Dominion of Canada

This page is currently protected from editing until disputes have been resolved.
Protection is not an endorsement of the current [ version] ([ protection log]). Please discuss changes on the talk page or request unprotection. You may use {{}} on the talk page to ask for an administrator to make an edit for you.
Enlarge picture
Flag of Canada
FlagCoat of arms
A Mari Usque Ad Mare  (Latin)
"From Sea to Sea"
"O Canada"
Royal anthem
"God Save the Queen"
Enlarge picture
Location of Canada
Largest cityToronto
Official languagesEnglish, French
Recognised regional languagesInuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, Dëne Sųłiné, Cree, Gwich’in, Hän, Inuvialuktun, Slavey, Tłįchǫ Yatiì
GovernmentParliamentary democracy (federal constitutional monarchy)
 - MonarchQueen Elizabeth II
 - Governor GeneralMichaëlle Jean
 - Prime MinisterStephen Harper
 - British North America ActJuly 1 1867 
 - Statute of WestminsterDecember 11 1931 
 - Canada ActApril 17 1982 
 - Water (%)8.92 (891,163 km²)
 -  estimate0[1] (36th)
 - 2006 census31,612,897 
GDP (PPP)2006 estimate
 - Total$1.165 trillion (11th)
 - Per capita$35,600 (10th)
GDP (nominal)2006 estimate
 - Total$1.089 trillion (8th)
 - Per capita$32,614 (16th)
HDI (2006) 0.950 (high) (6th)
CurrencyCanadian dollar ($) (CAD)
Time zone (UTC-3.5 to -8)
 - Summer (DST) (UTC-2.5 to -7)
Calling code+1

Canada (IPA: /ˈkænədə/) is a country occupying most of northern North America, extending from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It is the world's second largest country by total area,[2] and shares land borders with the United States to the south and northwest.

The lands have been inhabited for millennia by aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored and later settled the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada became a federal dominion.[3][4][5] A gradual process of independence from the United Kingdom moved Canada towards statehood and culminated in the Canada Act 1982, severing the last vestiges of dependence on the British parliament.

A federation now comprising ten provinces and three territories, Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual and multicultural country, with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. Technologically advanced and industrialized, Canada maintains a diversified economy that is heavily reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade—particularly with the United States, with which Canada has had a long and complex relationship.


Main article: Canada's name

The name Canada comes from a St. Lawrence Iroquoian word meaning "village" or "settlement." In 1535, inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct explorer Jacques Cartier toward the village of Stadacona.[6] Cartier used the word 'Canada' to refer to not only that village, but the entire area subject to Donnacona, Chief at Stadacona. By 1545, European books and maps began referring to this region as Canada.[7]

The French colony of Canada referred to the part of New France along the Saint Lawrence River and the northern shores of the Great Lakes. Later, it was split into two British colonies, called Upper Canada and Lower Canada until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, the name Canada was adopted for the entire country, and was frequently referred to as the Dominion of Canada until the 1950s. As Canada asserted its political autonomy from Britain, the federal government increasingly simply used Canada on legal state documents and treaties. The Canada Act 1982 refers only to "Canada" and, as such, it is currently the only legal (and bilingual) name. This was reflected in 1982 with the renaming of the national holiday from Dominion Day to Canada Day.


Enlarge picture
The fur trade was Canada's most important industry until the 1800s
Aboriginal and Inuit tradition holds that the First Peoples inhabited parts of Canada since the dawn of time. Archaeological studies support a human presence in northern Yukon from 26,500 years ago, and in southern Ontario from 9,500 years ago.[8][9] Europeans first arrived when the Vikings settled briefly at L'Anse aux Meadows circa AD 1000. The next Europeans to explore Canada's Atlantic coast included John Cabot in 1497 for England [10] and Jacques Cartier in 1534 for France[11]; seasonal Basque whalers and fishermen would subsequently exploit the region between the Grand Banks and Tadoussac for over a century [12].

French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived in 1603 and established the first permanent European settlements at Port Royal in 1605 and Quebec City in 1608. These would become respectively the capitals of Acadia and Canada. Among French colonists of New France, Canadiens extensively settled the St. Lawrence River valley, Acadians settled the present-day Maritimes, while French fur traders and Catholic missionaries explored the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay and the Mississippi watershed to Louisiana. The French and Iroquois Wars broke out over control of the fur trade.

The English established fishing outposts in Newfoundland around 1610 and colonized the Thirteen Colonies to the south. A series of four Intercolonial Wars erupted between 1689 and 1763. Mainland Nova Scotia came under British rule with the Treaty of Utrecht (1713); the Treaty of Paris (1763) ceded Canada and most of New France to Britain following the Seven Years' War.

The Royal Proclamation (1763) carved the Province of Quebec out of New France and annexed Cape Breton Island to Nova Scotia. It also restricted the language and religious rights of French Canadians. In 1769, St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island) became a separate colony. To avert conflict in Quebec, the Quebec Act of 1774 expanded Quebec's territory to the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley, and re-established the French language, Catholic faith, and French civil law in Quebec; it angered many residents of the Thirteen Colonies, helping to fuel the American Revolution.[13] The Treaty of Paris (1783) recognized American independence and ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. Approximately 50,000 United Empire Loyalists fled the United States to Canada.[14] New Brunswick was split from Nova Scotia as part of a reorganization Loyalist settlements in the Maritimes. To accommodate English-speaking Loyalists in Quebec, the Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the province into French-speaking Lower Canada and English-speaking Upper Canada, granting each their own elected Legislative Assembly.

Canada was a major front in the War of 1812 between the United States and British Empire. Its defence contributed to a sense of unity among British North Americans. Large-scale immigration to Canada began in 1815 from Britain and Ireland. The timber industry would also surpass the fur trade in importance in the early 1800s.

The desire for Responsible Government resulted in the aborted Rebellions of 1837. The Durham Report (1839) would subsequently recommend responsible government and the assimilation of French Canadians into British culture.[15] The Act of Union (1840) merged The Canadas into a United Province of Canada. French and English Canadians worked together in the Assembly to reinstate French rights. Responsible government was established for all British North American provinces by 1849.

The signing of the Oregon Treaty by Britain and the United States in 1846 ended the Oregon boundary dispute, extending the border westward along the 49th parallel, and paving the way for British colonies on Vancouver Island (1849) and in British Columbia (1858). Canada launched a series of western exploratory expeditions to claim Rupert's Land and the Arctic region. The Canadian population grew rapidly because of high birth rates; British immigration was offset by emigration to the United States, especially by French Canadians moving to New England.

Following several constitutional conferences, the British North America Act brought about Confederation creating "one Dominion under the name of Canada" on July 1, 1867 with four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick.[16] Canada assumed control of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to form the Northwest Territories, where Métis' grievances ignited the Red River Rebellion and the creation of the province of Manitoba in July 1870. British Columbia and Vancouver Island (which had united in 1866) and the colony of Prince Edward Island joined Confederation in 1871 and 1873, respectively.

Prime Minister John A. Macdonald's Conservative Party established a National Policy of tariffs to protect nascent Canadian manufacturing industries. To open the West, the government sponsored construction of three trans-continental railways (most notably the Canadian Pacific Railway), opened the prairies to settlement with the Dominion Lands Act, and established the North West Mounted Police to assert its authority over this territory. In 1898, after the Klondike Gold Rush in the Northwest Territories, the Canadian government decided to create the Yukon territory as a separate territory in the region to better control the situation. Under Liberal Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier, continental European immigrants settled the prairies, and Alberta and Saskatchewan became provinces in 1905.

Enlarge picture
Canadian soldiers would win the Battle of Vimy Ridge in 1917.
Canada automatically entered the First World War in 1914 with Britain's declaration of war, sending volunteers to the Western Front. The Conscription Crisis of 1917 erupted when conservative Prime Minister Robert Borden brought in compulsory military service over the objection of French-speaking Quebecers. In 1919, Canada joined the League of Nations independently of Britain; in 1931 the Statute of Westminster affirmed Canada's independence.

The Great Depression of 1929 brought economic hardship to all of Canada. In response, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in Alberta and Saskatchewan presaged a welfare state as pioneered by Tommy Douglas in the 1940s and 1950s. Canada declared war on Germany independently during World War II under Liberal Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, three days after Britain. The first Canadian Army units arrived in Britain in December 1939[17]. Canadian troops played important roles in the Battle of the Atlantic, the failed 1941 Dieppe Raid in France, the Allied invasion of Italy, the Battle of the Scheldt during the liberation of the Netherlands in 1944. The Canadian economy boomed as industry manufactured military materiel for Canada, Britain, China and the Soviet Union. Despite another Conscription Crisis in Quebec, Canada finished the war with one of the largest armed forces in the world.[17].

In 1949, Newfoundland joined Confederation as Canada's 10th province. Post-war prosperity and economic expansion ignited a baby boom and attracted immigration from war-ravaged European countries.[18]

Quebec underwent profound social and economic changes during the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s. Québécois nationalists began pressing for greater provincial autonomy. The separatist Parti Québécois first came to power in 1976. A referendum on sovereignty-association in 1980 was rejected by a solid majority of the population, and a second referendum in 1995 was rejected by a slimmer margin of just 50.6% to 49.4%.[19] In 1997, the Canadian Supreme Court ruled unilateral secession by a province to be unconstitutional; Quebec's sovereignty movement has continued nonetheless.<ref name="dickinson" />

Enlarge picture
The Queen and the Registrar General signing the Constitution Act, 1982.
Under successive Liberal governments of Lester B. Pearson and Pierre Trudeau, a new Canadian identity emerged. Canada adopted its current Maple Leaf Flag in 1965. In response to a more assertive French-speaking Quebec, the federal government became officially bilingual with the Official Languages Act of 1969. Non-discriminatory Immigration Acts were introduced in 1967 and 1976, and official multiculturalism in 1971; waves of non-European immigration have changed the face of the country. Social democratic programs such as Universal Health Care, the Canada Pension Plan, and Canada Student Loans were initiated in the 1960s and consolidated in the 1970s; provincial governments, particularly Quebec, fought these as incursions into their jurisdictions. Finally, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau pushed through the patriation of the constitution from Britain, enshrining a Charter of Rights and Freedoms based on individual rights in the Constitution Act of 1982.

Economic integration with the United States has increased significantly since World War II. The Canada-United States Automotive Agreement (or Auto Pact) in 1965 and the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement of 1987 were defining moments in integrating the two economies. Canadian nationalists continued to worry about their cultural autonomy as American television shows, movies and corporations became omnipresent.[20] However, Canadians take special pride in their system of universal health care and their commitment to multiculturalism.[21]

Government and politics

Canada is a constitutional monarchy with Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, as head of state;[22][23] the monarch of Canada also serves as head of state of fifteen other Commonwealth countries, putting Canada in a personal union relationship with those other states. The country is a parliamentary democracy with a federal system of parliamentary government and strong democratic traditions.

Canada's constitution consists of written text and unwritten traditions and conventions.[24] The Constitution Act, 1867 (formerly the British North America Act) established governance based on Parliamentary precedent "similar in principle to that of the United Kingdom" and divided powers between the federal and provincial governments. The Constitution Act, 1982 added a Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which guarantees basic rights and freedoms for Canadians that generally cannot be overridden by legislation of any level of government in Canada. However, a "notwithstanding clause", allows the federal parliament and the provincial legislatures to override certain sections of the Charter temporarily, for a period of five years.

Enlarge picture
The Chamber of the House of Commons.
The position of Prime Minister, Canada's head of government, belongs to the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the House of Commons. Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and Cabinet ministers, all of whom are sworn into the Queen's Privy Council for Canada to become Ministers of the Crown and responsible to the elected House of Commons. The Prime Minister and Cabinet are formally appointed by the Governor General (who is the Monarch's representative in Canada). However, the Prime Minister chooses the Cabinet, and by convention, the Governor General respects the Prime Minister's choices. Cabinet ministers are traditionally drawn from elected members of the Prime Minister's party in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister exercises vast political power, especially in the appointment of government officials and civil servants. Michaëlle Jean has served as Governor General since September 27, 2005, and Stephen Harper, leader of the Conservative Party, has been Prime Minister since February 6, 2006.

The federal parliament is made up of the Queen and two houses: an elected House of Commons and an appointed Senate. Each member in the House of Commons is elected by simple plurality in a "riding" or electoral district; general elections are called by the Governor General when the Prime Minister so advises. While there is no minimum term for a Parliament, a new election must be called within five years of the last general election. Members of the Senate, whose seats are apportioned on a regional basis, are chosen by the Prime Minister and formally appointed by the Governor General, and serve until age 75.

Canada's four major political parties are the Conservative Party of Canada, the Liberal Party of Canada, the New Democratic Party (NDP), and the Bloc Québécois. The current government is formed by the Conservative Party of Canada. While the Green Party of Canada and other smaller parties do not have current representation in Parliament, the list of historical parties with elected representation is substantial.


Main article: Law of Canada
Enlarge picture
The Supreme Court of Canada in Ottawa, west of Parliament Hill.

Canada's judiciary plays an important role in interpreting laws and has the power to strike down laws that violate the Constitution. The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court and final arbiter and is led by the Right Honourable Madam Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin, P.C. Its nine members are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister. All judges at the superior and appellate levels are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the prime minister and minister of justice, after consultation with non-governmental legal bodies. The federal cabinet appoints justices to superior courts at the provincial and territorial levels. Judicial posts at the lower provincial and territorial levels are filled by their respective governments (see Court system of Canada for more detail).

Common law prevails everywhere except in Quebec, where civil law predominates. Criminal law is solely a federal responsibility and is uniform throughout Canada. Law enforcement, including criminal courts, is a provincial responsibility, but in rural areas of all provinces except Ontario and Quebec, policing is contracted to the federal Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP).

Foreign relations and military

Enlarge picture
The Peacekeeping Monument in Ottawa.

Canada and the United States share the world's longest undefended border, co-operate on military campaigns and exercises, and are each other's largest trading partners. Canada has nevertheless maintained an independent foreign policy, most notably maintaining full relations with Cuba and declining participation in the Iraq War. Canada also maintains historic ties to the United Kingdom and France and to other former British and French colonies through Canada's membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and La Francophonie (French-Speaking Countries).

Canada currently employs a professional, volunteer military force of about 64,000 regular and 26,000 reserve personnel.[25] The unified Canadian Forces (CF) comprise the army, navy, and air force. Major CF equipment deployed includes 1,400 armoured fighting vehicles, 34 combat vessels, and 861 aircraft.[26]

Strong attachment to the British Empire and Commonwealth in English Canada led to major participation in British military efforts in the Second Boer War, the First World War, and the Second World War. Since then, Canada has been an advocate for multilateralism, making efforts to resolve global issues in collaboration with other nations.[27][28] Canada joined the United Nations in 1945 and became a founding member of NATO in 1949. During the Cold War, Canada was a major contributor to UN forces in the Korean War, and founded the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) in cooperation with the United States to defend against aerial attacks from the Soviet Union.

Canada has played a leading role in UN peacekeeping efforts. During the Suez Crisis of 1956, Lester B. Pearson eased tensions by proposing the inception of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force.[29] Canada has since served in 50 peacekeeping missions, including every UN peacekeeping effort until 1989[30] and has since maintained forces in international missions in the former Yugoslavia and elsewhere.

Canada joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990 and hosted the OAS General Assembly in Windsor in June 2000, and the third Summit of the Americas in Quebec City in April 2001. Canada seeks to expand its ties to Pacific Rim economies through membership in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC).

Enlarge picture
Canadian soldiers in Afghanistan.

Since 2001, Canada has had troops deployed in Afghanistan as part of the US stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-commanded International Security Assistance Force. Canada's Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) has participated in three major relief efforts in the past two years; the two-hundred member team has been deployed in relief operations after the December 2004 tsunami in South Asia, the Hurricane Katrina in September 2005 and the Kashmir earthquake in October 2005.

In February 2007, Canada, Italy, Britain, Norway, and Russia announced their funding commitments to launch a $1.5 billion project to help develop vaccines they said could save millions of lives in poor nations, and called on others to join them.[31] In August 2007, Canadian sovereignty in Arctic waters was challenged following a Russian expedition which planted a Russian flag at the seabed at the North Pole. Canada has considered that area to be sovereign territory since 1925.[32]

Provinces and territories

Enlarge picture
A geopolitical map of Canada, exhibiting its ten provinces and three territories.

Canada is a federation composed of ten provinces and three territories; in turn, these may be grouped into numerous regions. Western Canada consists of British Columbia and three Prairie provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba). Eastern Canada consists of Central Canada (Quebec and Ontario) and Atlantic Canada (comprised of the three Maritime provinces of New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia; and Newfoundland and Labrador). Three territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut) comprise Northern Canada. Provinces have a large degree of autonomy from the federal government, territories somewhat less. Each has its own provincial or territorial symbols.

The provinces are responsible for most of Canada's social programs (such as health care, education, and welfare) and together collect more revenue than the federal government, an almost unique structure among federations in the world. Using its spending powers, the federal government can initiate national policies in provincial areas, such as the Canada Health Act; the provinces can opt out of these, but rarely do so in practice. Equalization payments are made by the federal government to ensure that reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept between the richer and poorer provinces.

All provinces have unicameral, elected legislatures headed by a Premier selected in the same way as the Prime Minister of Canada. Each province also has a Lieutenant-Governor representing the Queen, analogous to the Governor General of Canada, appointed on the recommendation of the Prime Minister of Canada, though with increasing levels of consultation with provincial governments in recent years.

Geography and climate

Enlarge picture
A satellite composite image of Canada. Boreal forests prevail on the rocky Canadian Shield. Ice and tundra are prominent in the Arctic. Glaciers are visible in the Canadian Rockies and Coast Mountains. Flat and fertile Prairies facilitate agriculture. The Great Lakes feed the St. Lawrence River (in the southeast) where lowlands host much of Canada's population.

Canada occupies a major northern portion of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south and with the US state of Alaska to the northwest, stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the Arctic Ocean. By total area (including its waters), Canada is the second largest country in the world, after Russia, and largest on the continent. By land area it ranks fourth, after Russia, China, and the United States.[33] Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic between 60°W and 141°W longitude,[34] but this claim is not universally recognized. The northernmost settlement in Canada and in the world is Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island—latitude 82.5°N—just 817 kilometres (450 nautical miles) from the North Pole.[35] Canada has the longest coastline in the world: 243,000 kilometres.[36]

The population density, /km (/sq mi), is among the lowest in the world.[37] The most densely populated part of the country is the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor along the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River in the southeast.[38] To the north of this region is the broad Canadian Shield, an area of rock scoured clean by the last ice age, thinly soiled, rich in minerals, and dotted with lakes and rivers. Canada by far has more lakes than any other country and has a large amount of the world's freshwater.[39][40]

Enlarge picture
The Horseshoe Falls in Ontario is the largest component of Niagara Falls, one of the world's most voluminous waterfalls,[41] a major source of hydroelectric power, and a tourist destination.

In eastern Canada, the Saint Lawrence River widens into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the world's largest estuary, that contains the island of Newfoundland. South of the Gulf, the Canadian Maritimes protrude eastward along the Appalachian Mountain range from northern New England and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia are divided by the Bay of Fundy, which experiences the world's largest tidal variations. Ontario and Hudson Bay dominate central Canada. West of Ontario, the broad, flat Canadian Prairies spread toward the Rocky Mountains, which separate them from British Columbia.

In western Canada, the Mackenzie River flows from the Great Slave Lake to the Arctic Ocean. A tributary of a tributary of the Mackenzie is the South Nahanni River, which is home to Virginia Falls, a waterfall about twice as high as Niagara Falls.

Northern Canadian vegetation tapers from coniferous forests to tundra and finally to Arctic barrens in the far north. The northern Canadian mainland is ringed with a vast archipelago containing some of the world's largest islands.

Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary depending on the location. Winters can be harsh in many regions of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces which experience a continental climate, where daily average temperatures are near −15 °C (5 °F) but can drop below −40 °C (−40 °F) with severe wind chills.[42] In non-coastal regions, snow can cover the ground almost six months of the year, (more in the north). Coastal British Columbia is an exception and enjoys a temperate climate with a mild and rainy winter.

On the east and west coast average high temperatures are generally in the low 20s °C (70s °F), while between the coasts the average summer high temperature ranges from 25 to 30 °C (75 to 85 °F) with occasional extreme heat in some interior locations exceeding 40 °C (104 °F).[43][44] For a more complete description of climate across Canada see Environment Canada's Website.[45]


Canada is one of the world's wealthiest nations with a high per capita income, a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Group of Eight (G8). Canada is a free market economy with slightly more government intervention than the United States, but much less than most European nations.[46] Canada has traditionally had a lower per capita gross domestic product (GDP) than its southern neighbour (whereas wealth has been more equally divided), but higher than the large western European economies[47][48]. Since the early 1990's, the Canadian economy has been growing rapidly with low unemployment and large government surpluses on the federal level. Today Canada closely resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards.<ref name="cia_factbook" /> While as of October 2007, Canada's national unemployment rate of 5.9% is its lowest in 33 years. Provincial unemployment rates vary from a low of 3.6% in Alberta to a high of 14.6% in Newfoundland and Labrador.[49]

In the past century, the growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. As with other first world nations, the Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs about three quarters of Canadians.[50] However, Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of the primary sector, with the logging and oil industries being two of Canada's most important.

Canada is one of the few developed nations that is a net exporter of energy.<ref name="cia_factbook" /> Atlantic Canada has vast offshore deposits of natural gas and large oil and gas resources are centred in Alberta. The vast Athabasca Tar Sands give Canada the world's second largest reserves of oil behind Saudi Arabia.[51] In Quebec, British Columbia, Newfoundland & Labrador, Ontario and Manitoba, hydroelectric power is a cheap and clean source of renewable energy.

Canada is one of the world's most important suppliers of agricultural products, with the Canadian Prairies one of the most important suppliers of wheat, canola and other grains.[52] Canada is the world's largest producer of zinc and uranium and a world leader in many other natural resources such as gold, nickel, aluminum, and lead;[53] many, if not most, towns in the northern part of the country, where agriculture is difficult, exist because of a nearby mine or source of timber. Canada also has a sizeable manufacturing sector centred in southern Ontario and Quebec, with automobiles and aeronautics representing particularly important industries.

Canada is highly dependent on international trade, especially trade with the United States. The 1989 Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which included Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US Since 2001, Canada has successfully avoided economic recession and has maintained the best overall economic performance in the G8.[54] Since the mid 1990s, Canada's federal government has posted annual budgetary surpluses and has steadily paid down the national debt.


Enlarge picture
Toronto, Ontario skyline with the CN tower. Toronto is Canada's most populous metropolitan area with 5,113,149 people.[55][56]

Canada's 2006 census counted 31,612,897, an increase of 5.4% since 2001.[57] Population growth is from immigration and, to a lesser extent, natural growth. About three-quarters of Canada's population lives within 150 kilometres (90 mi) of the US border.[58] A similar proportion live in urban areas concentrated in the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor (notably: the Greater Golden Horseshoe anchored around Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa, and their environs), the BC Lower Mainland (Vancouver and environs), and the Calgary-Edmonton Corridor in Alberta.[59]

According to the 2001 census, it has 34 ethnic groups with at least one hundred thousand members each, with 83% of the total population claiming they are white.[60] The largest ethnic group is English (20.2%), followed by French (15.8%), Scottish (14.0%), Irish (12.9%), German (9.3%), Italian (4.3%), Chinese (3.7%), Ukrainian (3.6%), and First Nations (3.4%); 40% of respondents identified their ethnicity as "Canadian."[61] Canada's aboriginal population is growing almost twice as fast as the Canadian average. In 2001, 13.4% of the population belonged to non-aboriginal visible minorities.[62]

In 2001, 49% of the Vancouver population and 42.8% of Toronto's population were visible minorities. In March 2005, Statistics Canada projected that people of non-European origins will constitute a majority in both Toronto and Vancouver by 2012.[63] According to Statistics Canada's forecasts, the number of visible minorities in Canada is expected to double by 2017. Roughly one out of every five people in Canada could be a member of a visible minority by 2017.[64]

Canada has the highest per capita immigration rate in the world,[65] driven by economic policy and family reunification; Canada also accepts large numbers of refugees. Newcomers settle mostly in the major urban areas of Toronto, Vancouver and Montreal. By the 1990s and 2000s, almost all of Canada’s immigrants came from Asia.[66]

Canadians practice a wide variety of religions. According to 2001 census,[67] 77.1% of Canadians identified as being Christians; of this, Catholics make up the largest group (43.6% of Canadians). The largest Protestant denomination is the United Church of Canada; about 16.5% of Canadians declare no religious affiliation, and the remaining 6.3% were affiliated with religions other than Christianity, of which the largest is Islam numbering 1.9%, followed by Judaism: 1.1%.

Canadian provinces and territories are responsible for education. Each system is similar while reflecting regional history, culture and geography.[68] The mandatory school age ranges between 5–7 to 16–18 years,<ref name="education" /> contributing to an adult literacy rate that is 99%.<ref name="cia_factbook" /> Postsecondary education is also administered by provincial and territorial governments, who provide most of the funding; the federal government administers additional research grants, student loans and scholarships. In 2002, 43% of Canadians aged between 25 and 64 had post-secondary education; for those aged 25 to 34 the post-secondary attainment reaches 51%.[69]


Main article: Culture of Canada
Enlarge picture
A Kwakwaka'wakw totem pole and traditional "big house" in Victoria, BC.
Canadian culture has historically been influenced by British, French, and Aboriginal cultures and traditions. It has also been influenced by American culture because of its proximity and migration between the two countries. American media and entertainment are popular if not dominant in Canada; conversely, many Canadian cultural products and entertainers are successful in the US and worldwide.[70] Many cultural products are marketed toward a unified "North American" or global market.

The creation and preservation of distinctly Canadian culture are supported by federal government programs, laws and institutions such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the National Film Board of Canada (NFB), and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC).[71]

Canada is a geographically vast and ethnically diverse country. There are cultural variations and distinctions from province to province and region to region. Canadian culture has also been greatly influenced by immigration from all over the world. Many Canadians value multiculturalism, and see Canadian culture as being inherently multicultural.<ref name="bickerton" /> Multicultural heritage is enshrined in Section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

Enlarge picture
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police, seen here at Expo 67, are the federal and national police force of Canada and an international icon.
National symbols are influenced by natural, historical, and First Nations sources. Particularly, the use of the maple leaf as a Canadian symbol dates back to the early 18th century and is depicted on its current and previous flags, the penny, and on the coat of arms.[72] Other prominent symbols include the beaver, Canada goose, common loon, the Crown, and the RCMP.[72]

Canada's official national sports are ice hockey (winter) and lacrosse (summer).[73] Hockey is a national pastime and the most popular spectator sport in the country. It is the most popular sport Canadians play, with 1.65 million active participants in 2004.[74] Canada's six largest metropolitan areas - Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary, and Edmonton - have franchises in the National Hockey League (NHL), and there are more Canadian players in the league than from all other countries combined. After hockey, other popular spectator sports include curling and football; the latter is played professionally in the Canadian Football League (CFL). Golf, baseball, skiing, soccer, volleyball, and basketball are widely played at youth and amateur levels,[74] but professional leagues and franchises are not as widespread.

Canada has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, including the 1976 Summer Olympics, the 1988 Winter Olympics, and the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup. Canada will be the host country for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver and Whistler, British Columbia.[75][76]


Enlarge picture
The population of Montreal, Quebec is mainly French-speaking, with a significant English-speaking community.

Canada's two official languages are English and French. Official Bilingualism in Canada is law, defined in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Official Languages Act, and Official Language Regulations; it is applied by the Commissioner of Official Languages. English and French have equal status in federal courts, Parliament, and in all federal institutions. The public has the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French, and official language minorities are guaranteed their own schools in all provinces and territories.[77]

English and French are the mother tongues of 59.7% and 23.2% of the population respectively,[78] and the languages most spoken at home by 68.3% and 22.3% of the population respectively.[79] 98.5% of Canadians speak English or French (English only: 67.5%, French only: 13.3%, both: 17.7%).[80] English and French Official Language Communities, defined by First Official Language Spoken, constitute 73.0% and 23.6% of the population.[81]

Although 85% of French-speaking Canadians live in Quebec, there are substantial Francophone populations in Ontario, Alberta and southern Manitoba, with an Acadian population in the northern and southeastern parts of New Brunswick constituting 35% of that province's population as well as concentrations in Southwestern Nova Scotia and on Cape Breton Island. Ontario has the largest French population outside Quebec. The Charter of the French Language in Quebec makes French the official language in Quebec, and New Brunswick is the only province to have a statement of official bilingualism in the constitution.[82] Other provinces have no official language(s) as such, but French is used as a language of instruction, in courts, and other government services in addition to English. Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec allow for both English and French to be spoken in the provincial legislatures, and laws are enacted in both languages. In Ontario, French has some legal status but is not fully co-official. Several aboriginal languages have official status in Northwest Territories. Inuktitut is the majority language in Nunavut, and one of three official languages in the territory.

Non-official languages are important in Canada, with 5,202,245 people listing one as a first language.<ref name="statscan_language" /> Some significant non-official first languages include Chinese (853,745 first-language speakers), Italian (469,485), German (438,080), and Punjabi (271,220).<ref name="statscan_language" />

International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
United Nations Development ProgrammeHuman Development Index6 out of 177
A.T. Kearney/Foreign Policy MagazineGlobalization Index 20056 out of 111
IMD InternationalWorld Competitiveness Yearbook 200710 out of 60
The EconomistThe World in 2005 - Worldwide quality-of-life index, 200514 out of 111
Yale University/Columbia UniversityEnvironmental Sustainability Index, 2005 (pdf)6 out of 146
Reporters Without Borders World-widePress Freedom Index 200616 out of 168
Transparency InternationalCorruption Perceptions Index 200514 out of 159
Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street JournalIndex of Economic Freedom, 200710 out of 161
The EconomistGlobal Peace Index8 out of 121
Fund for Peace/ Failed States Index, 2007168 out of 177[83]

See also


1. ^ Statistics Canada. Canada's population estimates 2007-09-27. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
2. ^ Central Intelligence Agency (2006-05-16). [ The World Factbook: Canada]. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved on 2007-05-06.
3. ^ Territorial evolution (html/pdf). Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved on 2007-10-09. “In 1867, the colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick are united in a federal state, the Dominion of Canada....
4. ^ Canada: History (html/pdf). Country Profiles. Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved on 2007-10-09. “The British North America Act of 1867 brought together four British colonies ... in one federal Dominion under the name of Canada.
5. ^ Hillmer, Norman; W. David MacIntyre. Commonwealth (html). Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Project. Retrieved on 2007-10-09. “With CONFEDERATION in 1867, Canada became the first federation in the British Empire ...
6. ^ Trigger, Bruce G.; Pendergast, James F. (1978). "Saint-Lawrence Iroquoians", Handbook of North American Indians Volume 15. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, pp. 357–361. OCLC 58762737. 
7. ^ Jacques Cartier (1545). Relation originale de Jacques Cartier. Tross (1863 edition). Retrieved on 2007-02-23.
8. ^ Cinq-Mars, J. (2001). "On the significance of modified mammoth bones from eastern Beringia". The World of Elephants - International Congress, Rome. Retrieved on 2006-05-14. 
9. ^ Wright, J.V (2001-09-27). A History of the Native People of Canada: Early and Middle Archaic Complexes. Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation. Retrieved on 2006-05-14.
10. ^ "John Cabot =". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 
11. ^ "Cartier, Jacques". World book Encyclopedia. World Book, Inc.. ISBN 071660101X. Retrieved on 2007-09-01. 
12. ^ "Basques". The Canadian Encyclopedia. (2007). Historica. 
13. ^ Wars on Our Soil, earliest times to 1885. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
14. ^ Moore, Christopher (1994). The Loyalist: Revolution Exile Settlement. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 0-7710-6093-9. 
15. ^ David Mills. Durham Report. Historica Foundation of Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-18.
16. ^ Farthing, John (1957). Freedom Wears a Crown. Toronto: Kingswood House. ASIN B0007JC4G2. 
17. ^ Stacey, C.P. (1948). History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War. Queen's Printer. 
18. ^ Harold Troper (2000-03). History of Immigration to Toronto Since the Second World War: From Toronto 'the Good' to Toronto 'the World in a City'. Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Retrieved on 2006-05-19.
19. ^ Dickinson, John Alexander; Young, Brian (2003). A Short History of Quebec, 3rd edition, Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-2450-9. 
20. ^ Granatstein, J.L. (1997). Yankee Go Home: Canadians and Anti-Americanism. Toronto: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-638541-9. 
21. ^ Bickerton, James & Gagnon, Alain-G & Gagnon, Alain (Eds). (2004). Canadian Politics, 4th edition, Orchard Park, NY: Broadview Press. ISBN 1-55111-595-6. 
22. ^ Heritage Canada (2005-04-21). The Queen and Canada: 53 Years of Growing Together. Heritage Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-14.
23. ^ Governor General of Canada (2005-12-06). Role and Responsibilities of the Governor General. Governor General of Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-14.
24. ^ Department of Justice. Constitution Acts 1867 to 1982. Department of Justice, Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-14.
25. ^ Assistant Deputy Minister (Public Affairs). The National Defence family. Department of National Defence. Retrieved on 2006-05-14.
26. ^ Assistant Deputy Minister (Public Affairs). Canadian Forces Equipment. Department of National Defence. Retrieved on 2006-05-14.
27. ^ Government of Canada (2005). Canada's international policy statement : a role of pride and influence in the world. Ottawa: Government of Canada. ISBN 0-662-68608-X. 
28. ^ Cooper, Andrew Fenton; Higgot, Richard A.; Nossal, Kim R. (1993). Relocating Middle Powers: Australia and Canada in a Changing World Order. Vancouver: UBC Press. ISBN 0-7748-0450-5. 
29. ^ Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (2006). [ [1] Lester B. Pearson]. Retrieved on 2006-05-22.
30. ^ Morton, Desmond (1999). A Military History of Canada. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, pg. 258. ISBN 0-7710-6514-0. 
31. ^ "Rich Nations Launch Vaccine Pact". Reuters. February 10, 2007.
32. ^ Blomfield, Adrian (2007-08-03). Russia claims North Pole with Arctic flag stunt. Telegraph. Retrieved on 2007-09-10.
33. ^ World Factbook: Area Country Comparison Table
34. ^ National Resources Canada (2004-04-06). Territorial Evolution, 1927. National Resources Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-14.
35. ^ National Defence Canada (2006-08-15). Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert. National Defence Canada. Retrieved on 2006-10-03.
36. ^ Natural Resources Canada (2006-12-19). CoastWeb: Facts about Canada's coastline. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved on 2007-07-13.
37. ^ (2006-02). Countries of the World (by lowest population density). Retrieved on 2006-05-16.
38. ^ (2006). Quebec - Windsor Corridor Jet Train, Canada. Retrieved on 2006-10-03.
39. ^ The Atlas of Canada (2004-04-02). Drainage patterns. National Resources Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-18.
40. ^ Encarta (2006). Canada. Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved on 2006-06-12.
41. ^ Natural Resources Canada (2004-04-05). Significant Canadian Facts. Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-16.
42. ^ The Weather Network. Statistics, Regina SK. The Weather Network. Retrieved on 2006-05-18.
43. ^ The Weather Network. Statistics: Vancouver Int'l, BC. The Weather Network. Retrieved on 2006-05-18.
44. ^ The Weather Network. Statistics: Toronto Pearson Int'l. The Weather Network. Retrieved on 2006-05-18.
45. ^ Environment Canada (2004-02-25). Canadian Climate Normals or Averages 1971–2000. Environment Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-18.
46. ^ The Heritage Foundation (2006). Index of Economic Freedome. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved on 2006-10-03.
47. ^ Britton, John NH (1996). Canada and the Global Economy: The geography of Structural and Technological Change. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, pp. 6–7. ISBN 0-7735-0927-5. 
48. ^ Shaw, Daniel J (2002-10-24). Canada's Productivity and Standard of Living: Past, Present and Future. Government of Canada. Retrieved on 2006-10-02.
49. ^ Statistics Canada (2006-08-04). Latest release from Labour Force Survey. Statistics Canada. Retrieved on 2006-08-04.
50. ^ Employment by Industry. Statistics Canada (2007-01-04).
51. ^ Clarke, Tony; Campbell, Bruce; Laxer, Gordon (2006-03-10). US oil addiction could make us sick. Parkland Institute. Retrieved on 2006-05-18.
52. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia (2006). Agriculture and Food: Export markets. Historical Foundation of Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-18.
53. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia (2006). Canadian Mining. Historica Foundation of Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-18.
54. ^ Chretien, Jean (2003-12-04). Notes for an Address by Prime Minister Jean Chrétien on the Occasion of the Commonwealth Business Forum. Privy Council Office, Government of Canada. Retrieved on 2006-08-07.
55. ^ Statistics Canada (2007-03-13). 2006 Community Profiles. Statistics Canada. Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
56. ^ Statistics Canada (2007-03-13). 2006 Community Profiles. Statistics Canada. Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
57. ^ Beauchesne, Eric (2007-03-13). We are 31,612,897. National Post. Retrieved on 2007-03-13.
58. ^ Hillmer, Norman (2005-01-25). Canada World View - Issue 24. Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. Retrieved on 2006-10-03.
59. ^ Statistics Canada (2001). Urban-rural population as a proportion of total population, Canada, provinces, territories and health regions. Statistics Canada. Retrieved on 2006-10-03.
60. ^ Ethnic diversity of Canada
61. ^ Statistics Canada (2005-01-25). Population by selected ethnic origins, by provinces and territories. Statistics Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-14.
62. ^ Statistics Canada (2001-01-21). Visible minority population, by province and territory (2001 Census). Statistics Canada. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
63. ^ Canadian People - Learn About Canada's People
64. ^ Visible majority by 2017
65. ^ Benjamin Dolin and Margaret Young, Law and Government Division (2004-10-31). Canada's Immigration Program. Library of Parliament. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
66. ^ Inflow of foreign-born population by country of birth, by year
67. ^ Statistics Canada (2005-01-25). Population by religion, by provinces and territories. Statistics Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-14.
68. ^ Council of Ministers of Canada. General Overview of Education in Canada. Education@Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-22.
69. ^ Department of Finance (2005-11-14). Creating Opportunities for All Canadians. Department of Finance Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-22.
70. ^ Blackwell, John D. (2005). Culture High and Low. International Council for Canadian Studies World Wide Web Service. Retrieved on 2006-03-15.
71. ^ National Film Board of Canada (2005). Mandate of the National Film Board. Retrieved on 2006-03-15.
72. ^ Canadian Heritage (2002). Symbols of Canada. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Government Publishing. ISBN 0-660-18615-2. 
73. ^ National Sports of Canada Act (1994). Consolidated Statutes and Regulations. Department of Justice. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
74. ^ Conference Board of Canada (December 2004). Survey: Most Popular Sports, by Type of Participation, Adult Population. Strengthening Canada: The Socio-economic Benefits of Sport Participation in Canada—Report August 2005. Sport Canada. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
75. ^ The Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games (2006). Vancouver 2010. Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
76. ^ Canadian Soccer Association (2006). FIFA U-20 World Cup Canada 2007. Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
77. ^ Federal Legislation on Official Languages. Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages (2003-09-01).
78. ^ Statistics Canada (2005-01-27). Population by mother tongue, by province and territory. Statistics Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-14.
79. ^ First Official Language Spoken (7) and Sex (3) for Population, for Canada, Provinces, Territories and Census Metropolitan Areas 1 , 2001 Census - 20% Sample Data. Statistics Canada, 2001 Census of Population. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
80. ^ Statistics Canada (2005-01-27). Population by knowledge of official language, by province and territory. Statistics Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-14.
81. ^ Statistics Canada (2005-01-27). Population by knowledge of official language, by province and territory. Statistics Canada. Retrieved on 2006-05-14.
82. ^ Canadian Heritage. Canadian Heritage.
83. ^ larger number indicates sustainability


Origin and history of the name
  • Rayburn, Alan (2001). Naming Canada: Stories of Canadian Place Names, 2nd ed., Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-8293-9. 
  • Bothwell, Robert (1996). History of Canada Since 1867. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press. ISBN 0-87013-399-3. 
  • Bumsted, J. (2004). History of the Canadian Peoples. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-541688-0. 
  • Conrad, Margarat; Finkel, Alvin (2003). Canada: A National History. Toronto: Longman. ISBN 0-201-73060-X. 
  • Morton, Desmond (2001). A Short History of Canada, 6th ed., Toronto: M & S. ISBN 0-7710-6509-4. 
  • Lamb, W. Kaye (2006). "Canada". The Canadian Encyclopedia. 
  • Stewart, Gordon T. (1996). History of Canada Before 1867. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press. ISBN 0-87013-398-5. 
Government and law
  • Bickerton, James & Gagnon, Alain-G & Gagnon, Alain (Eds). (2004). Canadian Politics, 4th edition, Orchard Park, NY: Broadview Press. ISBN 1-55111-595-6. 
  • Brooks, Stephen (2000). Canadian Democracy : An Introduction, 3rd edition, Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press Canada. ISBN 0-19-541503-5. 
  • Forsey, Eugene A. (2005). How Canadians Govern Themselves, 6th ed., Ottawa: Canada. ISBN 0-662-39689-8. 
  • Dahlitz, Julie (2003). Secession and international law : conflict avoidance - regional appraisals. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press. ISBN 90-6704-142-4. 
Foreign relations and military
  • Cook, Tim (2005). "Quill and Canon: Writing the Great War in Canada". American Review of Canadian Studies 35 (3): 503+. 
  • Eayrs, James (1980). In Defence of Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-2345-2. 
  • Fox, Annette Baker (1996). Canada in World Affairs. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press. ISBN 0-87013-391-8. 
  • Appel, Molot Maureen (Spring-Fall 1990). "Where Do We, Should We, Or Can We Sit? A Review of the Canadian Foreign Policy Literature". International Journal of Canadian Studies. 
  • Morton, Desmond; Granatstein, J.L. (1989). Marching to Armageddon: Canadians and the Great War 1914–1919. Toronto: Lester & Orpen Dennys. ISBN 0-88619-209-9. 
  • Morton, Desmond (1999). A Military History of Canada. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 0-7710-6514-0. 
  • Morton, Desmond (1993). When Your Number's Up: The Canadian Soldier in the First World War. Toronto: Random House of Canada. ISBN 0-394-22288-1. 
  • Rochlin, James (1994). Discovering the Americas: The Evolution of Canadian Foreign Policy towards Latin America. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 0-7748-0476-9. 
Provinces and territories
  • Bumsted, J. M. (2004). History of the Canadian Peoples. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-541688-0. 

Geography and climate
  • Natural Resources Canada (2005). National Atlas of Canada. Ottawa: Information Canada. ISBN 0-7705-1198-8. 
  • Stanford, Quentin H. (ed.) (2003). Canadian Oxford World Atlas, 5th ed., Toronto: Oxford University Press (Canada). ISBN 0-19-541897-2. 
  • Central Intelligence Agency (2005). [ The World Factbook]. Washington, DC: National Foreign Assessment Center. ISSN 1553-8133. 
  • Wallace, Iain (2002). A Geography of the Canadian Economy. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-540773-3. 
  • Marr, William L. (1980). Canada: An Economic History. Toronto: Gage. ISBN 0-7715-5684-5. 
  • Innis, Mary Quayle (1943). An Economic History of Canada. Toronto: Ryerson Press. ASIN B0007JFHBQ. 
Demography and statistics
  • Statistics Canada (2001). Canada Year Book. Ottawa: Queen of Canada. ISBN 0-660-18360-9. 
  • Leacy, F. H. (ed.) (1983). Historical statistics of Canada. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 
  • Bickerton, James & Gagnon, Alain-G & Gagnon, Alain (Eds). (2004). Canadian Politics, 4th edition, Orchard Park, NY: Broadview Press. ISBN 1-55111-595-6. 
  • Blackwell, John D. (2005). Culture High and Low. International Council for Canadian Studies World Wide Web Service. Retrieved on 2006-03-15.
  • Canadian Heritage (2002). Symbols of Canada. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Government Publishing. ISBN 0-660-18615-2.  Similar publication online here.
  • National Film Board of Canada (2005). Mandate of the National Film Board. Retrieved on 2006-03-15.
  • Currie, Gordon (1968). 100 years of Canadian football: The dramatic history of football's first century in Canada, and the story of the Canadian Football League. Don Mills, ON: Pagurian Press. ASIN B0006CCK4G. 
  • Maxwell, Doug (2002). Canada Curls: The Illustrated History of Curling in Canada. North Vancouver, BC: Whitecap books. ISBN 1-55285-400-0. 
  • McFarlane, Brian (1997). Brian McFarlane's History of Hockey. Champaign, IL: Sports Publishing Inc. ISBN 1-57167-145-5. 
  • Resnick, Philip (2005). The European Roots Of Canadian Identity. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press. ISBN 1-55111-705-3. 
  • Ross, David & Hook, Richard (1988). The Royal Canadian Mounted Police 1873–1987. London: Osprey. ISBN 0-85045-834-X. 

External links

Crown corporations

Geographic locale

International membership, relationships and history
NAFTA is a trade agreement between USA, Canada, and Mexico.
Canada generally refers to the country in North America, derived from an St. Lawrence Iroquoians word meaning "village" or "settlement." When he first use the word "Canada", Jacques Cartier refers to the region of modern Québec city.
..... Click the link for more information.
Canadian usually means a person or thing from Canada. It can also refer to:


  • English Canadian
  • French Canadian
  • Native Canadian
  • Asian Canadian
  • German Canadian
  • Black Canadian
  • Italian Canadian
  • Latino Canadian

..... Click the link for more information.
Coat of arms elements
A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization.
..... Click the link for more information.
Official status
Official language of: Vatican City
Used for official purposes, but not spoken in everyday speech
Regulated by: Opus Fundatum Latinitas
Roman Catholic Church
Language codes
ISO 639-1: la
ISO 639-2: lat
..... Click the link for more information.
For the Radiohead song, see "The National Anthem".
A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a country's government as the official
..... Click the link for more information.
"O Canada" is the national anthem of Canada. Calixa Lavallée composed the music in 1880 as a patriotic song for that year's St. Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony. The first lyrics that were composed for the song were written in French by Sir Adolphe Basile Routhier in 1880 for the same
..... Click the link for more information.
A royal anthem is a patriotic song, much like a national anthem but specifically praising, or praying for, a monarch or royal dynasty. Such anthems are usually performed at public appearances by the monarch or during other events of royal importance.
..... Click the link for more information.
"God Save the Queen", or "God Save the King", is an anthem used in a number of Commonwealth realms; it currently serves as the national anthem of the United Kingdom, one of the two national anthems of New Zealand, and the royal anthem of Canada and of Australia.
..... Click the link for more information.
capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has a second meaning based on an alternative sense of "capital") is the center of government.
..... Click the link for more information.
City of Ottawa/Ville d'Ottawa

Coat of arms
Nickname: O-town- O.T - The 613
Motto: Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant
Location of the City of Ottawa in the Province of Ontario
..... Click the link for more information.
Population of Canada: 32,852,849 (April 2007 est.); 31,612,895 (2006 Census)

Provinces and territories

Sources: Statistics Canada [1][2]

Age structure

(2006 Census)

  Males Females

..... Click the link for more information.
City of Toronto

Coat of arms
Nickname: T.O., Hogtown, The Big Smoke, T-Dot, Toronto the Good
Motto: Diversity Our Strength
..... Click the link for more information.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. It is typically the language used in a nation's legislative bodies, though the law in many nations requires that government documents be produced in other
..... Click the link for more information.
This article may contain original research or unverified claims.
Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the for details.
This article has been tagged since September 2007.

..... Click the link for more information.
This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the for details.
This article has been tagged since September 2007.

..... Click the link for more information.
A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a state, be it a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. It is often mistaken for a dialect.

Definition in international law

..... Click the link for more information.
Inuktitut (Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ( fonts required ), literally "like the Inuit") is the name of the varieties of Inuit language spoken in Canada.
..... Click the link for more information.
Inuinnaqtun is an indigenous language of Canada. It is related very closely to Inuktitut, and many people believe that Inuinnaqtun is only a dialect of Inuktitut. The governments of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut recognise Inuinnaqtun as an official language in
..... Click the link for more information.
Dene Suline}}}
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: chp
ISO 639-3: chp Dene Suline (also Dëne Sųłiné, Dene Sųłiné, Chipewyan, Dene Suliné, Dëne Suliné,
..... Click the link for more information.
Cree is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 50,000 speakers across Canada, from Alberta to Labrador.

Dialect criteria

The Cree dialect continuum can be divided by many criteria.
..... Click the link for more information.
Hän language is a Native American endangered language spoken in only two places: Eagle, Alaska and Dawson City, Yukon. There are only a few fluent speakers left (perhaps about 15), all of them elderly.
..... Click the link for more information.
Inuvialuktun is a word routinely used to describe the varieties of the language of the Inuit spoken in the northern Northwest Territories by those Canadian Inuit who call themselves Inuvialuit.
..... Click the link for more information.
Slavey (also Slave) (pronounced: [slevi]) is an Athabaskan language spoken among the Slavey First Nations people of Canada.
..... Click the link for more information.
Dogrib (also Tłįchǫ Yatiì) is a language spoken by the First Nations Tłįchǫ people of the Canadian territory Northwest Territories.
..... Click the link for more information.
A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. In English, the name of a people's language is often the same as this word, e.g., the "French" (language or people).
..... Click the link for more information.
Population of Canada: 32,852,849 (April 2007 est.); 31,612,895 (2006 Census)

Provinces and territories

Sources: Statistics Canada [1][2]

Age structure

(2006 Census)

  Males Females

..... Click the link for more information.
government is a body that has the power to make and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group.[1]
..... Click the link for more information.
red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state.
..... Click the link for more information.
A federal constitutional monarchy is a federation of states with the executive under the authority of a constitutional monarch. A monarchy run as a federation of smaller units is generally governed by constitutional convention, unlike in a unitary state which can accommodate both
..... Click the link for more information.

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of

Executive (The Crown)
Sovereign (Queen Elizabeth II)
Governor General (Michalle Jean)
Queen's Privy Council for Canada
..... Click the link for more information.

This article is copied from an article on - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.