Dominican republic



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República Dominicana
Dominican Republic
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Flag of the Dominican Republic
FlagCoat of arms
Motto
"Dios, Patria, Libertad"  (Spanish)
"God, Homeland, Liberty"
Anthem
Himno Nacional Dominicano
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Location of the Dominican Republic
Capital
(and largest city)
Santo Domingo 1
Official languagesSpanish
DemonymDominican
GovernmentPresidential system
 - PresidentLeonel Fernández
 - Vice PresidentRafael Alburquerque
IndependenceFrom Haiti 
 - Date27 February 1844 
 - Water (%)1.6
Population
 - July 2007 estimate9,183,984 (87th)
 - 2000 census9,365,818 
GDP (PPP)2006 estimate
 - Total$77.09 billion (69th)
 - Per capita$8,400 (77th)
Gini (2003)51.7 (high
HDI (2004) 0.751 (medium) (94th)
CurrencyPeso (DOP)
Time zoneAtlantic (UTC-4)
Internet TLD.do
Calling code+1spec. 1-809 and +1-829
Known as Ciudad Trujillo from 1936 to 1961 [1]


The Dominican Republic (Spanish: República Dominicana, IPA [re'puβlika domini'kana]) is a Latin American country that occupies the eastern two-thirds of the Caribbean island called Hispaniola. It shares a border with the Republic of Haiti, making it one of two Caribbean islands that are split by two countries; the other is Saint-Martin/Sint Maarten. Hispaniola is the second-largest of the Greater Antilles islands, and lies west of Puerto Rico and east of Cuba and Jamaica. [2]

More than 500 years of mixed lapses of prosperity and turmoil give this island-nation the longest historical record of any of the other country in the Western hemisphere: The Dominican Republic is the site of the first permanent European settlement in the Americas,[3] and became the first point of colonization in the Western Hemisphere by explorers from Europe. The Dominican Republic has the first cathedral[1] and university, as well as the first European-built road and fortress, in the Americas. Santo Domingo (originally New Isabela) was also the first colonial capital in the Americas.[4]

History



For much of the twentieth century, the government of the Dominican Republic was unsettled and mostly non-representative. Since the death of military dictator Rafael Leónidas Trujillo in 1961, the Dominican Republic has moved toward representative democracy. [5] By the mid-1500s the Taíno people had died out as a result of smallpox and brutal treatment by the…… Spanish settlers who tried to enslave them.[5] Hispaniola became a springboard for Spanish conquest of the Caribbean mainland.

Creation of the Republic

Spain ceded the colony of Santo Domingo (the eastern two-thirds of Hispaniola) to France in 1795. In the 1790s slaves in Saint-Domingue (now Haiti) staged a revolt led by Toussaint Louverture. In 1801, Toussaint Louverture captured the former Spanish Colony of Santo Domingo (which became the Dominincan Republic). He then unified French and Spanish Haiti into Haiti (which is the old Arawak Indian name for Hispaniola). By 1808 after various degrees of instability Santo Domingo reverted to Spanish rule. Two years later in 1810 the French finally leave Santo Domingo.[6]

Spanish lieutenant governor José Núñez de Cáceres declared the colony's independence as the state of Spanish Haiti (Haití Español) on November 30, 1821, requesting admission to the Republic of Gran Colombia, but Haitian forces, led by Jean-Pierre Boyer, unified the entire island, ending 300 years of colonial domination and slavery just nine weeks later.[7] In 1838 Juan Pablo Duarte, founded a secret society called La Trinitaria that sought pure and simple independence of the eastern part of the island without any foreign intervention[8]. Ramón Matías Mella and Francisco del Rosario Sánchez (the latter one being a mestizo[8]), in spite of not being among the founding members, went on to be decisive in the fight for independence and are now hailed (along with Duarte) as the Founding Fathers of the Dominican Republic. On February 27, 1844, the Trinitarios declared independence from Haiti, backed by Pedro Santana, a wealthy cattle-rancher from El Seibo who became general of the army of the nascent Republic, and known as "El Liberador". The Dominican Republic's first Constitution was adopted on November 6, 1844 which was modeled after the US constitution.[3]

Re-establishment as a colony and Restoration War

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General Gregorio Luperón, Restoration hero.
In 1861, mainly due to political and economical reasons, then president Pedro Santana signed a pact with the Spanish Crown and reverted back the Dominican state to a colonial status, [9] the only Latin American nation to do so. Haitian authorities, fearful of the reestablishment of Spain as colonial power, gave refuge and logistics to Dominican revolutionaries to re-establish the independence. [9] The civil war was called the War of Restoration, and was led by two men: Generals Ulises Heureaux who was of Haitian origin [10] (and 3 time President of the Dominican Republic) and Gregorio Luperón.

The War started on 1863 and, after two years of fighting, Spanish troops abandoned the island.[9]. The Restoration was proclaimed on August 16, 1865.

A few years later the Dominican Republic sought to sell itself to the United States and become a colony.[7] The Dominican Republic offered the United States to take it over as a colony for 1.5 million dollars. [11] President Grant supported this notion, but the United States Congress refused on June 30, 1870.[7] President Grant thought that former American slaves could go to the Dominican Republic and live in peace and not be harassed by Southern whites. [12]
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Ulises 'Lilís' Heureaux former President of Dominican Republic

U.S. Dominican Treaty for Assistance in Governing

In 1906, the Dominican Republic and the United States entered into a 50 year treaty. [3] giving control of its administration and customs to the United States. In exchange the United States agreed to help reduce the immense foreign debt that the Dominican Republic had established. [3] In 1914, the United States, due to extreme political internal instability in the Dominican Republic (inability to elect a president), expressed concern and stated that a leader must be elected, or the United States would impose one.[13] As a result, Ramón Báez Machado, was elected provisional president on August 27, 1914.[13] Presidential elections held on October 25 returned Juan Isidro Jimenes Pereyra to the presidency. Despite his victory, however, Jiménez felt impelled to appoint leaders and prominent members of the various political factions to positions in his government in an effort to broaden its support. The internecine conflicts that resulted had quite the opposite effect, weakening the government and the President and emboldening Secretary of War Desiderio Arias to take control of both the armed forces and the Congress, which he compelled to impeach Jiménez for violation of the constitution and the laws. Although the United States ambassador offered military support to his government, Jiménez opted to step down on May 7, 1916.

Arias never assumed the presidency formally. The United States government, apparently tired of its recurring role as mediator, had decided to take a more direct action. By this time, U. S forces were occupying Haiti already. The initial military administrator of Haiti, Rear Admiral William Caperton, had actually forced Arias to retreat from Santo Domingo by threatening the city with naval bombardment on May 13, 1916.

The first Marines landed three days later, on May 19. Although they established effective control of the country within two months, the United States forces did not proclaim a military government until November. Most Dominican laws and institutions remained intact under military rule, although the shortage of Dominicans willing to serve in the cabinet forced the military governor, Rear Admiral Harry S. Knapp, to fill a number of portfolios with United States naval officers. The press and radio were censored for most of the occupation, and public speech was limited.

The surface effects of the occupation were largely positive. The Marines restored order throughout most of the republic (with the exception of the eastern region); the country's budget was balanced, its debt was diminished, and economic growth resumed. Infrastructure projects produced new roads that linked all the country's regions for the first time in its history. A professional military organization, the Dominican Constabulary Guard, replaced the partisan forces that had waged a seemingly endless struggle for power. Most Dominicans, however, greatly resented the loss of their sovereignty to foreigners, few of whom spoke Spanish or displayed much real concern for the welfare of the republic.

The most intense opposition to the occupation arose in the eastern provinces of El Seibo and San Pedro de Macorís. From 1917 to 1921, the United States forces battled a guerrilla movement in that area known as the "gavilleros". The guerrillas enjoyed considerable support among the population, and they benefited from a superior knowledge of the terrain. The movement survived the capture and the execution of its leader, Vicente Evangelista, and some initially fierce encounters with the Marines. However, the gavilleros eventually yielded to the occupying forces' superior firepower, air power (a squadron of six Curtis Jennies), and determined (often brutal) counterinsurgent methods.

After World War I, public opinion in the United States began to run against the occupation. President Warren G. Harding, who succeeded Wilson in March 1921, had campaigned against the occupations of both Haiti and the Dominican Republic. In June 1921, United States representatives presented a withdrawal proposal, known as the Harding Plan, which called for Dominican ratification of all acts of the military government, approval of a loan of US$2.5 million for public works and other expenses, the acceptance of United States officers for the constabulary--now known as the National Guard (Guardia Nacional)--and the holding of elections under United States supervision. Popular reaction to the plan was overwhelmingly negative. Moderate Dominican leaders, however, used the plan as the basis for further negotiations that resulted in an agreement allowing for the selection of a provisional president to rule until elections could be organized. Under the supervision of High Commissioner Sumner Welles, Juan Bautista Vicini Burgos assumed the provisional presidency on October 21, 1922. In the presidential election of March 15, 1924, Horacio Vásquez Lajara handily defeated Francisco J. Peynado. Vásquez's Alliance Party (Partido Alianza) also won a comfortable majority in both houses of Congress. With his inauguration on July 13, control of the republic returned to Dominican hands.

1930 to 1980

The Dominican Republic was ruled by dictator Rafael Leonidas Trujillo (who was himself a quarter Haitian [14]) from 1930 until his assassination in 1961. Trujillo ruled with iron hand, persecuting anyone who opposed his regime. He also renamed many towns and provinces after himself and members of his family, including the capital city Santo Domingo. In 1937 Trujillo, in an event known as the Parsley Massacre, ordered the Army to kill all Haitians on the Dominican side of the border; an estimated 17,000 to 35,000 Haitians were killed for approximately five days, from the night of October 2, 1937 through October 8, 1937, Haitians were cut down with machetes, [14][15][7]. This massacre was alleged to have been an attempt to seize money and property from Haitians living on the border[16] As a result of this act of massacre the Dominican Republic agreed to pay Haiti $750,000.00, which was later reduced to US$525,000.[17] [9] The Dominican government headed by Trujillo for a time was supported by the USA [15], the Catholic Church and the Dominican elite; even after the death of Dominicans opposition and over 17,000 Haitians.[15] Trujillo was assassinated on May 30, 1961 in Santo Domingo.

In 1965, US Marines arrived in the Dominican Republic to restore order in the civil war in Operation Powerpack, later to be joined by forces from the Organization of American States [15]. They remained in the country for over a year and left after supervising elections, in which they ensured the victory of Joaquín Balaguer.

Balaguer remained in power as president for 12 years. His tenure was a period of repression of civil liberties, presumably to prevent pro-Cuba or pro-communist parties from gaining power in the country. Balaguer's rule was accompanied by a growing disparity between rich and poor.

Modern times

In 1978, Balaguer was succeeded in the presidency by Antonio Guzmán Fernández. From 1978 to 1986, the Dominican Republic experienced a period of relative freedom and basic human rights.
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Dr. José Francisco Peña Gómez Dominican political leader.
Balaguer regained the presidency in 1986, and was re-elected in 1990 and 1994, defeating José Francisco Peña Gómez (a former mayor of Santo Domingo). Both the national and international communities generally viewed these elections as a major fraud, leading to political pressure for Balaguer to step down. Balaguer responded by scheduling another presidential contest in 1996, which was won by the Dominican Liberation Party for the first time, with Leonel Fernández as their candidate.

In 2000, Hipólito Mejía won the electorate when opposing candidates Danilo Medina and a very old Joaquín Balaguer decided that they would not force a runoff after the first got 49.8% of the votes. In 2004, Leonel Fernández was elected again with 57% of the votes, defeating then incumbent president Mejía, who was running for a second term.

Government and Politics

Main article: Government of the Dominican Republic
The government of the Dominincan Republic is based mainly on that of the United States. [1], thus the Dominican Republic takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of the Dominican Republic is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in two chambers of the National Congress. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature, and is comprised of the Supreme Court of Justice, which functions as a Court of Cassation, several Courts of Appeals and many other tribunals in several matters: civil, penal, labor, administrative, lands, and family. The Law is derived from the French system.

Politics

The Dominican Republic is a a highly politicized country, with elections held every two years in both the presidential and the congressional levels. This favors the wasting of millions of dollars in propaganda and campaign, and the expansion of clientelism, which has corrupted the system throughout the years. [18]

There are many political parties and groups of interests, and new in this scenario, civil organizations. The three major parties are Reformist Social Christian Party (in power from 1966-78 and 1986-96); Dominican Revolutionary Party (in power in 1963, and from 1978-86, and again 2000-04); and the Dominican Liberation Party (in power from 1996 to 2000), currently official since 2004.

Provinces and municipalities

The Dominican Republic is divided into 32 provinces. Additionally, the national capital, Santo Domingo, is contained within its own Distrito Nacional. Please note that the names of provincial capital cities are provided in parentheses where they differ from the name of their respective provinces.

The provinces are divided into municipalities (municipios singular municipio). They are the second level political and administrative subdivisions of the country.

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Map of the provinces of the Dominican Republic.
  1. Ázua
  2. Bahoruco (Neyba)
  3. Barahona
  4. Dajabón
  5. Duarte (San Francisco de Macorís)
  6. Elías Piña (Comendador)
  7. El Seibo (Santa Cruz del Seibo)
  8. Espaillat (Moca)
  9. Hato Mayor
  10. Independencia (Jimaní)
  11. La Altagracia (Higüey)
  12. La Romana
  13. La Vega
  14. María Trinidad Sánchez (Nagua)
  15. Monseñor Nouel (Bonao)
  16. Monte Cristi
  1. Monte Plata
  2. Pedernales
  3. Peravia (Baní)
  4. Puerto Plata
  5. Salcedo
  6. Samaná
  7. Sánchez Ramírez (Cotuí)
  8. San Cristóbal
  9. San José de Ocoa
  10. San Juan
  11. San Pedro de Macorís
  12. Santiago
  13. Santiago Rodríguez (Sabaneta)
  14. Santo Domingo
  15. Valverde (Mao)
    D.N.*
* The national capital, also known as Distrito Nacional (D.N.), is the city of Santo Domingo de Guzmán.

Geography

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Map of the Dominican Republic


The Dominican Republic is situated on the eastern part of the second largest island in the Greater Antilles, Hispaniola. The Dominican Republic shares the island roughly at a 2:1 ratio with Haiti. The whole country measures an area of 44,442 km² making it the second largest country in the Antilles after Cuba[19]. The country's mainland has three mountain ranges, those being Cordillera Central (starting from Haiti towards east crossing the island), Cordillera Septentrional, and Cordillera Oriental in the East. In between the Central and Septentrional mountain ranges lies the rich and fertile Cibao valley. This major valley is home to the city of Santiago de los Caballeros and to most of the farming areas in the nation. The country's capital and greatest metropolitan area, Santo Domingo, is located at the southern shore.

The Dominican Republic has the highest peak in the Caribbean named Pico Duarte(3,087 m / 10,128 ft above sea level) and the Biggest lake in the Caribbean named Lake Enriquillo[20].

The Dominican Republic has many rivers, including the navigable Soco, Higuamo, Romana (also known as 'Rio Dulce'), Yaque del Norte, Yaque del Sur, Yuna River, Yuma, and Bajabonico. The two largest islands near shore are Saona Island in the southeast and Beata Island in the southwest. To the north, at a distance between 100 and 200 km, are three extensive, largely submerged banks, which geographically are a southeast continuation of the Bahamas: Navidad Bank,Silver Bank and Mouchoir Bank. Navidad Bank and Silver Bank have been officially claimed by the Dominican Republic.

The Dominican Republic uses its rivers and streams to create electricity, and many hydro-electric plants and dams have been created on rivers, including the Bao, Nizao, Ozama, and Higuamo.

Climate

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A beach on Saona Island.
The country is a tropical, maritime nation. Wet season is from May to November, and periodic hurricanes between June and November. Most rain falls in the northern and eastern regions. The average rainfall is 1346 mm, with extremes of 2500 mm in the northeast and 500 mm in the west. The main annual temperature ranges from 21 °C in the mountainous regions to 25 °C on the plains and the coast. The average temperature in Santo Domingo in January is 25 °C and 30 °C in July.

Environmental issues

Current envirommental issues are water shortages, soil eroding into the sea damaging coral reefs and deforestation.[21]

Bajos de Haina,  miles ( km) west of Santo Domingo, was included on the Blacksmith Institute's list of the world's 10 most polluted places, released in October 2006, due to lead poisoning by a battery recycling smelter closed in 1999. As the site never was cleaned up children continue to be born with high lead levels causing learning disabilities, impaired physical growth and kidney damage. [22] [23]

Economy

Recent years

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Santo Domingo city.
See also: Dominican peso
The Dominican Republic is a lower middle-income developing country primarily dependent on natural resources and government services. Although the service sector has recently overtaken agriculture as the leading employer of Dominicans (due principally to growth in tourism and Free Trade Zones), agriculture remains the most important sector in terms of domestic consumption and is in second place (behind mining) in terms of export earnings. Tourism accounts for more than $1.3 billion in annual earnings. Free Trade Zone earnings and tourism are the fastest-growing export sectors. Remittances ("remesas") from Dominicans living abroad are estimated to be about $1.3 billion per year.

Following economic turmoil in the late 1980s and 1990, during which the GDP fell by up to 5% and consumer price inflation reached an unprecedented 100%, the Dominican Republic entered a period of moderate growth and declining inflation until 2002 after which the economy entered a recession. This recession followed the collapse of the second commercial bank of the country (Baninter), linked to a major incident of fraud valued at 3.5 billion dollars during the administration of President Hipolito Mejia (2000-2004).

The Baninter fraud had a devastating effect on the Dominican economy, with GDP dropped by 1% in 2003 while inflation ballooned by over 27%. The growth of the Dominican economy remains significantly hampered by an ongoing energy shortage, which causes frequent blackouts and very high prices.

Despite a widening merchandise trade deficit, tourism earnings and remittances have helped build foreign exchange reserves. The Dominican Republic is current on foreign private debt, and has agreed to pay arrears of about $130 million to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Commodity Credit Corporation.

According to the 2005 Annual Report of the United Nations Subcommittee on Human Development in the Dominican Republic, the country is ranked #71 in the world for resource availability, # 94 for human development, and #14 in the world for resource mismanagement. These statistics emphasize national government corruption, foreign economic interference in the country, and the rift between the rich and poor.

In the Trimestrial period of Jan-May 2007 the Dominican Economy experienced an exceptional growth of 9.1% in its GDP slightly lower than last years period by 1%. DR-CAFTA(trade agreement) and the Foreign Investment have been one that given great opportunity to the Dominican economy.[24]

The Dominican Republic has become transshipment point for South American drugs to Europe as well as the United States and Canada.[25] Money laundering is favored by Colombia via Dominican Republic for the ease of illicit financial transactions.[26]

The Dominican Republic enjoys a growing economy with CIA World Fact book stating a 10.7% Real growth percentage in 2006 even though Inflation holds a 8.2% in the economy. Enjoying A GDP(PPP) per Capita of 8,400 a relative high in Latin America. Service and the Financial Sector has amounted for this growth in the economy while the Construction Sector makes a big part too of the GDP.

Santo Domingo, the capital of the Republic is the source of most of is GDP and has become one of the leading cities of the Caribbean along With San Juan,Puerto Rico.

Currency

The Dominican peso is the national currency of the country, although US dollars (USD) are acceptable in most tourist sites. The peso was worth the same as the USD at one time, but has recently decreased in value. The exchange rate in 1993 was 14.00 pesos per USD and 16.00 pesos in 2000, but it jumped to 53.00 pesos per USD in 2003. In 2004, the exchange rate was back down to around 31.00 pesos per USD.

The U.S. dollar is implicated in almost all commercial transactions of the Dominican Republic, supporting the theory that the devaluation of the peso in relation to the dollar in 2005 is the result of the international currency market; On February 2005, 1.32 USD = one € = 29 DR pesos; in October 2005, 1.19 USD = one € = 32 DR pesos. The International Monetary Fund revealed a growth of 7.6% over the inflation index for 2006, which implies that the national currency of the Dominican Republic could finish the year with an average basis between 32.70 and touching the 40 pesos per dollar roof. Another factor that has an impact on the currency exchange market of the Dominican Republic is the fluctuation of the U.S. dollar on the international currency market. As of September 2007 the value of the peso is 1 USD=0.7006 EUR=33.430 DOP[27][28]

Demographics

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Dominican girls at carnival in Taíno garments and makeup (2005).
According to the CIA World Fact Book, the ethnic composition of the Dominican population is, 73% of Mixed race, 16% White and 11% Black.[2] Other ethnic groups in the Dominican Republic include Haitians, Spaniards, Germans, Italians, French, Jews, and Americans.[2] A smaller presence of East Asians (primarily ethnic Chinese and Japanese) and Middle Easterners (primarily Lebanese) can be found throughout the population.

Self-identification and race issues

Many Dominicans self-identify as being of mixed-race rather than just "black", in contrast to African identity movements in other nations. Rather, a variety of terms are used to represent a range of skintones. These include "morena" (brown), "india" (Indian), "blanca oscura" (dark white), and "trigueño" (wheat colored).[29] This has become customary, to the point that the Electoral Registry issues identity cards using many of these terms.[30] Some argue that this represents a reluctance to self-identify with African descent and the culture of the freed slaves. According to Dr. Miguel Anibal Perdomo, professor of Dominican Identity and Literature at Hunter College in New York City, "There was a sense of 'deculturación' among the African slaves of Hispaniola. [There was] an attempt to erase any vestiges of African culture from the Dominican Republic. We were, in some way, brainwashed and we've become westernized."[31] Another factor might be the phenomenon of Antihaitianismo, or ethnic tension towards Haitians and descendants of Haitian immigrants. Many physical traits related to African descent are associated with Haiti in Dominican culture and thus there is a stigma attached to them which ties back to the long-standing conflict between the Dominican Republic and its neighboring nation.[31] As a result Dominicans tend to classify themselves as having dark skin, but by no means black or African.[31] In a study by the CUNY Dominican Studies Institute, about 90% of the contemporary Dominican population has African ancestry or has African roots.[32]

Still, most Dominicans self-identify as being of mixed-race rather than "black" in contrast to African identity movements in other nations. But this view is not universal, as others say that Dominican culture is simply different and rejects the racial categorizations of other regions. Ramona Hernández, director of the Dominican Studies Institute at City College of New York asserts that the terms were originally an act of defiance in a time when being mulatto was stigmatized. "During the Trujillo regime, people who were dark skinned were rejected, so they created their own mechanism to fight it." She went on to explain "When you ask 'What are you?' they don't give you the answer you want... saying we don't want to deal with our blackness is simply what you want to hear."[33] The Dominican Republic is not unique in this respect either. In a 1976 census survey conducted in Brazil, respondents described their skin color in 136 distinct terms.[33]

Religion

More than 95% of the population adheres to Christianity, mostly Roman Catholicism, followed by a growing contingent of Protestant groups such as Seventh-day Adventist, and Jehovah's Witnesses. Recent but small scale immigration has brought other religions such as Spiritist: 2.18%, Buddhist: 0.10%, Baha’i: 0.07%, Muslim: 0.02%, and Jewish: 0.01%. [34]

Catholicism was introduced by Columbus and Spanish missionaries. Religion wasn’t really the foundation of their entire society, as it was in other parts of the world at the time, and most of the population didn’t attend church on a regular basis. Nonetheless, most of the education in the country was based upon the Catholic religion, as the Bible was required in the curriculum in all public schools. Children would use religious based dialogue when greeting a relative or parent. For example: a child would say “Bless me, mother,” and the mother would reply “May God bless you.”

Eventually the Catholic Church began to lose popularity in the late 1800s. This was due to a lack of funding, priests, and support programs. Because of this the Protestant evangelical movement began to gain support. Protestants emphasized biblical teachings like the Catholics, but also practiced rejuvenation and economic independence. The Protestants added diversity to the Dominican Republic, and there was almost no religious conflict with the Catholics.

There has always been religious freedom throughout the entire country. It wasn’t until the 1950s that restrictions were placed upon churches by Trujillo. Letters of protest were sent against the mass arrests of government adversaries. Trujillo began a campaign against the church and planned to arrest priests and bishops who preached against the government. This campaign ended before it was even put into place when he was shot.

Judaism appeared in the Dominican Republic in the late 1930s. During World War Two, a group of Jews escaping Nazi Germany fled to the Dominican Republic and founded the city of Sosua. It has remained to be the center of the Jewish population since.[35]

Population

The main population centers of the Dominican Republic are the cities of Santo Domingo and Santiago de los Caballeros, which is the second largest city in the country containing more than 750,000 inhabitants.

Immigration

During the Haitian rule over the whole island of Hispaniola (1822-1844) former Black slaves and escapees from the United States were invited by the Haitian government to settle there. In the late 1800s and early 1900s large groups immigrated to the country from Venezuela and Puerto Rico, so much so that two of the country's former presidents and life long political rivals Juan Bosch[36] and Joaquín Balaguer[37][38] both had Puerto Rican parents. During the first decades of the 20th century many Arabs primarily from Lebanon settled in the country. There is also a sizable Indian and Chinese population. The town of Sosúa has many Jews who settled there during World War II.[39]

In recent decades, re-immigration from Haiti has increased once again. Most Haitian immigrants arrive in the Dominican Republic illegally, and work at low-paying, unskilled labor jobs, including construction work, household cleaning, and on sugar plantations.[40] Current estimates put the Haitian-born population in the Dominican Republic as high as 1 million[41]. Working conditions on these sugar plantations have recently caused controversy[42], with assertions that conditions are near-slavery and a form of de facto apartheid[42][43]– with the children of illegal Haitian immigrants denied citizenship[44], under the Dominican constitution[45], and basic health care[46], and frequent physical attacks and roundups on adult immigrants[47]. However, some Dominican and Haitian officials deny such accusations of slavery, with the Haitian ambassador Fritz Cineas stated "I still have not received any complaint of violation of human rights against the Haitian immigrants in the country"[48]. However, the President of the Dominican Republic, Leonel Fernández Reyna stated publicly during a seminar on immigration policy that collective expulsions of Haitians were carried out "in an abusive and inhuman way".[49] Open wounds exist between Haiti and the Dominican Republic due to the selective enforcement of deportation rules it has been said that "Dominicans could help heal many of Haiti's open political wounds by extraditing back to Haiti many of the criminals of the 1991 coup d'etat and the Duvalier dictatorship who enjoy de facto political asylum in the Dominican Republic."[50] When asked for a response for the current situation, Fernandez stated "There must exist an extradition treaty between the Dominican Republic and Haiti, but there isn't one between our two countries," [51]

Emigration

Main article: Dominican American
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A photo of the Dominican Day Parade in New York City, a major location of emigration of Dominicans
The Dominican Republic has experienced three distinct waves of emigration in the second half of the twentieth century. The first period began in 1961, when a coalition of high-ranking Dominicans, with assistance from the CIA, assassinated General Rafael Trujillo, the nation's military dictator.[52] In the wake of his death, fear of retaliation by Trujillo's allies, and political uncertainty in general, spurred a great migration from the island. In 1965, the United States began a military occupation of the Dominican Republic and eased travel restrictions, making it easier for Dominicans to obtain American visas.[53] From 1966 to 1978, the exodus continued, fueled by high unemployment and political repression. Communities established by the first wave of immigrants to America created a network that assisted subsequent arrivals. Then, in the early 1980s, underemployment, inflation, and the rise in value of the dollar all contributed to a third wave of migration from the island nation. Today, emigration from the Dominican Republic remains high, facilitated by the social networks of now-established Dominican communities in the United States.[54].

Crime

There have been reports of crimes against tourists in the Dominican Republic.[55]. The Dominican Republic has served as a transportation hub[56] for Colombian drug cartels.[57]. Over 8% of all cocaine smuggled into the United States has come through the Dominican Republic[58] Social pressures and poverty have led to a rise in prostitution within the Dominican Republic. Though prostitution is illegal within the country and the age of consent is 18, even child prostitution is a growing phenomenon in impoverished areas. In an environment where young girls are often denied employment opportunities offered to boys, prostitution frequently becomes a source of supplementary income. UNICEF reports estimate at least 25,000 children involved in the Dominican sex trade, 63% of that figure being girls.[59]

Culture

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La Vega Carnaval in the Independence Month. One of the most famous carnivals in the country.
The culture of the Dominican Republic, like its Caribbean neighbors, is a blend of the European colonists, Taínos and African cultural elements. Castilian commonly known as Spanish, is the official language. Other languages such as Haitian Creole English, French, German, andItalian are also spoken to varying degrees. Haitian Creole is spoken fluently(Haitian nationals or of Haitian descent living in the DR and their children) by about 1.2 million people [2] and is the third most spoken language after Spanish and English.

European, African and Taíno cultural elements are most prominent in food, family structure, religion and music. Many Taíno names and words are used in daily conversation and for many items endemic to the DR. [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/dr.html#People]

Music

Musically, the Dominican Republic is known for the creation of Merengue music, a type of lively, fast-paced rhythm and dance music consisting of a tempo of about 120 to 160 beats per minute(it varies wildly) based on musical elements like drums, brass and chorded instruments;as well as some elements unique to the music style of the DR(Marimba). Its syncopated beats use Latin percussion, brass instruments, bass, and piano or keyboard. Not known for social content in its commercial form (Merengue Tipico or Perico Ripiao is very socially charged), it is primarily a dancehall music that was declared the national music during the Trujillo regime. Well-known merengue singers include Juan Luis Guerra, Fernando Villalona, Eddy Herrera, Sergio Vargas, Toño Rosario, Johnny Ventura, and Milly Quezada. Merengue became popular mostly on the east coast of the United States during the 1990s when many Puerto Rican groups like Elvis Crespo were produced by Dominican bandleaders and writers living in the US territory . The emergence of Bachata-Merengue along with a larger number of Dominicans living among other Latino groups (particularly Cubans and Puerto Ricans in New York, New Jersey, and Florida) contributed to the music's growth in popularity .

Bachata, a form of music and dance that originated in the countryside and rural marginal neighborhoods of Dominican Republic, has became quite popular in recent years. Its subjects are often romantic; especially prevalent are tales of heartbreak and sadness. In fact, the original term used to name the genre was "amargue" ("bitterness," or "bitter music"), until the rather ambiguous (and mood-neutral) term bachata became popular.

Bachata grew out of - and is still closely related to - the pan Latin-American romantic style called bolero. Over time, it has been influenced by merengue and by a variety of Latin American guitar styles.

Sports

Enlarge picture
Juan Marichal, one of top 20 pitchers of all time and member of the Baseball Hall of Fame since 1983.
Baseball is by far the most popular sport in the Dominican Republic today . After the United States, the Dominican Republic has the second-highest number of baseball players in the U. S. Major League Baseball. These include Sammy Sosa, Albert Pujols, Pedro Martínez, Vladimir Guerrero, David Ortiz, Jose Reyes, Manny Ramirez, Robinson Canó and Luis Castillo. Alex Rodriguez was born in New York to parents that emigrated from the Dominican Republic.

Historically, the Dominican Republic has been linked to the MLB since Ozzie Virgil, Sr. became the first Dominican to play there. Other very notable players were Juan Marichal, Bartolo Colón, Felipe Alou, Rico Carty, George Bell, and Stan Javier, among many others.

The Dominican Republic also has its own baseball league which runs its season from October to January (called The Winter League by MLB), and includes six teams: Tigres del Licey (Licey's Tigers), Aguilas Cibaeñas (Cibao's Eagles), Gigantes del Cibao (Cibao's Giants), Toros Azucareros del Este (Eastern Sugar-Mill's Bulls), Estrellas Orientales (Oriental Stars), and Leones del Escogido (Escogido's Lions). Many MLB players and minor leaguers play in this six-team league during the off-season. As such, the Dominican winter league serves as an important "training ground" for MLB.

Olympic gold medalist and world champion over 400 m hurdles, Felix Sanchez, and NFL Football player Luis Castillo both hail from the Dominican Republic.[60] The 2007-2008 Caribbean Tournament(series) will be held In Santiago the Dominican Republic.

Holidays

Date Name
January 1New Year's Day
January 6Catholic day of the Epiphany(Move the holiday to the next Monday)
January 21Virgen de la AltagraciaPatroness Day (Catholic)
January 26Duarte's dayFounding Father (move the holiday to the next Monday)
February 27Independence DayNational Day
April 14Catholic Good Friday(Date for 2006 only)
May 1Labor Day(Date for 2006 only)
June 15Catholic Corpus Christi(Date for 2006 only)
August 16Restoration DayNational Day
September 24Virgen de las Mercedes Day(Catholic)
November 6Constitution DayNational Day
December 25Christmas DayBirth of Jesus Christ

Services and transportation



There are two transportation services in the Dominican Republic, one controlled by the government through the OTTT (Oficina Técnica de Transito Terrestre) and the OMSA (Oficina Metropolitana de Servicios de Autobuses), and other controlled by private business, among them, Federación Nacional de Transporte La Nueva Opción (FENATRANO) and the Confederacion Nacional de Transporte (CONATRA).

The government transportation system covers large routes in metropolitan areas, such as Santo Domingo and Santiago, for very inexpensive prices. In December 2006, the price was DOP$5.00(US$0.15), and air-conditioned buses was priced at DOP$10 (US$0.30). It should be noted that most OMSA buses are currently in very poor condition, and has been criticized for its incapability to assist the people's needs.[61]

FENATRANO and CONATRA offers their services with "Voladoras" (vans) or "Conchos" (cars), which have routes in most parts of the cities. These cars have roofs painted in yellow or green in order to identify them. The cars have scheduled days to work, depending on the color of the roof, and have been described as unsafe.[62].

Communications

The Dominican Republic has a well developed telecommunications infrastructure. With extensive mobile phone services and land-line services. The telecommunications regulator in the country is INDOTEL, Instituto Dominicano De Telecomunicaciones. The Dominican Republic offers cable internet and DSL in most parts of the country, and many ISPs provide 3G wireless internet service. Projects to extend Wi-Fi hot spots have been made in Santo Domingo. Numerous television channels are available, including Digital cable Telecable Nacional and Aster. Many other companies provide digital television services with channels from Latin America and the World.

As of December 2006, there are four major communication companies: CODETEL, Orange, Tricom and Centennial.

On February 1, 2007, Verizon changed the names of its wireless services to Claro and CODETEL. The company has been owned since 2006 by Carlos Slim Helú's América Móvil. Claro is now the official name of the Wireless Division and CODETEL (the original Compañia Dominicana de Teléfonos) is the updated name for the Verizon Dominicana fixed-line and broadband market.

Highways

Dominican Republic has five major highways. These 5 highways round the Countries and take you to any important town of the Country. The three Major Highways are Autopista Duarte, Autopista Del Este, and Autopista Del Sur which take you to the North, East, and western side of the Country. Dominican Republic lacks a good system of Routes interconnecting small towns and most of these routes are unpaved or are in bad conditions.

Electricity

Household and general electrical service is delivered at 110 volts alternating at 60 Hz; electrically powered items from the United States work with no modifications. The majority of the country has access to electricity. Some areas have sporadic outages that may last hours or days at a time. Tourist areas tend to have more reliable power as do business, travel, healthcare, and vital infrastructure. CDEEE (The National Private Dominican Electric Company) has said that they are currently 200 Circuits in the country which are provided permanent electricity due to the fact that they 85% of inhabitants of this neighborhood within this circuits are paying bills. They said more areas are going to be included in this new plan to end Power Outages in the Dominican Republic, Something that has never been seen after the 1960s...[63][64]

References

1. ^ Santo Domingo, city, Dominican Republic. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Bartleby.com (2005). Retrieved on 2007-06-03.
2. ^ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/dr.html#People CIA- The World Factbook -- Dominican Republic]. CIA. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
3. ^ Dominican Republic. Encarta Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved on 2007-06-06.
4. ^ Ramos, Ruth; Esther Ramos (2005). Dominican Republic History. Visiting the Dominican Republic.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
5. ^ {{cite web

History



Taínos

Christopher Columbus explored Hispaniola during his first voyage to America in 1492. The inhabitants whom Columbus encountered on his arrival in Hispaniola were Arawak-speaking Taíno people who had previously settled there. The Taíno lived in villages, headed by chiefs, and engaged principally in farming and fishing.
6. ^ Dominican Republic. Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-06-20.
7. ^ Guitar, Lynne. History of the Dominican Republic. Hispaniola.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
8. ^ Pons, Moya. The Dominican Republic, A National History, 147-149. 
9. ^ Sagas, Ernesto (October 14-15, 1994). An Apparent Contradiction? - Popular Perceptions of Haiti and the Foreign Policy of the Dominican Republic. Sixth Annual Conference of the Haitian Studies Association, Boston, MA. Webster University. Retrieved on 2007-06-06.
10. ^ Hutchinson, Sydney (2006). Dominican Republic - background. Merengue típico. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
11. ^ [3]
12. ^ Ulysses S. Grant. American Experience. Public Broadcasting Service (2006). Retrieved on 2007-06-06.
13. ^ Dominican Republic: Occupation by the United States, 1916-1924. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
14. ^ Rafael Trujillo: Killer File. Moreorless.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
15. ^ Forrest, Dave. The Dominican Dictator: Rafael Trujillo. James Logan High School. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
16. ^ [4]
17. ^ [5]
18. ^ [6]
19. ^ "Geography, Size, Climate and Location of theDominican Republic", The Dominican Republic Net, June 14th 2007. Retrieved on 2007-06-14. 
20. ^ "Geography, Size, Climate and Location of theDominican Republic", The Dominican Republic Net, June 14th 2007. Retrieved on 2007-06-14. 
21. ^ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/dr.html#People CIA- The World Factbook -- Dominican Republic]. CIA. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
22. ^ Pina, Diógenes (2007-01-26). Hell in 'God's Paradise'. Inter Press Service News Agency. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
23. ^ Robles, Francis (2007-03-13). Pollution sickens children in Dominican Republic. Miami Herald. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
24. ^ "Dominican Economy grows 9.1% slightly less than before", Diariolibre, May 14th 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-24. 
25. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/dr.html#People
26. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/dr.html#People
27. ^ [7]
28. ^ [8]
29. ^ Salaam, Kiini Ibura (2000). There's No Racism Here? - A Black Woman in the Dominican Republic. Eyeball Literary Magazine. ChickenBones: A Journal. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
30. ^ Fussell, Jim (November 15, 2001). Global Survey of Group Classification on National ID Cards. Group Classification on National ID Cards as a Factor in Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing. Genocide Watch. Retrieved on 2007-06-08.
31. ^ Zahka, Jeffrey (February 28, 2006). Anti-Haitian Bias Rooted in Dominican History. Worldpress.org. Retrieved on 2007-06-06.
32. ^ Torres-Saillant, Silvio (May 1998). The Tribulations of Blackness: Stages in Dominican Racial Identity. Latin American Perspectives, Issue 100. CUNY Dominican Studies Institute. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
33. ^ Robles, Frances (June 13, 2007). Black Denial. A Rising Voice: Afro-Latin Americans. The Miami Herald. Retrieved on 2007-06-15.
34. ^ Country Profile: Dominican Republic. Religious Intelligence.com (2006). Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
35. ^ Haggerty, Richard (1989). Dominican Republic - Religion. Dominican Republic: A Country Study. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2006-05-21.
36. ^ Juan Bosch - Government Officials. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
37. ^ [9]
38. ^ [10]
39. ^ "CCNY Jewish Studies Class to Visit Dominican Village that Provided Refuge to European Jews During World War II", City College of New York. Retrieved on 2007-05-22. 
40. ^ [11]
41. ^ Illegal people. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
42. ^ Hiltz, Wayne (1998). Slavery in paradise. Montreal Mirror. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
43. ^ Turnham, Steve (2006-12-18). Is sugar production modern slavery?. CNN. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
44. ^ [12]
45. ^ Grossman, Andrew (2004-10-11). Birthright citizenship as nationality of convenience. Proceedings of the Third Conference on Nationality. Council of Europe. Retrieved on 2007-06-03.
46. ^ Dominican Republic, Haiti, and the United States: Protect rights, reduce statelessness. Reuters (2007-01-19). Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
47. ^ Garcia, Michelle (2006). No Papers, No Rights. Amnesty International. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
48. ^ Haiti’s ambassador also denies Dominican “slavery?. Dominican Today (2007-05-25). Retrieved on 2007-06-03.
49. ^ Dominican Republic: A Life in Transit. Amnesty International (2007-03-21). Retrieved on 2007-06-03.
50. ^ [13]
51. ^ [14]
52. ^ Justice Department Memo, 1975; National Security Archive
53. ^ International Migration in the Dominican Republic
54. ^ Migration Trends in Six Latin American Countries
55. ^ Consular Information Sheet - Dominican Republic. Consular Information Sheet (2007-05-29). Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
56. ^ [15]
57. ^ Dominican Crime Statistics. Nationmaster. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
58. ^ Ribando, Claire (2005-03-05). Dominican Republic: Political and Economic Conditions and Relations with the United States.. CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
59. ^ O'Connell Davidson, Julia (December 1995). Child Prostitution and Sex Tourism - Dominican Republic. ECPAT. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
60. ^ Shanahan, Tom (2007-03-24). Sports at Lunch, Luis Castillo] and Felix Sanchez]. San Diego Hall of Champions. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
61. ^ [16]
62. ^ [17]
63. ^ "Power Outages Reduced in 2006 in some sectors", Diariolibre, Jan 19th 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-24. 
64. ^ "Power Outages Decreased in sectors in the 24 hrs service plan but increased in other sectors", Listin Diario Digital (Spanish), May 10th 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-24. 

See also

External links and sources

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Geographic locale
BaorucoBarahona Dajabn Distrito NacionalDuarteElas PiaEl SeiboEspaillatHato MayorIndependenciaLa AltagraciaLa RomanaLa Vega Mara Trinidad Snchez Monseor NouelMonte CristiMonte PlataPedernalesPeraviaPuerto PlataSalcedo Saman Snchez Ramrez San Cristbal San Jos de Ocoa San Juan San Pedro de Macors SantiagoSantiago RodrguezSanto DomingoValverde|}}">BaorucoBarahona Dajabn Distrito NacionalDuarteElas PiaEl SeiboEspaillatHato MayorIndependenciaLa AltagraciaLa RomanaLa Vega Mara Trinidad Snchez Monseor NouelMonte CristiMonte PlataPedernalesPeraviaPuerto PlataSalcedo Saman Snchez Ramrez San Cristbal San Jos de Ocoa San Juan San Pedro de Macors SantiagoSantiago RodrguezSanto DomingoValverde|BaorucoBarahona Dajabn Distrito NacionalDuarteElas PiaEl SeiboEspaillatHato MayorIndependenciaLa AltagraciaLa RomanaLa Vega Mara Trinidad Snchez Monseor NouelMonte CristiMonte PlataPedernalesPeraviaPuerto PlataSalcedo Saman Snchez Ramrez San Cristbal San Jos de Ocoa San Juan San Pedro de Macors SantiagoSantiago RodrguezSanto DomingoValverde" style="vertical-align:middle; padding-right:7px; width:0%;">}}}}}}}} BahamasBarbadosGrenadaJamaicaSt. Kitts and NevisSt. LuciaSt. Vincent and the Grenadines|}}">BahamasBarbadosGrenadaJamaicaSt. Kitts and NevisSt. LuciaSt. Vincent and the Grenadines|">
    [ e]
Countries and territories of the Caribbean
    [ e]
Sovereign states
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" style="vertical-align:middle; padding-right:7px; width:0%;">|}}">
    [ e]
Sovereign statesBahamas Barbados Grenada Jamaica St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines
" style="vertical-align:middle; padding-right:7px; width:0%;">|}}Commonwealth Realms" style="vertical-align:middle; padding-right:7px; width:0%;">BahamasBarbadosBelizeCanadaCosta RicaCubaDominica Dominican Republic El SalvadorGrenadaGuatemalaHaitiHondurasJamaicaMexicoNicaraguaPanamaSt. Kitts and NevisSt. LuciaSt. Vincent and the GrenadinesTrinidad and TobagoUnited States|MartiniqueSaint BarthelemySaint MartinSaint Pierre and Miquelon





St. Kitts and NevisSt. LuciaSt. Vincent and the Grenadines Antigua and BarbudaAruba (NL) BahamasBarbadosBelizeBritish Virgin Islands (UK) Cayman Islands (UK) Costa RicaCubaDominica Dominican Republic El SalvadorGrenadaGuadeloupe (FR) GuatemalaHaitiHondurasJamaicaMartinique (FR) MexicoMontserrat (UK)Netherlands Antilles (NL) NicaraguaPanamaPuerto Rico (US) St.-Barthlemy (FR) St. Kitts and NevisSt. LuciaSt. Martin (FR) St. Vincent and the GrenadinesTrinidad and TobagoTurks and Caicos Islands (UK) US Virgin Islands (US) |}}">Antigua and BarbudaAruba (NL) BahamasBarbadosBelizeBritish Virgin Islands (UK) Cayman Islands (UK) Costa RicaCubaDominica Dominican Republic El SalvadorGrenadaGuadeloupe (FR) GuatemalaHaitiHondurasJamaicaMartinique (FR) MexicoMontserrat (UK)Netherlands Antilles (NL) NicaraguaPanamaPuerto Rico (US) St.-Barthlemy (FR) St. Kitts and NevisSt. LuciaSt. Martin (FR) St. Vincent and the GrenadinesTrinidad and TobagoTurks and Caicos Islands (UK) US Virgin Islands (US) | BahamasBarbadosBelizeCanadaCosta RicaCubaDominica Dominican Republic El SalvadorGrenadaGuatemalaHaitiHondurasJamaicaMexicoNicaraguaPanamaSt. Kitts and NevisSt. LuciaSt. Vincent and the GrenadinesTrinidad and TobagoUnited States| MartiniqueSaint BarthelemySaint MartinSaint Pierre and Miquelon|background:white; }}}}">
    [ e]
Countries of North America
Several nations listed here straddle both North and South America or can also be considered Caribbean
NetherlandsAruba Netherlands Antilles
United KingdomAnguilla Bermuda British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Montserrat Turks and Caicos Islands
United States Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands
|Dependencies
DenmarkGreenland
FranceGuadeloupe Martinique Saint Barthelemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon
NetherlandsAruba Netherlands Antilles
United KingdomAnguilla Bermuda British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Montserrat Turks and Caicos Islands
United States Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands
}}
International membership
ArgentinaBahamasBarbadosBelizeBoliviaBrazilCanadaChileColombiaCosta RicaCubaDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEl SalvadorGrenadaGuatemalaGuyanaHaitiHondurasJamaicaMexicoNicaraguaPanamaParaguayPeruSt. LuciaSt. Vincent and the GrenadinesSt. Kitts and NevisSurinameTrinidad and TobagoUnited StatesUruguayVenezuela|}}">ArgentinaBahamasBarbadosBelizeBoliviaBrazilCanadaChileColombiaCosta RicaCubaDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEl SalvadorGrenadaGuatemalaGuyanaHaitiHondurasJamaicaMexicoNicaraguaPanamaParaguayPeruSt. LuciaSt. Vincent and the GrenadinesSt. Kitts and NevisSurinameTrinidad and TobagoUnited StatesUruguayVenezuela|BahamasBarbadosBelizeBoliviaBrazilCanadaChileColombiaCosta RicaCubaDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEl SalvadorGrenadaGuatemalaGuyanaHaitiHondurasJamaicaMexicoNicaraguaPanamaParaguayPeruSt. LuciaSt. Vincent and the GrenadinesSt. Kitts and NevisSurinameTrinidad and TobagoUnited StatesUruguayVenezuela" style="vertical-align:middle; padding-right:7px; width:0%;">}}}}}}}} AngolaArgentinaBoliviaBrazilCape VerdeChileColombiaCosta RicaCte d'IvoireCubaDominican RepublicEcuadorEl SalvadorFranceGuatemalaGuinea-BissauHaitiHoly SeeHondurasItalyMexicoMoldovaMonacoMozambiqueNicaraguaPanamaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPortugalRomaniaSan Marino So Tom and Prncipe SenegalSovereign Military Order of MaltaSpain Timor-Leste UruguayVenezuelaOfficial languages: CatalanFrenchItalianPortugueseRomanianSpanish|}}">AngolaArgentinaBoliviaBrazilCape VerdeChileColombiaCosta RicaCte d'IvoireCubaDominican RepublicEcuadorEl SalvadorFranceGuatemalaGuinea-BissauHaitiHoly SeeHondurasItalyMexicoMoldovaMonacoMozambiqueNicaraguaPanamaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPortugalRomaniaSan Marino So Tom and Prncipe SenegalSovereign Military Order of MaltaSpain Timor-Leste UruguayVenezuelaOfficial languages: CatalanFrenchItalianPortugueseRomanianSpanish| Bahamas1BarbadosBelizeDominicaGrenadaGuyanaHaiti1JamaicaMontserrat2St. Kitts and NevisSt. LuciaSt. Vincent and the GrenadinesSurinameTrinidad and Tobago| BermudaCayman IslandsBritish Virgin IslandsTurks and Caicos Islands|background:white; }}}}">Bahamas1BarbadosBelizeDominicaGrenadaGuyanaHaiti1JamaicaMontserrat2St. Kitts and NevisSt. LuciaSt. Vincent and the GrenadinesSurinameTrinidad and Tobago|}}}}}} BermudaCayman IslandsBritish Virgin IslandsTurks and Caicos Islands|}} Colombia Dominican Republic MexicoNetherlands AntillesPuerto RicoVenezuela|}}
Coat of arms elements
A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization.
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 Spanish, Castilian
}}} 
Writing system: Latin (Spanish variant)
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2:
ISO 639-3: —

Spanish (
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For the Radiohead song, see "The National Anthem".
A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a country's government as the official
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Quisqueyanos valientes ("Valiant Sons of Quisqueya") is the national anthem of the Dominican Republic. "Quisqueya" is a native American word for the island of Hispaniola.
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capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has a second meaning based on an alternative sense of "capital") is the center of government.
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Population: 9,049,595 (July 2005 est.)

Life expectancy
Female: 69.35 years
Male: 65.98 years
Average: 67.63 years

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (male 1,505,964; female 1,438,809)
15-64 years:
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Santo Domingo de Guzman
Downtown Santo Domingo
Nickname: La Capital
Motto: Ciudad Primada de América

Coordinates:
Country Dominican Republic
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An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. It is typically the language used in a nation's legislative bodies, though the law in many nations requires that government documents be produced in other
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 Spanish, Castilian
}}} 
Writing system: Latin (Spanish variant)
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2:
ISO 639-3: —

Spanish (
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A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. In English, the name of a people's language is often the same as this word, e.g., the "French" (language or people).
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government is a body that has the power to make and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group.[1]
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A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it.
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Dominican Republic

This article is part of the series:
Politics of the Dominican Republic


  • President
  • Leonel Fernndez
  • Vice President

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Dr. Leonel Antonio Fernández Reyna (born 26 December 1953) is a Dominican politician and the current president of the Dominican Republic. He was born in Santo Domingo but spent his childhood and formative years in New York City, United States.
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vice president is an officer in government or business who is next in rank below a president. The name comes from the Latin vice meaning in place of. In some countries, the vice president is called the deputy president.
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Independence is the self-government of a nation, country, or state by its residents and population, or some portion thereof, generally exercising sovereignty.

The term independence is used in contrast to subjugation,
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Motto
"L'Union Fait La Force"   (French)
"Unity makes Strength"
Anthem
La Dessalinienne
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February 27 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events


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18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1810s  1820s  1830s  - 1840s -  1850s  1860s  1870s
1841 1842 1843 - 1844 - 1845 1846 1847

:
Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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Water is a common chemical substance that is essential to all known forms of life.[1] In typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice, and a gaseous state, water vapor.
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In mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a fraction of 100 (per cent meaning "per hundred"). It is often denoted using the percent sign, "%". For example, 45 % (read as "forty-five percent") is equal to 45 / 100, or 0.45.
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population is the collection of people or organisms of a particular species living in a given geographic area or mortality, and migration, though the field encompasses many dimensions of population change including the family (marriage and divorce), public health, work and the
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list of countries ordered according to population. The list includes and ranks sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories. Figures are based on the most recent estimate or projection by the national census authority where available and generally rounded off.
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gross domestic product, or GDP, is one of the ways for measuring the size of its economy. The GDP of a country is defined as the total market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time (usually a calendar year).
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The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. It is the method of using the long-run equilibrium exchange rate of two currencies to equalize the currencies' purchasing power.
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There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). The GDP dollar estimates given on this page are derived from Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) calculations.
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Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head.

It is usually used in the field of statistics to indicate the average per person for any given concern, e.g. income, crime rate.
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This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for
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Human Development Index (HDI) is the measure of life expectancy, literacy, education, and standard of living for countries worldwide. It is a standard means of measuring well-being, especially child welfare.
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list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data.
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