Duchy of Oldenburg

Oldenburg
1180 – 1918
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FlagCoat of arms
Anthem
Heil dir, o Oldenburg
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Location of Oldenburg
Oldenburg within the German Empire
CapitalOldenburg
GovernmentMonarchy Oldenburg, 1180]]|Not specified }}
History
 - Established1180
 - Part of Denmark1667-1773
 - Raised to Duchy1774
 - Raised to Grand Duchy1829
 - German Revolution1918


Oldenburg (Low German: Ollnborg) is a historical state in today's Germany named for its capital, Oldenburg. Oldenburg existed from 1180 until 1918 as a county, Duchy and Grand Duchy. It was located near the mouth of the River Weser. Its ruling family was the House of Oldenburg, which also acquired Denmark and Russia.

History

The first known count of Oldenburg is Elimar of Oldenburg (d. 1108). Elimar's descendants appear as vassals, although sometimes rebellious ones, of the dukes of Saxony; but they attained the dignity of princes of the empire when the emperor Frederick I dismembered the Saxon duchy in 1180. At this time the county of Delmenhorst formed part of the dominions of the counts of Oldenburg, but afterwards it was on several occasions separated from them to form an apanage for younger branches of the family. This was the case between 1262 and 1447, between 1463 and 1547, and between 1577 and 1617.

During the early part of the 13th century the counts carried on a series of wars with independent, or semi-independent, Frisian princes, who were usually heathens, to the north and west of the county, which resulted in a gradual expansion of the Oldenburgian territory. The free city of Bremen and the bishop of Münster were also frequently at war with the counts of Oldenburg.

In 1448, the successor of Count Dietrich (d. 1440), called Fortunatus, was his son Christian, who became king of Denmark as Christian I. Although far away from the Danish borders, Oldenburg was now a Danish exclave. The control over the town was left to the king's brothers, who established a short reign of tyranny.

In 1450 Christian became king of Norway and in 1457 king of Sweden; in 1460 he inherited the Duchy of Schleswig and the County of Holstein, an event of high importance for the future history of Oldenburg. In 1454 he handed over Oldenburg to his brother Gerhard (about 1430-1499), a wild prince, who was constantly at war with the bishop of Bremen and other neighbors. In 1483 Gerhard was compelled to abdicate in favor of his sons, and he died whilst on a pilgrimage in Spain.

Early in the 16th century Oldenburg was again enlarged at the expense of the Frisians. Protestantism was introduced into the county by Count Anton I (1505-1573), who also suppressed the monasteries; however, he remained loyal to Charles V during the war of the League of Schmalkalden, and was able thus to increase his territories, obtaining Delmenhorst in 1547. One of Anton's brothers, Count Christopher of Oldenburg (about 1506-1560), won some reputation as a soldier.

Anton's grandson, Anton Günther (1583-1667), who succeeded in 1603, considered himself the wisest prince who had yet ruled Oldenburg. Jever had been acquired before he became count, but in 1624 he added Knipphausen and Varel to his lands, with which in 1647 Delmenhorst was finally united. By his neutrality during the Thirty Years' War and by donating valuable horses to warlord Count of Tilly, Anton Günther secured for his dominions an immunity from the terrible devastations to which nearly all the other states of Germany were exposed. He also obtained from the emperor the right to levy tolls on vessels passing along the Weser, a lucrative grant which soon formed a material addition to his resources. In 1607 he erected a Renaissance castle.

After the death of Anton Günther, Oldenburg fell again under Danish authority. In 1773, Danish rule ended and, in 1777, the County of Oldenburg was raised to a duchy. By the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803, Oldenburg acquired the Oldenburger Münsterland. Between 1810 and 1814, Oldenburg was occupied by Napoleonic France and in 1829 became a grand duchy.

In 1871, Oldenburg joined the German Empire, and in 1918, it became a free state within the Weimar Republic.

List

References

External links



11st century - 12nd century - 13rd century
1150s  1160s  1170s  - 1180s -  1190s  1200s  1210s
1177 1178 1179 - 1180 - 1181 1182 1183

Politics
State leaders - Sovereign states
Birth and death categories
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19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1880s  1890s  1900s  - 1910s -  1920s  1930s  1940s
1915 1916 1917 - 1918 - 1919 1920 1921

Year 1918 (MCMXVIII
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The Free State of Oldenburg was a state of the Weimar Republic. It was established in 1918 following the abdication of the Grand Duke Frederick Augustus II following the German Revolution.
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For the Radiohead song, see "The National Anthem".
A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a country's government as the official
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Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. This is a list of such cities, sorted by country and then by date.
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Oldenburg

Coat of arms Location

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government is a body that has the power to make and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group.[1]
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List of forms of government
  • Anarchism
  • Aristocracy
  • Authoritarianism
  • Autocracy

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8th century - 9th century - 10th century
850s  860s  870s  - 880s -  890s  900s  910s
885 886 887 - 888 - 889 890 891

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Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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8th century - 9th century - 10th century
850s  860s  870s  - 880s -  890s  900s  910s
885 886 887 - 888 - 889 890 891

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Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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8th century - 9th century - 10th century
850s  860s  870s  - 880s -  890s  900s  910s
885 886 887 - 888 - 889 890 891

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Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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18th century - 19th century - 20th century
1790s  1800s  1810s  - 1820s -  1830s  1840s  1850s
1826 1827 1828 - 1829 - 1830 1831 1832

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Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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November Revolution covers a series of events at the end of World War One in Germany from November 1918 to March 1919 which led to the demise of the monarchy and the establishment of a parliamentary republic.
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Low German (also called Niederdeutsch, Plattdeutsch or Plattdüütsch) is a name for the regional language varieties of the West Germanic languages spoken mainly in Northern Germany where it is officially called Niederdeutsch
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Anthem
"Das Lied der Deutschen" (third stanza)
also called "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit"
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Oldenburg

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A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. Originally, in continental Europe, a county was the land under the jurisdiction of a count.
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A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. Historically, some duchies in Continental Europe were sovereign, while others (especially in France and Britain) were subordinate districts of a kingdom.
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A grand duchy is a territory whose head of state is a Grand Duke or Grand Duchess.

The only grand duchy in existence today is Luxembourg. It has been a grand duchy since 1815 when the Netherlands became an independent kingdom and Luxembourg was handed over to the King of the
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Origin Fulda and Werra
Mouth North Sea
Basin countries Germany
Length 452 km
Source elevation 117 m

Avg. discharge 327 m³/s
Basin area 46,306 km²

The Weser
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    The House of Oldenburg is a North German noble family and one of Europe's most influential Royal Houses.

    It first became royal when Count Christian I of Oldenburg became chosen King of Denmark in 1448, and has been the Danish Royal House ever since.
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    Motto
    none
    (Royal motto: Guds hjælp, Folkets kærlighed, Danmarks styrke
    "The Help of God, the Love of the People, the Strength of Denmark" )
    Anthem
    Der er et yndigt land  (national)
    Kong Christian
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    Anthem
    Hymn of the Russian Federation


    Capital
    (and largest city) Moscow

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    Duchy of Saxony was a late Early Middle Ages "Carolingian stem duchy" covering the greater part of Northern Germany. It covered the area of the modern German states of Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Schleswig-Holstein, Saxony-Anhalt.
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    Frederick I Barbarossa[1] (1122 – 10 June 1190) was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March, crowned King of Italy at Pavia in 1154, and finally crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155.
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    Delmenhorst

    Coat of arms Location

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    Frisians are an ethnic group of Germanic people in Fryslân, Groningen and parts of Germany. They inhabit an area known as Frisia. They are mostly tall, light-haired people[1] and they have a rich history and folklore.
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    Freie Hansestadt Bremen
    Free Hanseatic City of Bremen


    Flag Coat of arms

    Details
    Location

    Coordinates
    Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
    Administration
    Country
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    The Bishopric of Münster was an ecclesiastical principality in the Holy Roman Empire, located in the northern part of today's North Rhine-Westphalia and western Lower Saxony.
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    Derrick or Dietrich of Oldenburg, latin-based anglicization also Theoderic of Oldenburg [1] (c. 1398–February 14, 1440), nicknamed Theoderic the Lucky or the Fortunate
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