Dispensationalism

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As a current Christian theology among many Protestant and other Conservative Christian groups, Dispensationalism is a form of premillennialism which teaches biblical history, the present, and the future as a number of successive "economies" or "administrations", called "dispensations", each of which emphasizes the discontinuity of the covenants God made with His various peoples.

The word, "Dispensation" is contained in the King James Version translation of the Bible where it is written in Ephesians 3:2-4:

"If ye have heard of the dispensation of the grace of God which is given me to you-ward:

How that by revelation he made known unto me the mystery; (as I wrote afore in few words,

Whereby, when ye read, ye may understand my knowledge in the mystery of Christ)"

Introduction

In the context of Christianity, dispensationalism is an interpretive or narrative framework for understanding the overall flow of the Bible, and is frequently contrasted with opposing interpretations: Covenant Theology and New Covenant Theology. These two views differ in various points in their understanding of the relationship between the Church and Israel, as well as differing with Dispensationalism at other points.

Replacement theology

One issue often discussed is supersessionism, which teaches that the Christian Church has replaced the Jewish people as "God's People", and that there is only one people of God, joined in unity through Jesus Christ. It is maintained that since the Jewish people have largely refused to accept Jesus as Christ, "the Messiah of Israel", and since He is their only means of salvation, those individual Jews that reject Him, reject his atoning sacrifice for sins, and have in effect rejected the only provision God has offered for divine forgiveness, are no longer considered as the true Israel. Christians, thus, have become the "New Israel". This view is also often referred to as "replacement theology"; in that according to this theology, the Church from its very inception has replaced the Jewish people as God's "chosen people" and "holy nation", now and forever. One of the Scriptures often cited as a basis for this theology is 1 Peter 2:9.

Dispensationalism contrasted

In contrast to the above discussion, dispensationalism teaches that the Christian Church is a "parenthesis", that is, an interruption in God’s divine dealings with the Jewish people, when the Gospel began to be preached to the Gentiles, but that God’s continued care for the Jewish people will be revealed after the end of the Church Age (or Dispensation), when Israel will be restored to their land, and then they will accept Jesus as their Messiah, as is recorded in Zechariah, Chapter 12 verses 8-10 (KJV):

"In that day shall the Lord defend the inhabitants of Jerusalem; and he that is feeble among them at that day shall be as David; and the house of David shall be as God, as the angel of the Lord before them.

And it shall come to pass in that day, that I will seek to destroy all the nations that come against Jerusalem.

And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications: and they shall look upon me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only son, and shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his firstborn."


Hence, dispensationalists typically believe in a Jewish restoration. The dispensational view is further contrasted on these webpages:

Dave Hunt

A strong evangelical writer, Dave Hunt, on his webpage ministry, The Berean Call, has this to say (weblink given):

[1]

To summarize the above discussion contained in the weblink, the author argues from Jeremiah 31:35-37 (King James Version):

"Thus saith the Lord, which giveth the sun for a light by day, and the ordinances of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, which divideth the sea when the waves thereof roar; The Lord of hosts is his name:

If those ordinances depart from before me, saith the Lord, then the seed of Israel also shall cease from being a nation before me for ever.

Thus saith the Lord; If heaven above can be measured, and the foundations of the earth searched out beneath, I will also cast off all the seed of Israel for all that they have done, saith the Lord."


and from the book of Acts, Chapter 13:17 (King James Version):

"The God of this people of Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they dwelt as strangers in the land of Egypt, and with an high arm brought he them out of it."


and also from Romans Chapter 1:16 (King James Version)

"For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.


The author makes this key statement:

"''As for replacement theology, yes, there are many similarities between Israel and the church: both are called God’s “elect” (Isaiah 45:4; Matthew 24:31; 1 Peter 1:2); both are called to be a “peculiar people” separated from the world (Lv 20:24-26; Dt 14:2; Titus 2:14; 1 Peter 2:9); both were to be hated and persecuted (even to the death) by the world (Psalm 119:161; Psalm 143:3; Matthew 24:9; John 15:20; 17:14); and both are called to holiness (Lv 20:7; 1 Peter 1:15).

However, there are many distinctions. Israel is promised a country and a city on this earth, the church a home in heaven. Israel will be ruled by Christ; the church will rule Israel and the world with Him. Two-thirds of all Jews on earth will be killed under Antichrist (Zechariah 13:8-9); but the church will not be on earth at that time, having been raptured to Heaven and then married to Christ (Revelation 19:7,8). Israel will then recognize Christ at His Second Coming; the church will arrive with Him from Heaven in triumph (Zechariah 14:4,5; Jude 14) as His bride, never to leave His side.''"

Further discussions

Dispensations are noted as distinguishable arrangements of God’s dealings with man. At the transition of most dispensations, some of the features of the previous dispensation carry over, some are ended, and some new features are established. For instance, at the beginning of the Noahic dispensation, the command to increase again is recorded in Genesis 9:1-7 (King James Version)

"And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth.

And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that moveth upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea; into your hand are they delivered.

Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you; even as the green herb have I given you all things.

But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat.

And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of man; at the hand of every man's brother will I require the life of man.

Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man.

And you, be ye fruitful, and multiply; bring forth abundantly in the earth, and multiply therein."


This commandment was a continuation of the previous commandment in Genesis 1:27-28 (King James Version) where it is written:

"So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.

And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth."


Man’s diet was no longer vegetarian, but the diet now included clean animals (a discontinuity of one dietary command and the beginning of a new one), and capital punishment was instituted (Genesis 9:3-7 - King James Version):

"Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you; even as the green herb have I given you all things.

But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat.

And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of man; at the hand of every man's brother will I require the life of man.

Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man.

And you, be ye fruitful, and multiply; bring forth abundantly in the earth, and multiply therein."


This last feature is when the common name for this dispensation “the dispensation of government” originates.

The dispensation before this was the dispensation of conscience, as people were constrained from executing Cain, so Cain had to live with his guilt.

Many have accused Dispensationalists of holding to different means of salvation, but this is untrue. Dispensationalism holds that salvation has always been by grace through faith - apart from works - always resulting in immediate regeneration and grace being permanent. Yet dispensationalists assert that the responsibilities of those who have been saved differ in different dispensations.

In the dispensation of the Law, for instance, those who were saved were required to participate in the Jewish Law, including the sacrificial system. This did not entitle them to salvation, but it was made incumbent upon them as a requirement. In the current dispensation, baptism is a requirement for those who have believed (in the work of Jesus Christ) and are thereby saved.

There are seven dispensations in all. The eternal state following the Millennium is not numbered as a dispensation.

History

Great Britain

Born out of the restless religious environment in England and Ireland in the 1820s, systematized dispensationalism began with the Plymouth Brethren movement, especially the teachings of John Nelson Darby (1800–1882).

Dispensationalism: the dividing of history into specific periods according to how God is said to have dealt with humanity. For example, from the Fall of Adam to Noah, God has related and communicated to man through his conscience; from Moses to Christ, God related to man through the Law. After the birth of the Church, God related to man by the gift of the Holy Spirit - the supernatural experience of being 'born-again' and having the presence of the Holy Spirit, the third person of the Trinity as the 'comforter, as recorded in John 14:14-18 (King James Version):

"If ye shall ask any thing in my name, I will do it.

If ye love me, keep my commandments.

And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever;

Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you.

I will not leave you comfortless: I will come to you."


Late 19th-Century premillenialists held that God had a "pattern for the ages". Composed of seven dispensations, the last dispensation of which would be the 1,000 year Millennium, which some writers have referred to as a 1,000-year Sabbath. Dispensationalism was made popular through the notes of the Scofield Reference Bible. It came to be more than a way of looking at history; it was tied to the verbal inerrancy of the Bible, as is recorded in 2 Timothy, Chapter 2 verse 15 (King James Version:

"Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth."'' - 2 Timothy 2:15 (KJV)


Darby built on a number of themes that were common among the more radical Calvinists in the Evangelical movement of the early 19th century, but he elaborated a more complex and complete system for interpreting the Bible than had previous writers. Scofield’s approach to interpreting the Bible largely held that it should be understood as any other speech should be understood, that in keeping with figures of speech, similies and metaphors should be taken to mean exactly what it said.

The Plymouth Brethren movement, essentially a reaction against Anglican and Roman Catholic ecclesiology, became known for its anti-denominational, anti-clerical, and anti-creedal stance. In 1848, the Plymouth Brethren split into an "Exclusive" group led by Darby and an "Open" group. Darby's views became dominant among the Exclusive Brethren, but were not widespread among Open Brethren until the 1870s or 1880s.

North America

Dispensationalism was first introduced to North America by John Inglis (1813–1879), through a monthly magazine called Waymarks in the Wilderness (published intermittently between 1854 and 1872). In 1866, Inglis organized the Believers' Meeting for Bible Study, which introduced dispensationalist ideas to a small but influential circle of American evangelicals. After Inglis’ death, James H. Brookes (1830–1898), a pastor in St. Louis, organized the Niagara Bible Conference to continue the dissemination of dispensationalist ideas. Dispensationalism was boosted after Dwight L. Moody (1837–1899) learned of “dispensational truth” from an unidentified member of the Brethren in 1872. Moody became close to Brookes and other dispensationalists, and encouraged the spread of dispensationalism, but apparently never learned the nuances of the dispensationalist system.

Dispensationalism began to evolve during this time, most significantly when a significant body of dispensationalists proposed the "pre-tribulation" Rapture. Dispensationalist leaders in Moody's circle include Reuben Archer Torrey (1856–1928), James M. Gray (1851–1925), Cyrus I. Scofield (1843–1921), William J. Erdman (1833–1923), A. C. Dixon (1854–1925), A. J. Gordon (1836–1895) and William Eugene Blackstone, author of the bestseller of the 1800s "Jesus is Coming" (Endorsed by Torrey and Erdman). These men were activist evangelists who promoted a host of Bible conferences and other missionary and evangelistic efforts. They also gave the dispensationalist movement institutional permanence by assuming leadership of the new independent Bible institutes such as the Moody Bible Institute (1886), the Bible Institute of Los Angeles—now Biola University (1907), and the Philadelphia College of the Bible—now Philadelphia Biblical University (1913). The network of related institutes that soon sprang up became the nucleus for the spread of American dispensationalism.

The energetic efforts of C.I. Scofield and his associates introduced dispensationalism to a wider audience in America and bestowed a measure of respectability through his Scofield Reference Bible. The publication of the Scofield Reference Bible in 1909 by the Oxford University Press was something of an innovative literary coup for the movement, since for the first time, overtly dispensationalist notes were added to the pages of the biblical text. The Scofield Reference Bible became the leading Bible used by independent Evangelicals and Fundamentalists in the U.S. for the next sixty years. Evangelist and Bible teacher Lewis Sperry Chafer (1871–1952), who was strongly influenced by C.I. Scofield, founded Dallas Theological Seminary in 1924, which has become the flagship of Dispensationalism in America.

The so-called "Grace Movement", which began in the 1930s with the teaching ministries of J.C. O’Hair, Cornelius R. Stam, Henry Hudson and Charles Baker has been mischaracterized as "ultra" or "hyper" dispensationalism (an actual misnomer according to the etymology of the Greek word base for "dispensation"). But the term still serves to distinguish a theological system that departs from the tenets of Dispensationlism.

The contrasts between law and grace, prophecy and mystery, Israel and the Church, the body of Christ were energized by Scofield, Barnhouse and Ironside in the hearts of these men and studied and proclaimed by O'Hair, Stam and a host of other "grace" teachers. It is however contended by dispensational teachers such as Charles C. Ryrie, Dwight J. Pentecost and Arnold Fruchtenbaum that ultradispensationalism (or the grace movement if you will) is far enough removed from dispensationalism to not any longer be dispensationalism at all.

Dispensationalism has come to dominate the American Evangelical scene, especially among nondenominational Bible churches, many Baptists, Armstrongists, and most Pentecostal and Charismatic groups.

Theology

Enlarge picture
Comparison of Christian millennial interpretations

Core beliefs

Dispensationalism hinges on three core tenets:

1. The Bible is to be taken literally. This is explained by John F. Walvoord, who, in his book, "Prophecy in the New Millennium" provides this explanation:

"History answers the most important question in prophetic interpretation, that is, whether prophecy is to be interpreted literally, by giving five hundred examples of precise literal fulfillments. The commonly held belief that prophecy is not literal and should be interpreted nonliterally has no basis in scriptural revelation. Undoubtedly, a nonliteral viewpoint is one of the major causes of confusion in prophetic interpretation.

Some prophecies that are in figurative language have to be interpreted, such as some in Daniel, Ezekiel, and Revelation. But in many cases, the meaning is clearly understood and seldom is the symbol left unexplained in the Bible. A solid record emerges of fulfillment of prophecy in the past and an anticipation that each prophecy will have that same literal fulfillment in the future."

2. The primary goal of God under which all other actions are subsumed is His own glorification. For example, He saves some to show His mercy, while He does not save others, showing His justice.

3. When the Bible says Israel, it means Israel, and when it says Church it means Church. Sometimes the group “Israel” is a subset within the larger group of physical Israel, such as when it speaks of “spiritual Israel” or “the Israel of God.” In both of those cases, and in other like them those being referred to are those within the nation Israel (physical Israel) who have trusted in Jesus as their Messiah (the remnant within physical Israel). The Church is collectively all who have been saved since the Crucifixion through trusting in the death of Jesus as the substitutionary payment for their sins--believers, Christians.

Dispensationalism seeks to address what many see as opposing theologies between the Old Testament and New Testament. Its name comes from the fact that it sees biblical history as best understood in light of a series of dispensations in the Bible. The precise list of dispensations varies between authors, but the most common list of dispensations is taken from the notes to the Scofield Bible:
  • the dispensation of innocence (Gen 1:1–3:7), prior to Adam's fall,
  • of conscience (Gen 3:8–8:22), Adam to Noah,
  • of government (Gen 9:1–11:32), Noah to Abraham,
  • of patriarchal rule (Gen 12:1–Exod 19:25), Abraham to Moses,
  • of the Mosaic Law (Exod 20:1–Acts 2:4), Moses to Christ,
  • of grace (Acts 2:4–Rev 20:3 – except for Hyperdispensationalists), the current church age, and
  • of a literal, earthly 1,000-year Millennial Kingdom that has yet to come but soon will (Rev 20:4–20:6).

Differences among the dispensational periods

Each dispensation is said to represent a different way in which God deals with man, often a different test for man. "These periods are marked off in Scripture by some change in God's method of dealing with mankind, in respect to two questions: of sin, and of man's responsibility", explained C.I. Scofield. "Each of the dispensations may be regarded as a new test of the natural man, and each ends in judgment—marking his utter failure in every dispensation."

An alternative to this popular “seven-dispensations” approach comes with a rather simple and helpful observation from reading through the Bible with this careful question: How and by whom is God evangelizing lost men and women at any given time of human history even into the future? God through the ages has chosen to use people to evangelize other people with His gospel of redemption and salvation. An interesting pattern can be traced through the Bible from Genesis to Revelation: Beginning with only various Gentile Nations; then Israel (through Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob to Christ); then The Church, (our present age); then Israel for 7 years more (in the future); and then a Millennial, Earthly Kingdom of Christ –
  • the dispensation or age of Gentile Nations (Gen 1-11), from Adam to Abraham’s Call;
  • of Israel (Gen 12 – Acts 1), from Abraham’s Call to Pentecost in Acts 2;
  • of The Church (Acts 2 – Rev. 2), from Pentecost in Acts 2 to the end of The Church Age;
  • of The (missionary) Tribulation of Israel (Rev. 6-19), a yet-future Seven-year period;
  • of a literal, earthly 1,000-year Millennial Kingdom (Rev 20:4–6) with a rebuilt temple and reinstituted animal sacrifices and O.T. rituals (Eze 40-48) [1] that has yet to come but soon will.

Influence

Dispensationalism has had a number of effects on Protestantism, at least as it is practiced in the United States. By consistently teaching that the Beast of Revelation, or the Antichrist, is a political leader, dispensationalism has weakened the traditional Reformation-era identification of that figure with the Pope, and the Roman Catholic Church with the Whore of Babylon, however only in a minor way. While the Pope has been portrayed as an Antichrist in Protestant literature for hundreds of years (even before their official designation as Protestants during the Reformation), the Pope is still usually identified with one of the three main Agents of Satan who implement global deception during the Great Tribulation. Modern Dispensationalism has led many evangelical Christians in the U.S. to separate their traditional anti-Catholicism and anti-papal perspective from their own much more empathetic perspective towards lay Catholics. Some dispensationalists, usually of the Fundamentalist variety, have continued to teach that a pope (or an antipope) will be the Antichrist or the False Prophet of the book of Revelation.

Dispensationalism rejects the notion of supersessionism. It tends to go hand in hand with a very protective attitude toward the Jewish people and the modern State of Israel. John Nelson Darby taught, and most subsequent dispensationalists have consistently maintained, that God looks upon the Jews as his chosen people even if they remain in rejection of Jesus Christ and continues to have a place for them in the dispensational, prophetic scheme of things. While many traditions of Christianity teach that the Jews are a distinct people, irrevocably entitled to the promises of God (because, in the words of the epistle to the Romans, "the gifts and calling of God are without repentance"), dispensationalism is unique in teaching that the Church is a provisional dispensation, until the Jews finally recognize Jesus as their promised Messiah during the trials that dispensationalists envision coming upon the Jews in the Great Tribulation. Darby's prophecies envision Judaism as continuing to enjoy God's protection, parallel to Christianity, literally to the End of Time, and teach that God has a separate track in the prophecies for Jews apart from the Church. However, dispensationalists hold that God does not recognize Jew or Gentile today:

For there is no difference between the Jew and the Greek: for the same Lord over all is rich unto all that call upon him. (Romans 10:12, KJV)

Judaism

Christian Dispensationalists sometimes embrace what some critics have pejoratively called Judeophilia—ranging from support of the state of Israel, to observing traditional Jewish holidays and practicing traditionally Jewish religious rituals. (See also Jewish Christians and Judaizers.) Dispensationalists believe in and support the state of Israel, recognize its existence as God revealing His Will for the Last Days, and reject anti-Semitism.

Messianic Judaism

Dispensationalists tend to be energetically evangelistic, with special interest in the Jews because they are "God's chosen people". Dispensationalist beliefs are widespread in many forms of Messianic Judaism, for example, which seeks to convert Jews to a form of Christianity mixed with Jewish culture and tradition. In some dispensationalist circles, the Jewish converts to Christianity are sometimes referred to as "completed Jews". Thus, while it is at odds with traditional supersessionism (which discourages directly carrying over Jewish practice into the Christian Church), dispensationalism generally is markedly at odds with modern religious pluralism, which is typified by the view that proselytism of the Jews is a form of anti-Semitism.

Antichrist

Some dispensationalists, such as Jerry Falwell, have asserted that the beast Antichrist will be a Jew, based on a belief that the Antichrist will falsely seem to some Jews to fulfill prophesies of the Messiah more accurately than Jesus did[2].

However, many dispensationalists do not accept this belief, and a number of scriptures do not cite any evidence, as can be seen in these scriptures

Daniel 9:27 (King James Version): "And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate."


This "prince" will be of the same people that destroyed the Jewish city, i.e., of Roman origin and therefore will not be Jewish.

In turn, this "prince" will stand up "against the Prince of princes" and destroy many "by peace" (Dan 8:25); and will be responsible for the false "peace and safety" that will precede the destructive day of the Lord (1 Thess 5:2–3). Some believe this man will be a Jew, based in part on John 5:43, where the Lord stated that the unbelieving Jews would receive another who "shall come in his own name" (as opposed to the Lord Himself, who came in the Father's name). Further evidence is from Daniel 11:37, "Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all", although in a passage as late as Daniel, a better translation is probably, "He will reject the gods (Eloha) of his fathers." The prophet Daniel refers to this man as "a vile person", who will "obtain the kingdom by flatteries" (Dan 11:21). This belief is not essential to dispensationalism.

World politics

Dispensationalism teaches that Christians should not expect spiritual good from earthly governments, and should expect social conditions to decline as the end times draw nearer. Dispensationalist readings of prophecies (such as Daniel 9:27, “And he [the Antichrist] will make a firm covenant [a peace contract] with the many [the nation of Israel] . . . ”) often teach that the Antichrist will appear to the world as a peacemaker. This makes some dispensationalists suspicious of all forms of power, religious and secular, and especially of human attempts to form international organizations for peace, such as the United Nations. Almost all dispensationalists reject the idea that a lasting peace can be attained by human effort in the Middle East, and believe instead that "wars and rumors of wars" (cf. Matt 24:6) will increase as the end times approach. Dispensationalist beliefs often underlie the religious and political movement of Christian Zionism.

Some dispensationalists teach that churches that do not insist on Biblical literalism as they deem appropriate (some of which go as far as denying the Resurrection and the inspiration of the Bible altogether) are in fact part of the Great Apostasy. This casts suspicion on attempts to create church organizations that cross denominational boundaries such as the World Council of Churches. (See also ecumenism.)

United States politics

Political analyst Richard Allen Greene has argued that dispensationalism has had a major influence on the foreign policy of the United States. This influence has included support for the state of Israel.[3]

Fiction

Dispensationalist themes form the basis of the successful Left Behind series of books. However, not all dispensationalists agree with the theology of authors Tim LaHaye and Jerry Jenkins.

People

The following individuals have been associated with dispensationalism:
  • Sir Robert Anderson (1841–1918), "Anglicanized Irishman of Scottish extraction", 1863 entered the Irish Bar; Assistant Commissioner of Metropolitan Police in Scotland Yard; lay preacher and defender of the Faith; saw difference between Israel and the Church; authored 19 books on the Bible.
  • Charles F. Baker (1905–1994), author (A Dispensational Theology), and founder of Grace Bible College, Grace Movement pioneer.
  • Hoyle Bowman, Professor at Piedmont Baptist College.
  • James H. Brookes (1830–1897), minister, writer, and theologian. Cyrus I. Scofield was one of his students.
  • E. W. Bullinger (1837–1913) Anglican clergyman, Biblical scholar, and hyperdispensationalist author criticized by the Plymouth Brethren.
  • Jack Chick (b. 1924), controversial fundamentalist cartoonist and founder of Chick Publications.
  • John Nelson Darby (1800–1882), British preacher, Plymouth Brethren co-founder, and considered by many as the "father of dispensationalism".
  • Arnold Fruchtenbaum (b. 1943), writer and theologian
  • John C. Hagee (b. 1940), Founder and Senior Pastor, Cornerstone Church; President and CEO, John Hagee Ministries; and Founder and National Chairman, Christians United for Israel.
  • Mark Hitchcock, pastor and author[4]
  • Zane C. Hodges (b. 1933), Bible scholar known as a Free Grace proponent.
  • Thomas Ice, writer
  • Harry A. Ironside (1876–1951), pastor of The Moody Church, Chicago, and author of more than 60 books.
  • Tim LaHaye (b. 1926), minister, author of the "Left Behind" novel series, and speaker.
  • Clarence Larkin (1850–1924), author of many pamphlets and books around 1918 containing extensive graphical dispensational charts with commentary[5]
  • Hal Lindsey (b. 1929), evangelist and author of "The Late Great Planet Earth" and other books advocating a dispensationalist and fundamentalist understanding of Christianity.
  • J. Dwight Pentecost (b. 1915), writer and theologian
  • Charles Caldwell Ryrie (b. 1925), Christian writer and theologian. Better known for his "Ryrie Study Bible", which is known to teach dispensationalism.
  • Cyrus I. Scofield (1843–1921), minister, scholar, and theologian. Better known for his influential Scofield Reference Bible (published in 1909) that popularized dispensationalism.
  • Miles J. Stanford (1914–1999), Christian author and Pauline dispensationalist.
  • Charles Stevens, founder of Piedmont Baptist College.
  • Henry C. Thiessen, author of Lectures in Systematic Theology and taught at Dallas Theological Seminary.
  • Jack Van Impe (b. 1930), televangelist known for interpreting current events in light of a dispensationalist approach to biblical prophecy.
  • John F. Walvoord (1910–2002), longtime president of Dallas Theological Seminary and leading proponent of dispensationalism in the late 20th century.
  • Kenneth Wuest (1893–1962), New Testament Greek scholar.

Notes

References

  • Allis, Oswald T. Prophecy and the Church (Presbyterian & Reformed, 1945; reprint: Wipf & Stock, 2001). ISBN 1-57910-709-5
  • Bass, Clarence B.: Backgrounds to Dispensationalism (Baker Books, 1960) ISBN 0-8010-0535-3
  • Boyer, Paul: When Time Shall Be No More: Prophecy Belief in Modern American Culture (Belknap, 1994) ISBN 0-674-95129-8
  • Brunson, Hal. Who is Israel? What is a Jew? Where is Jerusalem: A Biblical Mandate for Prophetic Reformation in the 21st Century. ISBN 0-595-41992-5. http://www.iuniverse.com/bookstore/book_detail.asp?isbn=0-595-41992-5
  • Camp, Gregory S. Selling Fear: Conspiracy Theories and End-Time Paranoia (Baker, 1997) ISBN 0-8010-5721-3
  • Chesnut, Morris. Non-Denominational Dispensationalist Grace Of God Bible Church (NDDGGBC). http://www.graceimpact.org/Conf2003.htm
  • Larkin, Clarence, The Greatest Book on Dispensational Truth in the World; or God's Plan and Purpose in the Ages A.K.A. Dispensational Truth (1918) ASIN B000ALVEHM
  • Clouse, Robert G., ed. The Millennium: Four Views (InterVarsity, 1977) ISBN 0-87784-794-0
  • Crenshaw, Curtis I., and Grover E. Gunn, III. Dispensationalism: Today, Yesterday, and Tomorrow (Footstool, 1987) ISBN 1-877818-01-1
  • Crutchfield, Larry. Origins of Dispensationalism: The Darby Factor (University Press of America, 1992). ISBN 0-8191-8468-3
  • Enns, Paul: The Moody Handbook of Theology (Moody, 1989) ISBN 0-8024-3428-2
  • Fruchtenbaum, Arnold. "The Footsteps of the Messiah" (Ariel Press, 2003) ISBN 0-914863-09-6
  • Grenz, Stanley. The Millennial Maze (InterVarsity, 1992) ISBN 0-8308-1757-3
  • LaHaye, Tim, and Jerry B. Jenkins. Are We Living in the End Times? (Tyndale House, 1999) ISBN 0-8423-0098-8
  • Reymond, Robert L. New Systematic Theology Of The Christian Faith (Nelson 2d ed., 1998) ISBN 0-8499-1317-9
  • Ryrie, Charles C. Dispensationalism (Moody, 1995) ISBN 0-8024-2187-3
  • Ryrie, Charles C. Basic Theology (Moody, 1999) ISBN 0-8024-2734-0
  • Walvoord, John. The Millennial Kingdom (Zondervan, 1983) ISBN 0-310-34091-8
  • Walvoord, John F. Prophecy In The New Millennium (Kregel Publications, 2001) ISBN 0-8254-3967-1

See also

External links

Christian Apologetics
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Jesus (8–2 BC/BCE to 29–36 AD/CE),[2] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity, and is also an important figure in several other religions.
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Christ is the English term for the Greek word Χριστός (Christós), which literally means "The Anointed One.
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Christianity

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Kingdom of God or Reign of God (Greek: Βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ - Basileia tou Theou,[1]
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Gospel, from the Old English god-spell "good tidings" is a calque of Greek ευαγγέλιον (
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The Bible is
  • Part of
(see The Hebrew Bible below)
  • Part of a series on Christianity
(see The New Testament below)


Bible
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Old Testament (sometimes abbreviated OT) is the first section of the two-part Christian Biblical canon, which includes the books of the Hebrew Bible as well as several Deuterocanonical books. Its exact contents differ in the various Christian denominations.
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New Testament (Greek: Καινή Διαθήκη, Kainē Diathēkē) is the name given to the final portion of the Christian Bible, written after the Old Testament.
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Books of the Bible are listed differently in the canons of Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, although there is overlap. A table comparing the canons of these denominations appears below, for both the Old Testament and the New Testament.
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A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community.
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The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either:
  • were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or
  • whose canonicity or lack thereof is not yet certain,[1] or

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Septuagint (IPA: /ˈsɛptuədʒɪnt/), or simply "LXX", is the name commonly given in the West to the Koine Greek version of the Old Testament, translated in stages between the 3rd and 1st centuries
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Sermon on the Mount was, according to the Gospel of Matthew 5-7 , a particular sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth (estimated around AD 30) on a mountainside to his disciples and a large crowd.
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Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread his teachings to all the nations of the world. It has become a tenet in Christian theology emphasizing mission work and evangelism.
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List of Bible translations. For the Bible in English and its history, see English Bible translations.

The Bible has been translated into many languages from the biblical languages of Hebrew and Greek.
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The Bible in English

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Biblical Hermeneutics refers to methods of interpreting the Bible.
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