prosecutors to be fired", and she refuted the testimony of Kyle Sampson, Attorney General Alberto Gonzales' chief of staff, that she sought "to avoid submitting a new prosecutor, Tim Griffin, through Senate confirmation."[139][137]
Contempt of Congress charges
On July 11, 2007, as Sara Taylor testified, it was announced by George Manning the attorney to former White House Counsel Harriet Miers that she intended to follow the request of the Bush Administration and not appear before the Committee the following day.[140] Manning stated Miers "cannot provide the documents and testimony that the committee seeks."[139]

In response to the announcement Committee Chairman John Conyers (D-MI) and Rep. Linda Sanchez (D-CA) Chair of the Subcommittee on Commercial and Administrative Law, released a letter saying the decision "could subject Ms. Miers to contempt proceedings." Conyers wrote "I am extremely disappointed in the White House's direction to Ms. Miers that she not even show up to assert the privilege before the Committee. We understand that the White House has asserted privilege over both her testimony and documents, and we are prepared to consider those claims at tomorrow's hearing."[140] Sanchez wrote "It is disappointing that Ms. Miers has chosen to forego this opportunity to give her account of the potential politicization of the justice system.," Sánchez added "Our investigation has shown - through extensive interviews and review of documents - that Ms. Miers played a central role in the Bush Administration's decision to fire chief federal prosecutors. I am hopeful that Ms. Miers will reconsider the White House's questionable assertion of executive privilege and give her testimony on the firing of U.S. Attorneys."[140]

On July 17, 2007 Sanchez and Conyers notified White House Counsel Fred Fielding that they were considering the executive privilege claims concerning a "subpoena issued on June 13 to Joshua Bolten, White House Chief of Staff, to produce documents."[141] Warning him that "If those objections are overruled, you should be aware that the refusal to produce the documents called for in the subpoena could subject Mr. Bolten to contempt proceedings".[141] The panel then ruled the claims of privilege as invalid on a party-line vote of 7-3.[142]

The White House has consistently refused to provide the sought after documents but has "offered to permit former and current aides to talk with lawmakers behind closed doors -- but without a transcript and not under oath."[142] This offer has been rejected by the Democratic Leadership in the House as unacceptable.[142]

On July 25, 2007 the United States House Committee on the Judiciary voted along party lines 22-17 to issue citations of Contempt of Congress to White House Chief of Staff Joshua Bolten and former White House Counsel Harriet Miers.[143] Committee Republicans voted against the measure calling it "a partisan waste of time", while Democrats said "this is the moment for Congress to rein in the administration."[143] White House Press Secretary Tony Snow said of the move "For our view, this is pathetic. What you have right now is partisanship on Capitol Hill that quite often boils down to insults, insinuations, inquisitions and investigations rather than pursuing the normal business of trying to pass major pieces of legislation...now we have a situation where there is an attempt to do something that's never been done in American history, which is to assail the concept of executive privilege, which hails back to the administration of George Washington".[144] Committee Chairman John Conyers said "Unlike other disputes involving executive privilege, the president has never personally asserted privilege. The committee has never been given a privilege log, and there is no indication the president was ever personally involved in the termination decisions."[143] Having passed the Committee the motion goes to the full House where it is unlikely to receive a vote until after Congress's August recess.[143] If the measure passes the full House, the case would be given to the interim U.S. Attorney for the District of Columbia, Jeffrey Taylor, who was appointed by Attorney General Gonzales in September 2006. "The administration has said it will direct federal prosecutors not to prosecute contempt charges."[143]

Goodling resignation

On March 26, 2007 it was announced Monica Goodling took leave from her job as counsel to the attorney general and as the Justice Department's liaison to the White House.[145] Goodling was set to testify before Congress, but on March 26, 2007, Goodling cancelled her upcoming appearance at a Congressional hearing, citing her Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination.[146][147] On April 6, 2007, Ms. Goodling announced her resignation from the Department of Justice.[148] She had helped coordinate the dismissal of the attorneys with the White House.[149] Goodling stating in her three-sentence resignation letter to Mr. Gonzales “May God bless you richly as you continue your service to America.”[149]

On April 25, 2007, the House Judiciary Committee passed a resolution,[150] by a 32-6 vote, authorizing lawyers for the House to apply for a court order granting Goodling immunity in exchange for her testimony, surpassing the required 2/3 majority, and immediately authorized a subpoena for her.[151] On May 11, 2007 U.S. District Court Chief Judge Thomas Hogan signed an order granting Goodling immunity in exchange for her truthful testimony in the U.S. Attorney firings investigation, stating that "Goodling may not refuse to testify, and may not refuse to provide other information, when compelled to do so" before the Committee.[152]

Subpoenas and lost emails

Enlarge picture
Karl Rove
On April 10, 2007, the House Judiciary Committee issued a subpoena for documents from Gonzales that included the full text of all documents that had been partially or completely redacted in the DOJ's previous release of documents.[153] In a letter accompanying the subpoena, Rep. John Conyers (D), the chair of the committee, wrote "We have been patient in allowing the department to work through its concerns regarding the sensitive nature of some of these materials.... Unfortunately, the department has not indicated any meaningful willingness to find a way to meet our legitimate needs...At this point further delay in receiving these materials will not serve any constructive purpose."[153]

The Justice Department spokesman, Brian Roehrkasse, responded to the subpoena stating that the administration would like "to reach an accommodation with the Congress" but that it might not be possible. "Much of the information that the Congress seeks pertains to individuals other than the U.S. attorneys who resigned.... Furthermore, many of the documents Congress is now seeking have already been available to them for review. Because there are individual privacy interests implicated by publicly releasing this information, it is unfortunate the Congress would choose this option." said Roehrkasse.[154] Later that day a White House spokesman stated that some of the emails that had involved official correspondence relating to the firing of attorneys may have been lost because they were conducted on Republican party accounts and not stored properly. "Some official e-mails have potentially been lost and that is a mistake the White House is aggressively working to correct." said Scott Stanzel, a White House spokesman. Stonzel said that they could not rule out the possibility that some of the lost emails dealt with the firing of U.S. attorneys.[155]

CNN reported a larger question concerning the lost e-mails: "Whether White House officials such as political adviser Karl Rove are intentionally conducting sensitive official presidential business via non-governmental accounts to evade a law requiring preservation -- and eventual disclosure -- of presidential records."[156] On May 2, 2007, the Senate Judiciary Committee issued a subpoena to Attorney General Gonzales compelling the Department of Justice to produce all email from Karl Rove regarding evaluation and dismissal of attorneys that was sent to DOJ staffers, no matter what email account Rove may have used, whether White House, National Republican party, or other accounts, with a deadline of May 15, 2007 for compliance. The subpoena also demanded relevant email previously produced in the Valarie Plame controversy and investigation for the CIA leak scandal (2003).[157]

Congressional hearings

Gonzales Testimony
April 19, 2007
    [ e] )
Senate Committee on the Judiciary
Hearing on the dismissal of U.S. attorneys
Testimony of Alberto Gonzales, United States Attorney General
Video
Opening Statements
Senators' Questions and A.G.'s Testimony
See: Dismissal of U.S. attorneys controversy documents for released documents and hearings transcripts


The United States Congress's House Committee on the Judiciary and the Senate Committee on the Judiciary have oversight authority over Department of Justice (DOJ). In 2007 the two committees conducted a number of public and closed-door oversight and investigative hearings on the topic of the dismissal of U.S. attorneys, and DOJ's interactions with the White House and with staff members of the Executive Office of the President. A routine oversight hearing on January 18 2007 by the Senate committee with Attorney General Alberto Gonzales was the first public congressional occasion that Gonzales responded to questions about the dismissed attorneys. Through the winter and spring, appearing in more than eleven public committee hearings were a number of key players in the controversy, past and continuing DOJ officials, dismissed U.S. Attorneys, and others. Some individuals appeared at the invitation of the committees, and some appeared only under the compulsion of committee-issued subpoena. One former DOJ official Monica Goodling testified in May 2007, only after the grant of a limited "use" immunity, after reserving the right to not incriminate herself. The two committees made public through their web sites thousands of pages of documents and correspondence that had been subpoenaed from the Department of Justice, individuals, and other organizations.

Present status of interim U.S. Attorneys

Gonzales affirmed in his January 18, 2007 testimony to the Senate Judiciary Committee:[158]
I am fully committed, as the administration's fully committed, to ensure that, with respect to every United States attorney position in this country, we will have a presidentially appointed, Senate confirmed United States attorney.


As of late May 2007, there were 22 U.S. attorney positions out of 93 that were not held by a presidentially nominated occupant: either acting (filled by civil service First Assistant U.S. Attorneys), or interim (nearly all appointed by the Attorney General). Only four nominees have been submitted by the administration for the 22 positions, though White House spokesperson Tony Fratto was reported saying that the administration is committed to nominating candidates for all 22 positions. Fratto said the number of new nominees "has nothing to do with recent events. The closer you get toward the end of the second term, you're going to have fewer people."[159] David Iglesias, the dismissed New Mexico U.S. attorney, said that the administration is in denial if it doesn't believe there are concerns about low office morale, the ability to remain independent or even the odds of being confirmed by a suspicious Senate controlled by the Democrats.[159]

Timothy Griffin, the interim attorney for Eastern Arkansas, announced in February 2007 that he would not seek a presidential nomination. In early February, Deputy Attorney General McNulty had testified that a vacancy was specifically created for Griffin by dismissing Bud Cummins.[160] Griffin said that he did not believe he would get a "fair consideration" from the Senate.[161]

Interim U.S. Attorneys appointed under the provisions of the Patriot Act Re-authorization are presently not term limited. Timothy Griffin's continuing term was challenged in court, but Judge G. Thomas Eisele rejected the challenge, finding that Griffin held the position under the USA PATRIOT Act provision that allowed unlimited-term appointments. [162] Under the previous law, Griffin's term would have been limited to 120 days, which would have expired in mid-April 2007. Legislation restoring the term limits to interim U.S. Attorneys (S214) also limits the terms of those interim U.S. Attorneys appointed under the Patriot Act Reauthorization to 120 days from the time of enactment of the legislation, which was June 14, 2007.[163][164]

Other related controversies under Bush presidency

See also: Bradley Schlozman

Biskupic prosecution of Georgia Thompson

Main article: Georgia Thompson


Under U.S. attorney Steven M. Biskupic in Wisconsin, Georgia Thompson was convicted for corruption charges related to a Democratic governor. The conviction occurred shortly before the 2006 elections and played a role in the election campaigns in Wisconsin.[165] On appeal to the appellate court, however, the charges were thrown out immediately after the short hearing. This extraordinary decision suggested that the original charges were unsubstantiated.[166] Congresswoman Tammy Baldwin has called for investigation in conjunction with current inquiry with the United States Attorney's Office. Biskupic says he will fully cooperate with an inquiry.[167]

In April, Senate Democrats asked whether U.S. Attorney Biskupic was pressured by the White House or the Justice Department to prosecute Georgia Thompson.[168] Biskupic had been on the original list for dismissal, and "had been identified by Rove as weak on prosecuting voter fraud."[169] Jurors defended their verdict, and some Democrats, including former Wisconsin Attorney General Peg Lautenschlager, who conducted a parallel investigation, said that Biskupic was not politically motivated. Thompson made no statement to the media.[170]

A former U.S. Attorney who is a professor at the University of Wisconsin Law School, Frank Tuerkheimer, said he could not recall another case "where an appellate court after hearing oral arguments ordered the release of a person who's confined" that same day. A former Assistant U.S. Attorney who is a Madison lawyer, Chris Van Wagner, predicted a "strongly worded" written opinion telling the government, "You never had enough to get out of the starting gate." Another law professor could think of only one other case where a defendant was freed immediately rather than given a new trial.[171]

The Senate Judiciary Committee delivered a letter to United States Attorney General Alberto Gonzales asking for documents in the case.[172]

Black demotion

On August 8, 2005, the Los Angeles Times reported that the day after a grand jury subpoena of records connected to Jack Abramoff "U.S. Attorney Frederick A. Black, who had launched the investigation, was demoted. A White House news release announced that Bush was replacing Black." His replacement, Leonardo Rapadas, recommended for the job by the Guam Republican Party, was confirmed without any debate. The investigation of Abramoff in Guam ended when "Rapadas recused himself from the public corruption case involving [CarlGutierrez]]" because "the new U.S. attorney was a cousin of 'one of the main targets'," according to a confidential memo to Justice Department officials."[173]

Yang resignation

On March 21, 2007, Senator Diane Feinstein Feinstein, D-Calif. said she would inquire into whether Debra Wong Yang, the former U.S. attorney in Los Angeles, was forced to leave her job late last year.[174] Yang had previously investigated Rep. Jerry Lewis on the use of earmarks and his relationships with lobbyists and defense contractors. In November, Yang left the DOJ to work at Gibson, Dunn and Crutcher, the same firm who is defending Lewis in the investigation. Yang has stated that she left on her own accord and there has been no evidence presented that she was forced out for her investigation.

Paulose appointment: protests in Minnesota

Rachel K. Paulose was sworn in as the U.S. Attorney for Minneapolis on March 9, 2007. Paulose had been appointed by Gonzales on February 17, 2006 to serve as interim U.S. Attorney. The departing U.S. Attorney, Thomas Heffelfinger, had resigned effective February 28 2006.[175][176] Paulose's presidential appointment was confirmed by the U.S. Senate by voice vote on December 9 2006, the last day of the 109th Congress (ending her status as interim appointee).[177] At 34, Paulose is the youngest U.S. Attorney in the country. She had previously served as a Justice Department counsel and special assistant to Gonzales.[178] On April 6, 2007, her top deputies stepped down from their leadership positions and back into their nonsupervisory role within the office to protest the "ideologically driven and dictatorial managerial style" of Paulose.[179] The deputies were John Marti, the top assistant prosecutor; Erika R. Mozangue, chief of the office’s civil division; and James E. Lackner.[179]

On April 17, the AP reported that Ms. Paulose had been contacted by the U.S. House Judiciary Committee for voluntary questioning about the firings of eight U.S. federal prosecutors.[180]

Prosecution of Don Siegelman

Main article: Don Siegelman


In June 2007 a Republican lawyer signed a sworn statement that she had heard five years ago that Karl Rove was preparing to politically neutralize Democratic Alabama Governor Don Siegelman with an investigation headed by the US Department of Justice.[181][182]

Siegelman was convicted of 7 of the 35 counts in the 2006 trial (all charges were dismissed in the 2005 trial). Siegelman defenders point out that over 100 charges were thrown out by three different judges, and the investigating US Attorney was the wife of his political opponent.[181] Another Republican activist, lawyer Dana Jill Simpson of Rainsville, Ala., filed a sworn statement saying that she was on a Republican campaign conference call in 2002 when she heard Bill Canary tell other campaign workers not to worry about Siegelman because Canary's "girls" and "Karl" would make sure the Justice Department pursued the Democrat so he was not a political threat in the future.[181] "Canary's girls" included his wife, Leura Canary, who is United States Attorney for United States District Court for the Middle District of Alabama.

On June 28, 2007, Siegelman was sentenced by Mark Fuller to 88 months in federal prison, 500 hours of community service, and will be forced to pay $50,000 in fines and $181,000 in restitution.[183] An appeal bond was denied, which meant that Siegelman was taken into immediate custody. After his jail sentence is served, Siegelman will be released on supervised leave.

Siegelman defenders noted this is unusual because, for example, former Alabama Governor Guy Hunt, a Republican, was found guilty in state court of personally pocketing $200,000. And state prosecutors sought probation, not jail time, in the Hunt case.[181]

"Congressional committees ought to investigate what in the world went on in this case," said Grant Woods, a Republican former attorney general of Arizona.[181] The New York Times noted, "The United States attorneys scandal has made clear that partisan politics is a driving force in the Bush Justice Department," and "There is reason to believe [Siegelman's] prosecution may have been a political hit, intended to take out the state’s most prominent Democrat, a serious charge that has not been adequately investigated."[184] Further, "We hope that the appeals court that hears Mr. Siegelman’s case will give it the same hard look that another appeals court recently gave the case of Georgia Thompson. Ms. Thompson, a low-level employee in a Democratic administration in Wisconsin, was found to have been wrongly convicted of corruption by another United States attorney."[184]

Law references

Part of the governing federal law for appointing United States Attorneys.

Statute, prior to March 9, 2006 USA PATRIOT ACT Re-authorization Act's amendments, and after June 14, 2007, when S.214 was signed into law[68]

United States Code, Title 28 § 546. Vacancies
(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), the Attorney General may appoint a United States attorney for the district in which the office of United States attorney is vacant.
(b) The Attorney General shall not appoint as United States attorney a person to whose appointment by the President to that office the Senate refused to give advice and consent.
(c) A person appointed as United States attorney under this section may serve until the earlier of?
:(1) the qualification of a United States attorney for such district appointed by the President under section 541 of this title; or
:(2) the expiration of 120 days after appointment by the Attorney General under this section.
(d) If an appointment expires under subsection (c)(2), the district court for such district may appoint a United States attorney to serve until the vacancy is filled. The order of appointment by the court shall be filed with the clerk of the court.[185]
28 U.S.C.  546 (2000 ed., Supp IV).


USA PATRIOT Act reauthorization
SEC. 502. INTERIM APPOINTMENT OF UNITED STATES ATTORNEYS. Section 546 of title 28, United States Code, is amended by striking subsections (c) and (d) and inserting the following new subsection:

'(c) A person appointed as United States attorney under this section may serve until the qualification of a United States Attorney for such district appointed by the President under section 541 of this title.'[186]


Statute from March 9, 2006 through June 14, 2007[68]

United States Code, Title 28 § 546. Vacancies
(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), the Attorney General may appoint a United States attorney for the district in which the office of United States attorney is vacant.
(b) The Attorney General shall not appoint as United States attorney a person to whose appointment by the President to that office the Senate refused to give advice and consent.
(c) A person appointed as United States attorney under this section may serve until the qualification of a United States Attorney for such district appointed by the President under section 541 of this title.


28 U.S.C. § 546 (2007). (Note that published versions of the United States Code usually run two years behind recent legislation.)

See also

Notes

1. ^ Scelfo, Julie. "'Quite Unprecedented': Former U.S. Attorney Mary Jo White explains why the firing of eight federal prosecutors could threaten the historic independence of federal law-enforcement officials.", Newsweek, March 15, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-28. 
2. ^ Eggen, Dan;, Paul Kane. "Gonzales: 'Mistakes Were Made': But Attorney General Defends Firings of Eight U.S. Attorneys", Washington Post, March 14 ,2007, pp. A01. Retrieved on 2007-05-28. 
3. ^ "Fired U.S. Attorneys", Washington Post, March 6, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-28. 
4. ^ Montopoli, Brian. "So Is This U.S. Attorney Purge Unprecedented Or Not?", Public Eye, CBS News, March 14, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-29. 
5. ^ Jordan, Lara Jakes, (Associated Press). "Attorney general bids farewell to Justice: Praises work of department", Boston Globe, September 15, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-09-19. 
6. ^ Gonzales, Alberto R.. "Nothing Improper", Washington Post, April 15, 2004, pp. B07. Retrieved on 2007-05-28. 
7. ^ Montagne, Renee, David Burnham (interviewee). "Context: How U.S. Attorneys Are Hired and Fired: Interview with David Burnham", Morning Edition, National Public Radio, March 14, 2007 ·. Retrieved on 2007-05-29. 
8. ^ Kellman, Laurie (Associated Press). Dems Seek No-Confidence Vote on Gonzales Washington Post May 17, 2007. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
9. ^ Eggen, Dan; and Amy Goldstein. Justice Weighed Firing 1 in 4: 26 Prosecutors Were Listed As Candidates Washington Post May 17, 200, Page A01. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
10. ^ "Memos Suggested DOJ Fire 26 U.S. Attorneys", Washington Post, May 17, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-28. 
11. ^ Alberto R. Gonzales. "They lost my confidence: Attorneys' dismissals were related to performance, not to politics", USA Today, March 7, 2007, p. A10. Retrieved on 2007-03-07.2007"> 
12. ^ Ron Hutcheson, Margaret Talev and Marisa Taylor. "U.S. Attorneys Scandal: Bush defends the firing of U.S. attorneys", McClatchy Newspapers, March 14, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-06-20.2007"> 
13. ^ Bowermaster, David. "accessed=5-16-2007 Charges may result from firings, say two former U.S. attorneys", The Seattle Times, May 9, 2007. 
14. ^ Eggen, Dan, Amy Goldstein. "Voter-Fraud Complaints by GOP Drove Dismissals", The Washington Post, May 14, 2007. 
15. ^ Eggen, Dan. "6 of 7 Dismissed U.S. Attorneys Had Positive Job Evaluations", Washington Post, February 18, 2007, pp. A11. Retrieved on 2007-05-28. 
16. ^ Eggen, Dan, Paul Kane. "Ex-aide contradicts Gonzales on firings", Washington Post, March 30, 2007, pp. A01. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
17. ^ "Deputy AG 'not fully candid,' ex-Justice aide testifies", CNN.com, Cable News Network, May 28, 2007. Retrieved on May 28, 2007. 
18. ^ Ari Shapiro. "Ex-U.S. Official: Fired Prosecutors Were 'Smeared'", National Public Radio, May 3,2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-21.2007"> 
19. ^ Rebecca Carr. "Former Justice Official: Fired U.S. Attorneys Among the Best", Cox Newspapers, May 8,2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-21.2007"> 
20. ^ Taylor, Marisa, Margaret Talev. "U. S. Attorneys: 2 additional prosecutors were considered for ouster", McClatchy Washington Bureau, McClatchy Newspapers, May 16, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-06-20. 
21. ^ Patrick Leahy (March 19,2007). Statement of Sen. Patrick Leahy: On S. 214, Preserving United States Attorney Independence Act Of 2007. Senator Patrick Leahy. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
22. ^ Others have gone so far as to liken the event to Watergate, referring to it as Gonzales-gate. Garfield, Bob. "Gonzales-gate", On the Media, National Public Radio {NPR, June 15,2007. Retrieved on 2007-06-15.NPR&rft.date=June%2015,2007"> 
23. ^ See references on Alberto Gonzales#Calls for resignation.2C firing.2C and no-confidence resolution
24. ^ Eggen, Dan, Elizabeth Williamson. "Democrats May Tie Confirmation to Gonzales Papers", Washington Post, September 19, 2007, pp. A10. Retrieved on 2007-09-19. 
25. ^ Jordan, Lara Jakes. "Official Close to Attorney Firings Quits", Los Angeles Times, June 15,2007. Retrieved on 2007-06-15.2007"> 
26. ^ Eggen, Dan. "Third-in-Command at Justice Dept. Resigns: Mercer to Leave Washington Job but Keep U.S. Attorney's Position in Montana", Washington Post, Saturday, June 23, 2007, pp. A04. Retrieved on 2007-06-25. 
27. ^ Gordon, Greg. "Justice Department lawyer accused of partisanship resigns", McClatchy Washington Bureau, McClatchy Newspapers, August 22, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-28. 
28. ^
Gonzales, Alberto R.. "Letter of Resignation", (via Talking Points Memo Document Collection), Talking Points Memo, August 26, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-27. 
29. ^ Nizza, Mike. "Gonzales, a Surprisingly Unexpected Resignation", New York Times, August 27, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-27. 
30. ^ Meyers, Steven Lee. "Embattled Attorney General Resigns", New York Times, August 27, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-27. 
31. ^ Phillips, Kate. "Gonzales Is Resigning", New York Times, August 27, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-27. 
32. ^ Marisa Taylor and Greg Gordon. "New U.S. attorneys come from Bush's inner circle", McClatchy Newspapers, Jan 26, 2007. 
33. ^ David C. Iglesias. "Why I was Fired", New York Times, Mar 21, 2007. 
34. ^ David Johnson and Carl Hulse. "Aide to Gonzalez Won’t Testify About Dismissals", New York Times, Mar 27, 2007. 
35. ^ A bill to amend chapter 35 of title 28, United States Code, to preserve the independence of United States attorneys. (S.214 & H.R.580) THOMAS (Library of Congress). Retrieved May 28, 2007. (Updated as activity occurs on the bill.)
36. ^ Eggen, Dan. "In U.S. Attorney's Offices, Help Wanted: Justice Dept. Seeking Replacements for Departing Temporary Prosecutors", Washington Post, June 17 , 2007, pp. A04. Retrieved on 2007-06-17. 
37. ^ Jane Ann Morrison. "Bush administration's ouster of U.S. attorneys an insulting injustice", Las Vegas Review-Journal, January 18, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-16. 
38. ^ Marisa Taylor. "Gonzales appoints political loyalists into vacant U.S. attorneys slots", McClatchy Newspapers, January 26, 2007. 
39. ^ David Bowermaster. "Charges may result from firings, say two former U.S. attorneys", Seattle Times, May 9, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-10. 
40. ^ Mike Allen. "Dems' Strategy On Attorneys Takes Shape", CBS News, 2007-03-20. Retrieved on 2007-03-20. 
41. ^ Lipton, Eric, David Johnston. "Justice Department announces inquiry into its hiring practices", The New York Times, 2007-05-03, pp. A18. Retrieved on 2007-05-09. 
42. ^ Sheryl Gay Stolberg. "With Shifting Explanations, White House Adds to Storm", New York Times, March 17, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.2007"> 
43. ^ Associated Press. "Republican Support for Gonzales Erodes", New York Times, March 17, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.2007"> 
44. ^ Dan Eggen. "Accounts of Prosecutors' Dismissals Keep Shifting", Washington Post, March 17, 2007, p. A01. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.2007"> 
45. ^ Ron Hutcheson. "U.S. Attorneys: A look at what's behind the U.S. attorney flap", McClatchy Newspapers. Retrieved on 2007-03-17. 
46. ^ Congressional Quarterly Transcript Service. "Gonzales Testifies Before Senate Panel", Washington Post, April 19, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-06-08. 
47. ^ Jordan, Lara Jakes, (Associated Press). "Gonzales: Deputy Was Pointman on Firings", Washington Post, May 15, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-06-07. 
48. ^ Scherer, Michael. "McNulty hits back at Goodling", Salon, Salon.com, May 23, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-25. 
49. ^ Jordan, Lara Jakes. "Ex-aide contradicts Gonzales on firings", Washington Post, 2007-03-29. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
50. ^ Waas, Murray. "Secret Order By Gonzales Delegated Extraordinary Powers To Aides", National Journal, National Journal Group, Inc., 2007-04-30. Retrieved on 2007-05-09. 
51. ^ Internal Document Granting Personnel Hiring Authority to DoJ Aides (via Talking Points Memo, May 9, 2007.) Retrieved May 10, 2007.
Alberto Gonzales, Office of the Attorney General. Order 2808-2006.
Delegation of certain personnel authorities to the Chief of Staff to the Attorney General and to the White House Liaison of the Department of Justice. March 1, 2006.

52. ^ Lipton, Eric, David Johnston. "Justice Department announces inquiry into its hiring practices", The New York Times, 2007-05-03, pp. A18. Retrieved on 2007-05-09. 
53. ^ Stout, David. "Ex-Gonzales Aide Testifies, ‘I Crossed the Line’", New York Times, May 23, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-23. 
54. ^ Gonzales Watch. "Letter from Justice Department Inspector General and Counsel, Office of Professional Responsibility", Gonzales Watch, May 30, 2007.2007"> 
55. ^ Eggen, Dan. "Justice Dept. Widens Firings Probe", The Washington Post, 2007-05-30. Retrieved on 2007-05-30. 
56. ^ Eggen, Dan, Amy Goldstein. "Voter-Fraud Complaints by GOP Drove Dismissals", The Washington Post, May 14, 2007. 
57. ^ Roesler, Richard. "No evidence of election crime, former U.S. attorney says", The Spokesman Review, May 20, 2007. 
58. ^ "Fired U.S. attorney alleges political pressure", The Dallas Morning News, 2007-02-28. Retrieved on 2007-05-26. 
59. ^
60. ^ (U.S. Code prior to amendments of the USA PATRIOT Act, as of the retrieval date March 15, 2007.)
61. ^ Marisa Taylor and Greg Gordon. "Gonzales appoints political loyalists into vacant U.S. attorneys slots", McClatchy Newspapers, January 26, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.2007"> 
62. ^ Kiel, Paul (February 6, 2007). Specter: "I Do Not Slip Things In". TPMmuckraker.
63. ^ Congressional Record, March 19, 2007. Pages S3240-S3241. (Also available via the Government Printing Office: Congressional Record, Page S3241
64. ^ Charlie Savage. "Memo describes installing unconfirmed prosecutors: Justice official asked how to bypass Senate", Boston Globe, April 28, 2007.2007"> 
65. ^ Pete Yost, Lara Jakes Jordan. "Senate OKs limits on Gonzales' authority", Associated Press, March 20, 2007.2007"> 
66. ^ Office of the Clerk, US House, Final Vote Results for Roll Call 189, March 26, 2007. Retrieved March 30, 2007.
67. ^ A bill to amend chapter 35 of title 28, United States Code, to preserve the independence of United States attorneys. (S.214 & H.R.580) THOMAS (Database), Library of Congress. Retrieved June 15, 2007.
68. ^ "President Bush Signs S. 214", Office of the Press Secretary, The White House - Office of the President of the United States, June 14, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-06-16. 
69. ^ Kane, Paul. "Tester Calls on Montana U.S. Attorney to Resign", The Washington Post, 2007-05-03. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
70. ^ Office of the Attorney General, U.S. Department of Justice (March 14, 2001). White House and Justice Department begin U.S. Attorney transition. Press release.
71. ^ "Current situation is distinct from Clinton firings of U.S. attorneys", McClatchy Newspapers, March 13, 2007.2007"> 
72. ^ Gerson, Stuart M.. "Inside the Justice Department and the U.S. Attorneys Controversy", Washington Post Live Online (discussion transcript), Washington Post, March 14, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-29. 
73. ^ David G. Savage. "A history of replacing U.S. attorneys: The GOP says Clinton first politicized the Justice Department. But numbers show an older pattern", Los Angeles Times, March 23, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.2007"> 
74. ^ "Current situation is distinct from Clinton firings of U.S. attorneys", McClatchy Newspapers, March 13, 2007.2007"> 
75. ^ [1] Email from Kyle Sampson to Harriet Miers, January 9, 2006, House Judiciary Committee, p. 9
76. ^ Cohen, Adam. "Why Have So Many U.S. Attorneys Been Fired? It Looks a Lot Like Politics", New York Times, February 26, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-03-12. 
77. ^ Scelfo, Julie. "'Quite Unprecedented'", Newsweek, March 15, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-03-28.Newsweek&rft.date=March%2015,%202007"> 
78. ^ "U.S. Attorneys Who Have Served Less Than Four-year Terms", Congressional Research Service, February 22, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-03-15. 
79. ^ Gill, Kathy. "CRS: Most US Attorneys Serve Full Terms", About.com, February 22, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
80. ^ United States Presidential Nominations. United States Congress. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
81. ^ Released E-mails regarding firing of USAs. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
82. ^ "Cleaning House", Time Magazine, Sep. 25, 1978. Retrieved on 2007-03-13. 
83. ^ Joshua Eilberg (Obituary) Blog of Death. April 11, 2004. Retrieved April 15, 2007.
84. ^ Flood, Daniel J. (Representative, 1979-80) Result: Resigned Censure Citations (Provided by Lexis/Nexis.)
85. ^ Jan Crawford Greenberg. "E-Mails Show Rove's Role in U.S. Attorney Firings", ABC News, March 15, 2007. 
86. ^ Eggen, Dan. "Firings Had Genesis in White House Ex-Counsel Miers First Suggested Dismissing Prosecutors 2 Years Ago, Documents Show", Washington Post, March 13, 2007, p. Page A01. Retrieved on 2007-03-13.2007"> 
87. ^ Serrano, Richard A.. "E-mails detail White House plans to oust U.S. attorneys", Los Angeles Times, March 14, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-21. 
88. ^ Eggen, Dan. "Firings Had Genesis in White House Ex-Counsel Miers First Suggested Dismissing Prosecutors 2 Years Ago, Documents Show", Washington Post, March 13, 2007, p. Page A01. Retrieved on 2007-03-13.2007"> 
89. ^ Jordan, Laura Jakes. "Agency weighed prosecutors' politics", ABC News (AP), April 13, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-21.2007"> 
90. ^ The Associated Press. "Hatch, White House at odds over U.S. attorney nomination", The Daily Herald, February 18, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.2007"> 
91. ^ Eggen, Dan and John Solomon. "Firings Had Genesis in White House Ex-Counsel Miers First Suggested Dismissing Prosecutors 2 Years Ago, Documents Show", Washington Post, March 13, 2007, p. Page A01. Retrieved on 2007-03-13.2007"> 
92. ^ Dan Eggen, John Solomon. "Firings Had Genesis in White House: Ex-Counsel Miers First Suggested Dismissing Prosecutors 2 Years Ago, Documents Show", The Washington Post, March 13, 2007, p. A01. 
93. ^ Isikoff, Michael. "Fuel to the Firings", Newsweek, March 19, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-03-12.Newsweek&rft.date=March%2019,%202007"> 
94. ^ Gonzales Watch. "E-Mail Placing Gonzales at DOJ Meeting To Discuss U.S. Attorney Firings", Gonzales Watch, March 28, 2007.2007"> 
95. ^ Johnston, David and Eric Lipton. "Gonzales Met With Advisors on Ouster Plan", New York Times, March 24, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-03-24. 
96. ^ Lara Jakes Jordan. "Gonzales: Prosecutors firings mishandled", Associated Press, March 13, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-03-13.2007"> 
97. ^ Hartley, Allegra. "Timeline: How the U.S. Attorneys Were Fired", US News & World Report, 2007-03-21. Retrieved on 2007-03-26. 
98. ^ Associated Press. "List of 8 dismissed U.S. prosecutors", Associated Press, March 6, 2007.2007"> 
99. ^ Q & A from Committee for Bud Cummins (no date). United States House Committee on the Judiciary Retrieved May 18, 2007. (Written responses by Bud Cummins to committee interrogatories, post-hearing.)
100. ^ Senators Feinstein, Leahy, Pryor to Fight Administration’s Effort to Circumvent Senate Confirmation Process for U.S. Attorneys (Press Release). Office of Senator Dianne Feinstein. January 11, 2007. Retrieved April 16, 2007.
101. ^ Thornton, Kelly and Onell R. Soto. "Job performance said to be behind White House firing", San Diego Union Tribune'', January 12, 2007.2007"> 
102. ^ Marosi, Richard. "U.S. prosecutors quit in San Diego, S.F.", Los Angeles Times, January 17, 2007.2007"> 
103. ^ Dan Eggen. "Prosecutor Firings Not Political, Gonzales Says", The Washington Post, January 19, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-16. 
104. ^ Jane Ann Morrison. "Bush administration's ouster of U.S. attorneys an insulting injustice", Las Vegas Review-Journal, January 18, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-16. 
105. ^ Marisa Taylor. "Gonzales appoints political loyalists into vacant U.S. attorneys slots", McClatchy Newspapers, January 26, 2007. 
106. ^ Notice of Rescheduled Committee Hearing, Tuesday, February 6, 2007 at 9:30 a.m Hearing on "Preserving Prosecutorial Independence: Is the Department of Justice Politicizing the Hiring and Firing of U.S. Attorneys?" United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary January 30, 2007. Retrieved April 16, 2007.
107. ^ Tom Brune. "Schumer again takes aim on White House", Newsday.com, March 31, 2007. 
108. ^ Johnston, David. "Gonzales’s Deputy Quits Justice Department", New York Times, May 15, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-17. 
109. ^ Taylor, Marisa, Margaret Talev. "Former deputy attorney general official defends fired U.S. attorneys", McClatchy Newspapers, May 3, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-15. 
110. ^ "MTP Transcript for Mar. 18, 2007", MSNBC Meet the Press, March 18, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-16. 
111. ^ Kevin Johnson. "Prosecutor fired so ex-Rove aide could get his job", USA Today, February 6, 2007. 
112. ^ David Johnston. "White House Is Reported to Be Linked to a Dismissal", The New York Times, February 16, 2007. 
113. ^ Johnston, David. "Deputy Attorney General Resigns His Post", New York Times, May 12, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-15. 
114. ^ Adrienne Packer. "U.S. attorney rebuts claim performance led to firing", Las Vegas Review Journal, February 8, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-16. 
115. ^ Dan Eggen. "Fired Prosecutor Disputes Justice Dept. Allegation", The Washington Post, February 9, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-16. 
116. ^ Johnston, David. "Deputy Attorney General Resigns His Post", New York Times, May 12, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-15. 
117. ^ Michael Isikoff. "Fuel to the Firings: Eight U.S. attorneys lost their jobs. Now investigators are assessing if the dismissals were politically motivated", Newsweek, March 19, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-16.Newsweek&rft.date=March%2019,%202007"> 
118. ^ Mark Follman. "Inside Bush's prosecutor purge", February 28, 2007. 
119. ^ "Transcript: Pennsylvania Senator Arlen Specter on 'FNS'", Fox News, 2007-03-19. Retrieved on 2007-04-11. 
120. ^ "Transcript: Newt Gingrich, Senator Charles Schumer on 'FNS'", Fox News, 2007-04--08. Retrieved on 2007-04-11. 
121. ^ David Johnston. "Messenger in Prosecutors' Firings Quits", New York Times, March 6, 2007. 
122. ^ Hartley, Allegra. Timeline: How the U.S. Attorneys Were Fired. U.S. News. Retrieved on 2007-04-07.
123. ^ Alberto Gonzales They lost my confidence USA Today, March 6, 2007
124. ^ Lara Jakes Jordan. "Gonzales: Prosecutors firings mishandled", Associated Press, March 13, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-03-13.2007"> 
125. ^ U.S. Department of Justice (March 13, 2007). Transcript of Media Availability With Attorney General Alberto R. Gonzales. Press release. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
126. ^ "Prosecutor Firings Are My Bad — Gonzales", New York Post, AP, March 13, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-03-13.2007"> 
127. ^ Lara Jakes Jordan. "White House backs AG as support wanes", Associated Press, March 26, 2007. 
128. ^ Scott Higham, Robert O'Harrow Jr.. "GSA Chief Is Accused of Playing Politics: Doan Denies 'Improper' Use of Agency for GOP", Washington Post, March 26, 2007, p. A01. 
129. ^ Eggen, Dan, Carol D. Leonnig. "Officials Describe Interference by Former Gonzales Aide", Washington Post, May 23, 2007, pp. A04. Retrieved on 2007-05-23. 
130. ^ Suzanne Malveaux, Dana Bash, Ed Henry and Terry Frieden. "GOP senator calls for Gonzales' head", CNN, March 14, 2007.CNN&rft.date=March%2014,%202007"> 
131. ^ Dana Bash, Ed Henry, Terry Frieden and Suzanne Malveaux. "Sen. Pryor: Attorney General lied to the Senate", CNN, March 15, 2007.CNN&rft.date=March%2015,%202007"> 
132. ^ "Subpoenas target Justice; White House could be next", CNN, March 15, 2007.CNN&rft.date=March%2015,%202007"> 
133. ^ Sheryl Gay Stolberg. "Bush Clashes With Congress on Prosecutors", New York Times, March 20, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-07-25.2007"> 
134. ^ President Bush Addresses Resignations of U.S. Attorneys - The Diplomatic Reception Room (March 20, 2007).
135. ^ Hulse, Carl. "Panel Approves Five Subpoenas on Prosecutors", New York Times, March 21, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-03-23. 
136. ^ Paul Kane. "Senate Panel Approves Subpoenas for 3 Top Bush Aides", The Washington Post, March 23, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-17. 
137. ^ Kwame Holman. "New Testimony on Fired Federal Prosecutors", PBS Newshour, July 11, 2007. 
138. ^ "Excerpts from the Sara M. Taylor hearing", Associated Press, 07/11/2007. 
139. ^ Laurie Kellman. "Aide: Didn't Talk to Bush About Firings", Associated Press, July 11, 2007. 
140. ^ Michael Roston. "BREAKING: Bush blocks Miers from appearing before House Judiciary Committee, contempt charges possible", Wednesday July 11, 2007. 
141. ^ Linda Sanchez & John Conyers, Jr. (July 17, 2007). Conyers, Sánchez Respond to RNC on Subpoena, Alerts White House of Potential Ruling on Immunity, Privilege Claims.
142. ^ "Bush chief of staff faces possible contempt charge", Reuters, Jul 20, 2007. 
143. ^ Ari Shapiro. "Bush Aides in Contempt; Will They Be Prosecuted?", All Things Considered, National Public Radio, July 25, 2007. 
144. ^ Press Briefing by Tony Snow, James S. Brady Briefing Room (July 25, 2007). The White House. Retrieved July 25, 2007.
145. ^ Talev, Margaret; Hutcheson, Ron and Taylor, Marisa. "Gonzales aide will invoke Fifth Amendment and refuse to testify", McClatchy News Service, 2007-03-26. Retrieved on 2007-04-07. 
146. ^ Letter from Goodling's attorneys to Senator Patrick Leahy, Judiciary Committee, March 24, 2007
147. ^ Dan Eggen. "Gonzales's Senior Counselor Refuses to Testify", Washington Post, March 26, 2007. 
148. ^ Jordan, Lara Jakes. "Gonzales aide Goodling resigns", Associated Press, 2007-04-06. Retrieved on 2007-04-07. 
149. ^ Stout, David and Johnsont, David. "A Top Aide to the Attorney General Resigns", New York Times, 2007-04-06. Retrieved on 2007-04-07. 
150. ^ "April 25, 2007 House Judiciary Committee Resolution to Direct House General Counsel to Apply for Immunity Order", Gonzales Watch, 2007-04-25. Retrieved on 2007-05-11. 
151. ^ Gonzales aide gets immunity
152. ^ "Order Granting Monica Goodling immunity", Gonzales Watch, 2007-05-11. Retrieved on 2007-05-11. 
153. ^ Laurie Kellman "Panel subpoenas Gonzales for documents" AP wire, April 10, 1007
154. ^ Dan EggenHouse Panel Issues First Subpoena Over Firings, Washington Post, April 11, 2007
155. ^ "White House: E-mails on firings may have been killed", Reuters, April 11, 2007. 
156. ^ "Leahy: Aides lying about White House-Justice e-mails", CNN, April 12, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-20.CNN&rft.date=April%2012,%202007"> 
157. ^ Lahey, Patrick Rove Email Subpeona United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary' (via Findlaw) May 2, 2007. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
158. ^ Waas, Murray. "Administration Withheld E-Mails About Rove", National Journal, National Journal Group, May 10, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-28. 
159. ^ Talev, Margaret;, Marisa Taylor and Lesley Clark. "U.S. Attorneys: Fewer candidates apply for positions as U.S. attorneys", McClatchy Washington Bureau, McClatchy Newspapers, May 25, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-28. 
160. ^ Gonzales Allows Karl Rove-Protege To Remain As U.S. Attorney, Even Though His Term Has Expired. Think Progress. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
161. ^ Dan Eggen. "Interim Ark. U.S. Attorney Won't Seek Job: Former Rove Aide Says Senate Democrats Would Block Permanent Nomination", The Washington Post, 2007-04-17, p. A10. 
162. ^ Sadler, Aaron Sadler. "Judge rules Griffin legally appointed", Arkansas News Bureau, 2007-03-17. Retrieved on 2007-05-29. 
163. ^ United States Congress. "List of text versions of S.214", THOMAS (Database), Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2007-05-30. 
The Text of the relevant section of S214:
SEC. 3. APPLICABILITY.
: (a) In General - The amendments made by this Act shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act.
: (b) Application - (1) IN GENERAL - Any person serving as a United States attorney on the day before the date of enactment of this Act who was appointed under section 546 of title 28, United States Code, may serve until the earlier of:
::(A) the qualification of a United States attorney for such district appointed by the President under section 541 of that title; or
::(B) 120 days after the date of enactment of this Act.
164. ^
United States Congress. "Text of S.214", Government Printing Office (GPO). Retrieved on 2007-05-30. 
165. ^ "18-month sentence in travel scandal Thompson gets prison time for steering state contract", Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, 2006-09-22. Retrieved on 2007-05-12. 
166. ^ "Baldwin calls on Congress to look into Thompson case", Portage Daily Register, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-18. 
167. ^ "Biskupic says he will fully cooperate with the Senate Judiciary Committee’s inquiry", Wheeler News Service, April 11, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-18. 
168. ^ Copy of letter written by Senate Democrats
169. ^ Eggen, Dan, Paul Kane. "House GOP Stands Behind Gonzales", Washington Post, 2007-05-11. Retrieved on 2007-05-13. 
170. ^ Steven Walters and Patrick Marley. "Conviction may cost Thompson $300,000: Former state employee in seclusion after release", Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, April 7, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-07.2007"> 
171. ^ Jason Stein. "Experts say ruling hits prosecutor's credibility", Wisconsin State Journal, April 9 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-10.2007"> 
172. ^ Jenn Rourke. "U.S. Senators Review Georgia Thompson Case", WTMJ-TV, April 10 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-10.WTMJ-TV&rft.date=April%2010%202007"> 
173. ^ Roche, Walter. "Bush removal ended Guam investigation: U.S. attorney's demotion halted probe of lobbyist", Los Angeles Times, August 8, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-03-12. 
174. ^ Watson, George. "Senator still not satisfied: Feinstein looks at Lewis inquiry", San Bernardino County Sun, March 21, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.2007"> 
175. ^ Mutiny in Minnesota
176. ^ Prather, Shannon. "Four at U.S. attorney's office quit top management posts", Pioneer Press, 2007-04-06. Retrieved on 2007-04-18. 
177. ^ Senate Confirms U.S. Attorney For Minnesota
178. ^ "House wants to question Paulose", ABC News (The Associated Press), 2007-04-17. Retrieved on 2007-04-22. 
179. ^ Johnston, David. "Deputies to a U.S. Attorney Step Down", New York Times, 2007-04-07. Retrieved on 2007-04-07. 
180. ^ "House wants to question Paulose", ABC News (The Associated Press), 2007-04-17. Retrieved on 2007-04-22. 
181. ^ "Ex-governor says he was target of Republican plot", Los Angeles Times, June 26, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-07-01. 
182. ^ "Rove Named in Alabama Controversy", Time, June 1, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-07-01. 
183. ^ The Birmingham News:Siegelman gets seven-plus years; Scrushy six-plus
184. ^ "Questions About a Governor’s Fall", New York Times, June 30, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-06-29. 
185. ^ (U.S. Code prior to amendments of the USA PATRIOT Act, as of the retrieval date March 15, 2007.)
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