Duke Cunningham

For the American Football player, see Randall Cunningham.


Randy "Duke" Cunningham
Enlarge picture
Duke Cunningham


Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 50th district
Preceded by
Succeeded by

BornNovember 8 1941 (1941--) (age 67)
Los Angeles, California
Political partyRepublican



Randall Harold Cunningham (born December 8 1941), usually known as Randy or Duke, was a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from California's 50th Congressional District from 1991 to 2005.

Cunningham resigned from the House on November 28 2005 after pleading guilty to accepting at least $2.4 million in bribes and underreporting his income for 2004. He pleaded guilty to federal charges of conspiracy to commit bribery, mail fraud, wire fraud, and tax evasion. On March 3 2006, he received a sentence of eight years and four months in prison and an order to pay $1.8 million in restitution.

Prior to his political career, he was an officer in the United States Navy for 21 years during which time he became a flying ace for actions during the Vietnam War.

Family

Cunningham was born in Los Angeles to Randall and Lela Cunningham, who both moved there from Oklahoma during the Depression. His father was a truck driver for Union Oil at the time.[1] Around 1945, the family moved to Fresno, California where Cunningham's father purchased a gas station. In 1953, they moved again, this time to rural Shelbina, Missouri, where his parents purchased and managed the Cunningham Variety Store, a five-and-dime. In Shelbina, Cunningham loved to hunt pheasant and deer with his father.[2][3]

Cunningham married his first wife, the former Susan Albrecht, in 1965; they met in college and had one adopted son, Todd. Susan filed for divorce and a restraining order in January 1973 based on her claims of emotional abuse, and the divorce was granted nine months later.[4] Cunningham later stated that in that year, his life hit "rock-bottom."[5]

In 1973 he met Dan McKinnon, a publisher and son of former Congressman Clinton D. McKinnon. Dan McKinnon encouraged him to turn his life around, and Cunningham became a born-again Christian.[5][6]

Cunningham met his second wife, Nancy D. Jones, at the Miramar Officers' Club in San Diego and they were married February 16 1974.<ref name="Defendant_Sentencing_Memo" /> Nancy was born in 1952 and is also previously married. In 1976, she filed for divorce and a restraining order, stating that he "is a very aggressive spontaneously assaultive person, and I fear for my immediate physical safety and well being." Nancy later had a change of heart, so at her request, the court dismissed the divorce in January 1977. Nancy's declaration justifying the restraining order has been sealed by court order since 1990, when Duke first ran for congress. They have two daughters, April and Carrie. Dr. Nancy Cunningham is an educator for the Encinitas school district.<ref name="spotlight" />

Education and military service

Randall Harold Cunningham
AllegianceUSN
Years of service1966–1987
RankCommander
Battles/warsVietnam War
AwardsNavy Cross
Silver Star (2)
Purple Heart,
"Flying Ace" status
Other workU.S. Representative, California
Enlarge picture
June 1972 — Lieutenant Randall H. Cunningham (second from left) in a ceremony honoring him and Lieutenant (JG) William P. Driscoll (third from left), the Navy's only Vietnam War air "Aces".


Cunningham graduated from Shelbina High School in 1959. He attended Kirksville Teacher's College for one year before transferring to the University of Missouri. Cunningham graduated with a bachelor's in education and physical education in 1964; he obtained his MA in education the following year. He was hired as a physical education teacher and swimming coach at Hindsdale High School where he stayed for one year. Two members of his swim team competed in the 1968 Olympics, where they earned a gold and a silver medal. Cunningham joined the United States Navy in 1967.<ref name="Defendant_Sentencing_Memo" />

During his service, Cunningham and his Radar Intercept Officer "Irish" Driscoll became the only Navy aces in the Vietnam War, flying an F-4 Phantom from aboard aircraft carriers, and recording five confirmed kills. He was one of the early graduates of the Navy's TOPGUN school that taught dogfighting techniques to F-4 Phantom pilots and Radar Intercept Officers (RIOs).

It has been alleged that Cunningham downed a MiG-17 piloted by Vietnamese fighter ace Col. Nguyen Toon. Although "Col. Toon" was an American-manufactured myth, the Vietnamese pilots were superb dogfighters.[7] "Colonel Toon" (or whoever he really was) was not only skilled but unorthodox, as Cunningham found out, when the Navy pilot made an elementary tactical error engaging him. The resulting dogfight became extended. Cunningham climbed steeply, and the MiG pilot surprised Cunningham by climbing as well. Remembering his Top Gun training, Cunningham finally forced the MiG out ahead of him and destroyed it with an AIM-9 Sidewinder missile.

Cunningham was reportedly almost court-martialed while still in flight school for breaking into an office to compare his records with those of his colleagues — a charge denied by Cunningham, but supported by two of his superior officers at the time.[8] Regardless of the controversy, there was little doubt about Cunningham's piloting abilities. He was one of the most highly decorated U.S. Navy pilots in the Vietnam War, receiving the Navy Cross once, the Silver Star twice, the Air Medal 15 times, and the Purple Heart for wounds he received under enemy fire.

After returning from Vietnam in 1972, he became an instructor at the Navy's TOPGUN school for fighter pilots at Miramar Naval Air Station in San Diego. Cunningham says many of his real-life experiences in combat and as an instructor were depicted in the popular 1986 movie Top Gun,[9] although the movie's producer says it was not based on any specific aviator.[10]

Cunningham was a commentator on the History Channel program "Dogfights: The Greatest Air Battles", in the Vietnam War segment, where he discussed his experiences as a fighter pilot. The episode originally aired September 16, 2005.

In 1985 Cunningham earned an MBA from National University, a San Diego night school. He retired from the Navy in 1987 as a commander, settling in Del Mar, a suburb of San Diego. He became nationally known as a CNN commentator on naval aircraft in the run-up to the Persian Gulf War.

Political career

Enlarge picture
"Duke Cunningham at TOPGUN, 1992.
Cunningham's visibility as a CNN commentator led several Republican leaders to approach him about running in what was then the 44th District, one of four that divided San Diego. The district had been held for eight years by Democrat Jim Bates, and was considered the most Democratic district in the San Diego area. However, Bates was bogged down in a scandal involving charges of sexual harassment. Cunningham won the Republican nomination in 1990 and hammered Bates about the scandal, promising to be "a congressman we can be proud of." He won by just one percentage point, meaning that the San Diego area was represented entirely by Republicans for only the second time since the city was split into two districts after the 1960 census.

Congressional freshmen usually do not get much media attention outside of their home districts or states, but Cunningham's status as a Vietnam War hero made him an exception. Colleagues and the media admired him for his special knowledge of the armed forces: he played an important role in the debate on whether to use military force to make Iraq end its occupation of Kuwait.[10] Guy Vander Jagt of Michigan, longtime chairman of the National Republican Congressional Committee, said that Cunningham had considerable "drawing power" and was treated as a celebrity by his fellow Republicans.[11]

After the 1990 census, redistricting renumbered the 44th District as the 51st and created the 50th District, splitting off a significant portion of San Diego County. At the same time, the 51st added several areas of heavily Republican North San Diego County. The new district included the home of Bill Lowery, a fellow Republican who had represented most of the other side of San Diego for the past 12 years. They faced one another in the Republican primary. Despite Lowery's seniority, his involvement in the House banking scandal hurt him. Cunningham repeated his promise from 1990 to be "a congressman we can be proud of." As polls showed Cunningham with a substantial lead, Lowery dropped out of the primary race, effectively handing Cunningham the nomination. He breezed to victory in November.

Even though the district (renumbered as the 50th after the 2000 census) is not nearly as conservative as the other two Republican-held districts in the San Diego area, Cunningham was reelected six times with no less than 55 percent of the vote.

Cunningham was a member of the Appropriations and Intelligence committees, and chaired the House Intelligence Subcommittee on Human Intelligence Analysis and Counterintelligence during the 109th Congress. He was considered a leading Republican expert on national security issues. He was also a champion of education, using his position on the Appropriations Education Subcommittee to steer federal dollars to schools in San Diego. After surgery for prostate cancer in 1998, he became a champion of early testing for the disease.

Cunningham was known for making intemperate outbursts. For example:
  • Making a comment about gay Congressman Barney Frank, where he called the rectal examination for prostate cancer “just not natural, unless maybe you’re Barney Frank.”[12]
  • Displaying his middle finger to a constituent and “for emphasis, [shouting] the two-word meaning of his one-finger salute” during an argument over military spending.[13][10]
  • Suggesting that the Democratic House leadership should be “lined up and shot” — a call he'd previously made about Vietnam War protesters.[10]
  • Referring to gay soldiers as “homos” on the floor of the House of Representatives when he said backers of an environmental amendment were “…the same people that would...put homos in the military.”[10] Congresswoman Pat Schroeder asked if he would yield the floor, but Cunningham told her, “No, I will not." When Congressman Bernie Sanders, a self-described democratic socialist, attempted to object, Cunningham said, "Sit down, you socialist.”[14] He later apologized for his comments.[13]
  • Getting in a shoving match with Congressman Jim Moran over sending troops to Bosnia. After Cunningham fled, Moran found him crying in the cloakroom.[15]
In the Washingtonian feature "Best & Worst of Congress" of 2004, Cunningham was rated (along with four other House members) as "No Rocket Scientist" by a bipartisan survey of Congressional staff.[16]

While Cunningham said that “I cut my own rudder” on issues,<ref name="UT_ready" /> he had a very conservative voting record.[17] He was often compared by liberal interest groups to former congressman Bob Dornan, with some justification; both are ardent conservatives, both are former military pilots, and both have become infamous for outbursts against perceived enemies. In 1992, Cunningham, along with Dornan and fellow San Diego Republican Duncan Hunter, challenged the patriotism of then-Democratic presidential candidate Bill Clinton before a near-empty House chamber, but still viewed by C-Span viewers.[10]

In September 1996 Cunningham attacked President Clinton for appointing judges who were "soft on crime". "We must get tough on drug dealers," he said, adding that "those who peddle destruction on our children must pay dearly."[18] He favored stiff drug penalties and voted for the death penalty for major drug dealers.

Four months later, his son Todd was arrested for helping to transport 400 pounds (181 kg) of marijuana from Massachusetts to California. Todd Cunningham pleaded guilty to possession and conspiracy to sell marijuana.[19] At his son's sentencing hearing, Cunningham fought back tears as he begged the judge for leniency (Todd was sentenced to two and a half years in prison, in part because he tested positive for cocaine three times while on bail).[20] Cunningham's press secretary responded to accusations of double standards with: "The sentence Todd got had nothing to do with who Duke is. Duke has always been tough on drugs and remains tough on drugs."

Legislative achievements

Cunningham was the lead sponsor of the Shark Finning Prohibition Act, which banned the practice of shark finning in all US waters and pushed America to the lead on efforts to ban shark finning worldwide. For his efforts Cunningham was named as a "Conservation Hero" by the Audubon Society and the Ocean Wildlife Campaign.

Cunningham co-sponsored, along with Democrat John Murtha, the so-called "Flag Desecration Amendment", which would add the following sentence to the Constitution of the United States
"The Congress shall have power to prohibit the physical desecration of the Flag of the United States."
The proposed amendment has passed the House many times, but narrowly missed the requisite 2/3 majority vote for passage in the Senate.

Cunningham was the driving force behind the Law Enforcement Officer's Safety Act which was passed and signed into law by President George W. Bush in July of 2004. The law grants the authority to non-federal law enforcement officers from any jurisdiction to carry a firearm anywhere within the jurisdiction of the United States.

Scandals and corruption

Cunningham Scandal
A U.S. political scandal in which government contracts were obtained with bribes to Congressman Randy "Duke" Cunningham.

Guilty
  • Duke Cunningham (R-CA) (100 months)
  • Mitchell Wade
  • Thomas Kontogiannis

Indicted
Enlarge picture
A scan of a document submitted as evidence by the prosecution and included in their Feb. 2006 sentencing memorandum against Randy "Duke" Cunningham. Cunningham wrote the original document on his Congressional office stationery for the benefit of "co-conspirator #2" (defense contractor Mitchell Wade).

The document relates the amounts of monetary bribes to their rewards. The left column represents the amount (in millions) of government military contracts to be awarded, and the right column represents the bribes (in thousands of dollars) required to secure those contracts. The figures in the left column are cumulative; for example, $50,000 in bribes would mean the difference between $18 million and $19 million of awarded contracts.

"BT" is an abbreviation for "Buoy Toy" — making reference to a 42 foot Carver yacht that Cunningham purchased from a gay couple with whom he had previously negotiated a price of $140,000 (noted as "140" to the right). The boat purchase was financed by Mitchell Wade in exchange for $16 million in contracts. Once the boat came into his possession, Cunningham renamed it the "Duke-stir," joking, "I bought the boat, not the lifestyle."

Allegations

In June 2005 it was revealed that a defense contractor, Mitchell Wade, founder of the defense contracting firm MZM Inc. (since renamed Athena Innovative Solutions Inc.), had bought Cunningham's house in Del Mar for $1,675,000. A month later, Wade placed it back on the market where it remained unsold for 8 months until the price was reduced to $975,000. Cunningham was a member of the Defense Appropriations Subcommittee; soon after the purchase, Wade began to receive tens of millions of dollars worth of defense and intelligence contracts. Cunningham claimed the deal was legitimate, adding, "I feel very confident that I haven't done anything wrong."[21]

Later in June, it was further reported that Cunningham lived in a yacht aptly named the "Duke Stir" while he was in Washington. The yacht was owned by Wade; Cunningham paid only for maintenance.[22] An article in the San Diego Union Tribune newspaper, reported that Cunningham liked to invite women to his yacht. Two of them said that he would change into pajama bottoms and a turtleneck sweater to entertain them with chilled champagne by the light of his favorite lava lamp.[23] The Federal Bureau of Investigation launched an investigation regarding the real estate transaction. His home, MZM corporate offices, and Wade's home were all simultaneously raided by a number of federal agencies with warrants on July 1 2005.[24]

On July 14, Cunningham announced he would not run for a ninth term in 2006, saying that while he believed he'd be cleared of any wrongdoing, he could not defend himself and run for reelection at the same time. He admitted to displaying "poor judgment" when he sold his house to Wade.[25]

Besides Wade, the three other co-conspirators are: Brent Wilkes, founder of San Diego-based ADCS Inc.; New York businessman Thomas Kontogiannis (whom U.S. Coast Guard records show was involved in a questionable boat deal with Cunningham); and John T. Michael, Kontogiannis' nephew (the owner of a New York-based mortgage company Coastal Capital Corp. Property records show the company made $1.15 million in real estate loans to Cunningham, two of which were used in the purchase of his Rancho Santa Fe mansion. Court records show that Wade paid off one of those loans).[26]

In 1997, Cunningham pushed the Pentagon into buying a $20 million document-digitization system created by ADCS Inc., one of several defense companies owned by Wilkes. The Pentagon didn't want to buy the system. When it hadn't done so three years later, Cunningham angrily demanded the firing of Lou Kratz, an assistant undersecretary of defense he held responsible for the delays.[26] It later emerged that Wilkes reportedly gave Cunningham more than $630,000 in cash and favors.[27]

Cunningham was also criticized for selling merchandise on his personal website, such as a $595 buck knife featuring the official Congressional seal.[28] He failed to obtain permission to use the seal, which is a federal offense.[29]

On April 27 2006, months after his guilty plea, Scot J. Patrow, writing for the Wall Street Journal, reported that, in addition to all the favors, gifts, and money Cunningham received from defense contractors who wanted his help in obtaining contracts, Cunningham may have been provided with prostitutes, hotel rooms, and limousines.[30]

Duke Cunningham
Conviction(s)conspiracy to commit bribery, mail fraud, wire fraud, and tax evasion
Penalty100 months (8 years, 4 months) imprisonment
Statusimprisoned in Tucson
Occupationpolitician, former Congressman

Plea agreement

On November 28 2005, Cunningham pleaded guilty to tax evasion, conspiracy to commit bribery, mail fraud, and wire fraud in federal court in San Diego. Among the many bribes Cunningham admitted receiving were the house sale at an inflated price, the free use of the yacht, a used Rolls-Royce, antique furniture, Persian rugs, jewelry, and a $2,000 contribution for his daughter's college graduation party.[31] Cunningham's attorney, Mark Holscher, later said that the government's evidence was so overwhelming that he had no choice but to recommend a guilty plea.[32] With the plea bargain, Cunningham faced a maximum of 10 years; had he fought the charges, Cunningham risked spending the rest of his life in prison.

As part of his guilty plea, Cunningham agreed to forfeit his $2.55 million home in Rancho Santa Fe, which he bought with the proceeds of the sale of the Del Mar house. Cunningham initially tried to sell the Rancho Santa Fe house, but federal prosecutors moved to block the sale after finding evidence it was purchased with Wade's money. (Wade, with others, even paid off the balance Cunningham owed on the mortgage.) Cunningham will also forfeit more than $1.8 million in cash, antiques, rugs, and other items.

Also as part of the plea agreement, Cunningham agreed to help the government in its prosecution of others involved in the defense contractor bribery scandal. However, news reports have surfaced stating that Cunningham was not cooperating with investigators despite the agreement.[33] A week later, Cunningham, through his lawyer, announced that he was ready to cooperate.[34]

Resignation

Cunningham announced that he would resign from the House at a press conference just after entering his plea. He submitted his official resignation letter to the Clerk of the House and to California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger on December 6.[35]

Had Cunningham declined to resign, his role in Congress would have been very limited, as House rules do not allow members convicted of felonies to vote or participate in committee work pending an investigation by the Ethics Committee.[36] It is very likely that he would have been expelled from the House, as happened with Democrat James Traficant three years earlier. Under Republican caucus rules, he would have lost his subcommittee chairmanship.[37]

In marked contrast to his defiant stand earlier in the year, Cunningham was very contrite, sullen and overcome by emotion when he read his prepared statement announcing that he was stepping down:

"When I announced several months ago that I would not seek re-election, I publicly declared my innocence because I was not strong enough to face the truth. So, I misled my family, staff, friends, colleagues, the public — even myself. For all of this, I am deeply sorry. The truth is — I broke the law, concealed my conduct, and disgraced my high office. I know that I will forfeit my freedom, my reputation, my worldly possessions, and most importantly, the trust of my friends and family. ... In my life, I have known great joy and great sorrow. And now I know great shame. I learned in Viet Nam that the true measure of a man is how he responds to adversity. I cannot undo what I have done. But I can atone. I am now almost 65 years old and, as I enter the twilight of my life, I intend to use the remaining time that God grants me to make amends."[38]


Despite his guilty plea, Cunningham may still receive a pension for his 21 years of service in the Navy and almost 15 years in Congress. While federal law only allows the government to strip pensions from federal employees guilty of treason, perjury or trading secrets with the enemy, San Diego benefits expert Robert Goldstein told the San Diego Union-Tribune that it is possible the government could still try to take the money from Cunningham.[39]

Reactions

Local

Darrell Issa, a Republican who represents the neighboring 49th District, said after Cunningham's plea that he'd been waiting for Cunningham to explain his behavior "in a way that made sense to us" and that Cunningham's behavior "fell below the standard the public demands of its elected representatives."[40] Duncan Hunter, the other Republican who represents the San Diego area, said on November 30 that he and Cunningham spent the rest of November 28 in prayer and that Cunningham wanted to "serve those who are suffering (and) to begin his long road of atonement" for his crimes.[41] Many of Cunningham's staffers were stunned at the extent of their boss's crimes.[42]

Union-Tribune columnist George Condon suggested in a December 1 column that Cunningham's actions "may have put ... troops at greater risk by judging contracts more for what they would do for him than for the military."[42]

Francine Busby, Cunningham's Democratic challenger in 2004 and the Democratic candidate for the 50th District in the runoff election to fill Cunningham's vacancy, called November 28th "a sad day for the people" and called for support for her proposed ethics reform bill, the "Clean House Act", saying that "our government in Washington is broken."[43]

National

In an editorial on November 29, the Washington Post called the Cunningham affair "the most brazen bribery conspiracy in modern congressional history."[44] Later that day, President George W. Bush called Cunningham's actions "outrageous" at a press briefing in El Paso. He also said that Cunningham should "pay a serious price" for his crimes.[44] House Speaker Dennis Hastert said in a December 6 statement that Cunningham was a "war hero,"; but that he broke "the public trust he has built through his military and congressional career."[45] Several of Cunningham's former colleagues have donated to charity campaign contributions he had given them.[46]

On February 9 2006, Senator John Kerry introduced a bill to prevent lawmakers who have been convicted of official misconduct from collecting taxpayer funded pensions. Officially the bill is named the "Federal Pension Forfeiture Act", but unofficially it has been dubbed the "Duke Cunningham Act."[47][48]

Sentencing

On March 3 2006, U.S. District Judge Larry A. Burns sentenced Cunningham to 100 months (eight years and four months) in prison.[49] Federal prosecutors had pushed for the maximum sentence of ten years, but Cunningham's defense lawyers said that at 64 years old and with prostate cancer, Cunningham would likely die in prison if he received the full sentence.[50][51] Judge Burns cited his military service in Vietnam as the reason the full ten years was not imposed. Prosecutors announced that they were satisfied with the sentence, which is the longest jail term ever given to a former Congressman.[52]

On the day of sentencing, Cunningham was 90 pounds (41 kg) lighter than when allegations first surfaced 9 months earlier. After receiving his sentence, Cunningham made a request to see his 91-year-old mother one last time before going to prison. "I made a very wrong turn. I rationalized decisions I knew were wrong. I did that, sir," Cunningham said. The request was denied, and Burns remanded him immediately upon rendering the sentence.[53]

Cunningham is currently incarcerated at the United States Penitentiary at Tucson, presumably in the minimum security satellite camp, with inmate register number 94405-198. He previously served time on his sentence at the Butner Federal Correctional Complex in Butner, North Carolina.[54] His projected release date is June 4 2013.

Aftermath

2005

  • Almost as soon as Cunningham pled guilty, Intelligence Committee chairman Pete Hoekstra of Michigan (who represents Guy Vander Jagt's former district) announced his panel would investigate whether Cunningham used his post on that committee to steer contracts to favored companies. Hoekstra said that Cunningham "no longer gets the benefit of the doubt" due to his admission to "very, very serious" crimes. "We need to look at worst-case scenarios," he added. He also shut off Cunningham's access to classified information. While Hoekstra doesn't believe that Cunningham improperly influenced the Intelligence Committee's work, a committee spokesman said that he wanted to make sure its work stayed on the level.[55]
  • Bill Young of Florida, chairman of the Defense Appropriations Subcommittee and former chairman of the full Appropriations Committee, said that he planned to review Cunningham's requests for defense projects. While he felt most of the requests were legitimate and supported by the Pentagon, he said that he needed to be "doubly sure that anything shaky is not going to stay in."[56]
  • On December 14, prosecutors in former House Majority Leader Tom DeLay's money laundering trial revealed that they are looking into ties between Wilkes and DeLay. One of Wilkes' companies donated $15,000 to DeLay's PAC, Texans for a Republican Majority. Wilkes also hired a consulting firm that employed DeLay's wife, Christine.[57]

2006

  • On January 6, Time reported that Cunningham cooperated with law enforcement by wearing a concealed recording device (a "wire") while meeting with associates prior to his guilty plea. It is not known whom he met with while wired, but there is speculation Cunningham's misdeeds were not isolated instances and his case could reveal a larger web of corruption.[58]
  • On February 24, Mitchell Wade pleaded guilty to paying Cunningham more than $1 million in bribes in exchange for millions more in government contracts.[59]
  • In March, it was revealed that CIA officials have opened an investigation into the CIA's No.3 official, Kyle Foggo, and his relationship with Wilkes, "one of his closest friends," according to the article. Foggo has said that all of the contracts he oversaw were properly awarded and administered.[60]
  • A special election to fill the vacancy left by Cunningham took place on April 11. No candidate obtained the majority necessary to win outright, so a runoff election was scheduled for June 6 between Democrat Busby and Republican Brian Bilbray, who had represented the nearby 49th District from 1995 to 2001.
  • On April 17, the staffs of the The San Diego Union-Tribune and Copley News Service were awarded the 2006 Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting for their investigative work in uncovering Cunningham's crimes.[61]
  • On May 12, FBI officials raided the Vienna, Virginia home of former CIA official Kyle "Dusty" Foggo in connection with the scandal.[62]
  • On June 6, Republican Brian Bilbray won the runoff election for Cunningham's seat, narrowly defeating Democrat Francine Busby.[63]
  • On November 7, Bilbray beat Busby again and retained his seat in the House.[64]

2007

External links

Documents

References

1. ^ California Birth certificate 41-118503
2. ^ Pae, Peter, Tony Perry and Richard Simon. "Hard-charging Cunningham fell from a lofty perch", Los Angeles Times, 2005-12-09. Retrieved on 2007-09-24. 
3. ^ Defendant Cunningham's Sentencing Memorandum, Case 05-CR-2137 (LAB), February 2005"
4. ^ Dodge, Dani. "Standing in an unwelcome spotlight", The San Diego Union-Tribune, 2006-02-12, p. A-1. Retrieved on 2006-02-19. 
5. ^ Dodge, Dani. "In disgrace, but not all alone; On ranch, old friend again offers shelter from storm", The San Diego Union-Tribune, 2006-02-12, p. B-1. Retrieved on 2006-02-20. 
6. ^ Cunningham, Randy; Jeffrey L. Ethell [1983-12-01] (1989-03-01). Fox Two: The Story of America's First Ace in Vietnam. Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-35458-9. 
7. ^ Hall, George (1987). Top Gun: The Navy's Fighter Weapons School. Presido Press. 
8. ^ Braun, Gerry. "Ex-Navy ace always ready for a fight", The San Diego Union-Tribune, 2005-07-15, p. A-9. Retrieved on 2005-12-04. 
9. ^ Office of Congressman Randy "Duke" Cunningham (2000). Biography of Congressman Randy "Duke" Cunningham. Retrieved on 2005-03-08.
10. ^ Roth, Alex. "Shooting down Cunningham's legend", The San Diego Union-Tribune, 2006-01-15, p. A-1. Retrieved on 2006-02-19. 
11. ^ Pae, Peter; Perry, Tony; and Simon, Richard. "Cunningham's Fall From Grace, Power", Los Angeles Times, 2005-12-05, p. A-1. Retrieved on 2006-12-05. 
12. ^ Chibbaro Jr., Lou. "Birch denies speech outed anti-gay congressman", Washington Blade, 2003-07-04. Retrieved on 2005-12-07. 
13. ^ Wilkie, Dana. "Cunningham account of vulgar gesture disputed", The San Diego Union-Tribune, 1998-09-09. Retrieved on 2006-04-24. 
14. ^ [1] Congressional Record, House of Representatives, 1995-05-11
15. ^ Romano, Lois. "Cunningham Friends Baffled By His Blunder Into Bribery; Navy Ace-Turned-Congressman Didn't Act Like Big Spender", Washington Post, 2005-12-04, p. A06. Retrieved on 2005-12-18. 
16. ^ "Best & Worst of Congress", The Washingtonian, 2004-09. Retrieved on 2005-05-03. 
17. ^ On The Issues. Duke Cunningham on the Issues. Retrieved on 2006-02-19.
18. ^ Cunningham, Randy "Duke". "A call to arms against youth drug abuse", The San Diego Union-Tribune, 1996-09-24, pp. B-6–7. Retrieved on 2006-05-07. 
19. ^ In disgrace, but not all alone, 2006-2-20, The San Diego Union-Tribune, Retrieved 2007-7-1
20. ^ Murphy, Bill. "Son of lawmaker sentenced to prison", The San Diego Union-Tribune, 1998-11-18, pp. B-1,B-10. 
21. ^ Stern, Marcus. "Lawmaker's home sale questioned", The San Diego Union-Tribune, 2005-06-12, p. A-1. Retrieved on 2005-06-13. 
22. ^ Bennett, William Finn. "Yacht 'Duke Stir' owned by defense contractor docked at Cunningham's slip", North County Times, 2005-06-16. Retrieved on 2005-06-16. 
23. ^ Condon Jr., George E.. "Congressman's betrayal of troops called greatest sin", The San Diego Union-Tribune, 2005-12-01, p. A-21. Retrieved on 2005-12-03. 
24. ^ Walker, Mark. "Feds raid Cunningham home, MZM offices and boat", North County Times, 2005-07-01. Retrieved on 2005-07-05. 
25. ^ Bennett, William Finn. "Cunningham says he will step down at end of term", North County Times, 2005-07-14. Retrieved on 2006-04-27. 
26. ^ Bennett, William Finn. "What's next in Cunningham bribery saga?", North County Times, 2006-03-06. Retrieved on 2006-03-07. 
27. ^ Calbreath, Dean and Kammer, Jerry. "Contractor 'knew how to grease the wheels'", The San Diego Union-Tribune, 2005-12-04, p. A-1. Retrieved on 2006-04-23. 
28. ^ Walker, Mark. "Use of congressional seal on knife questioned", North County Times, 2005-06-29. Retrieved on 2006-04-23. 
29. ^ 18 U.S.C.  713e: Use of likenesses of the great seal of the United States, the seals of the President and Vice President, the seal of the United States Senate, the seal of the United States House of Representatives, and the seal of the United States Congress
30. ^ Patrow, Scot J.. "Prosecutors May Widen Congressional-Bribe Case; Cunningham Is Suspected Of Asking for Prostitutes; Were Others Involved?", The Wall Street Journal, 2006-04-27, p. A-6. Retrieved on 2006-05-01. 
31. ^ Plea Agreement by Randy "Duke" Cunningham and the U.S. Attorney (2005). Retrieved on 2005-12-05.
32. ^ Soto, Onell R.. "'Overwhelming case' forced Cunningham to accept deal", The San Diego Union-Tribune, 2005-11-30, p. A-1. Retrieved on 2005-12-05. 
33. ^ "'Despite Plea Bargain, Cunningham Not Cooperating: Gwin Troubled By Lack Of Assistance'", 10 News, 2006-05-10. Retrieved on 2006-05-11. 
34. ^ Walker, Mark. "'Another probe in Cunningham case'", North County Times, 2006-05-18. Retrieved on 2006-05-19. 
35. ^ Cantlupe, Joe. "Cunningham resignation formally submitted to House", The San Diego Union-Tribune, 2005-12-06. Retrieved on 2006-02-19. 
36. ^ The United States Congress (2005). Rule XXIII — Code of Official Conduct (10). Rules of the 109th Congress. Retrieved on 2006-02-19.
37. ^ US Government Printing Office (2003). Chap. 25, Sec. 26: Deprivation of Status; Caucus Rules (par. 3). A Guide to the Rules, Precedents and Procedures of the House. Retrieved on 2006-02-19.
38. ^ Cunningham, Randy "Duke" (2005). Statement by Randy "Duke" Cunningham. O'Melveny & Myers LLP. Retrieved on 2006-02-19.
39. ^ Soto, Onell R.. "Experts say Cunningham likely to get retirement pay", The San Diego Union-Tribune, 2005-12-01, p. A-20. Retrieved on 2005-12-05. 
40. ^ Issa, Darrell (2005). Rep. Issa Statement On Cunningham Guilty Plea. Retrieved on 2006-02-19.
41. ^ Cantlupe, Joe. "Hunter consoling his former colleague", The San Diego Union-Tribune, 2005-11-30. Retrieved on 2006-02-19. 
42. ^ Cantlupe, Joe. "Cunningham staff devastated at extent of corruption; Aides 'all shocked about how deep this went'", The San Diego Union-Tribune, 2005-12-30, p. A-16. Retrieved on 2006-02-19. 
43. ^ Busby, Francine (2005). Francine Busby calls Cunningham Resignation "Sad day for the people" (PDF). Retrieved on 2006-02-19.
44. ^ "Brazen Conspiracy", Washington Post, 2005-11-29, p. A-20. Retrieved on 2005-11-30. 
45. ^ Walker, Mark. "House speaker says Cunningham faces 'serious consequences'", North County Times, 2005-12-06. Retrieved on 2006-02-19. 
46. ^ Wilkie, Dana. "Lawmakers shed cash tied to two contractors", The San Diego Union-Tribune, 2005-12-08, p. A-1. Retrieved on 2006-02-19. 
47. ^ "Loss of Federal Pension Likely a Strong Deterrent", Common Cause, 2006-02-01. Retrieved on 2006-02-09. 
48. ^ Klein, Rick. "Kerry bill to target legislators convicted of misconduct", The Boston Globe, 2006-02-09, p. A-8. Retrieved on 2006-02-09. 
49. ^ Perry, Tony. "Cunningham Receives Eight-Year Sentence", Los Angeles Times, 2006-03-03. Retrieved on 2006-03-03. 
50. ^ Walker, Mark. "Feds seek 10-year prison term for Cunningham", North County Times, 2006-02-18. Retrieved on 2006-02-19. 
51. ^ Walker, Mark. "Defense: 'Duke' may die in prison", North County Times, 2006-02-18. Retrieved on 2006-02-19. 
52. ^ "Crooked congressman going to prison", CNN, 2006-03-03. Retrieved on 2006-03-03.CNN&rft.date=2006-03-03"> 
53. ^ Hettena, Seth. "Former Congressman Gets Eight-Plus Years", Associated Press, 2006-03-03. Retrieved on 2006-03-03. 
54. ^ Inmate Locator. Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved on 2006-03-21.
55. ^ Miller, Greg. "House Intelligence Panel to Probe Cunningham", Los Angeles Times, 2005-11-30. Retrieved on 2006-02-19. 
56. ^ "Cunningham's work on panel to be reviewed", The San Diego Union-Tribune, 2005-12-01. Retrieved on 2006-02-19. 
57. ^ Gamboa, Suzanne. "Prosecutor subpoenas Cunningham-related companies in Texas case", Mercury News, 2005-12-13. Retrieved on 2006-02-19. 
58. ^ Burger, Timothy J.. "Disgraced Congressman 'Wore a Wire'", TIME, 2006-01-06. Retrieved on 2006-01-06.TIME&rft.date=2006-01-06"> 
59. ^ Lewis, Finlay; Kammer, Jerry and Cantlupe, Joe. "Contractor admits bribing Cunningham", The San Diego Union-Tribune, 2006-02-25, p. A-1. Retrieved on 2006-04-22. 
60. ^ Bennett, William Finn. "What's next in Cunningham bribery saga?", North County Times, 2006-03-06. Retrieved on 2006-03-07. 
61. ^ McDonald, Jeff. "U-T, Copley News win Pulitzer Prize", The San Diego Union-Tribune, 2006-04-18, p. A-1. Retrieved on 2006-04-26. 
62. ^ Mazzetti, Mark and Johnston, David. "C.I.A. Aide's House and Office Searched", The New York Times, 2006-05-12, p. A-10. Retrieved on 2006-05-12. 
63. ^ LaVelle, Philip J. and Dani Dodge. "Bilbray edges out Busby", The San Diego Union-Tribune, 2006-06-07. Retrieved on 2006-06-07. 
64. ^ Britton,Joe and Thorne,Joyce. "Bilbray defeats Busby", North County Times, 2006-11-08. Retrieved on 2006-11-08. 
65. ^ Eggen, Dan. "Prosecutor Firings Not Political, Gonzales Says", Washington Post, 2007-01-19. Retrieved on 2007-05-08. 
66. ^ Justice Dept. Names New Prosecutors, Forcing Some Out, 2007-1-17, N.Y. Times
67. ^ [2]


Preceded by
Jim Bates
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's At-large congressional district

1991–1993
Succeeded by
Alfred A. McCandless
Preceded by
District Created
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's At-large congressional district

1993–2003
Succeeded by
Bob Filner
Preceded by
Bob Filner
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's At-large congressional district

2003–2005
Succeeded by
Brian Bilbray


Persondata
NAMECunningham, Randy "Duke"
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTIONFormer U.S. House of Representatives member
DATE OF BIRTHDecember 8, 1941
PLACE OF BIRTHLos Angeles, California
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH
Randall Cunningham

Position(s): Quarterback Jersey #(s):
1, 7,12
Born: March 27 1963 (1963--) (age 44)


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United States House of Representatives

Type Bicameral

Speaker of the House of Representatives
House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D)
since January 4, 2007
Steny Hoyer, (D)
since January 4, 2007
House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R)
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50th Congressional District in California represents a part of north coastal San Diego County. Its seat in the United States House of Representatives has been represented by Republican Brian Bilbray since the special election of June 13, 2006.
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City of Los Angeles

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Nickname: The City of Angels, L.A.
Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California
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Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. It is often referred to as the Grand Old Party or the GOP. It is the younger of the two major U.S.
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December 8 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

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19th century - 20th century - 21st century
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Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. It is often referred to as the Grand Old Party or the GOP. It is the younger of the two major U.S.
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United States House of Representatives

Type Bicameral

Speaker of the House of Representatives
House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D)
since January 4, 2007
Steny Hoyer, (D)
since January 4, 2007
House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R)
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50th Congressional District in California represents a part of north coastal San Diego County. Its seat in the United States House of Representatives has been represented by Republican Brian Bilbray since the special election of June 13, 2006.
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19th century - 20th century - 21st century
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For the town in Argentina, see 28 de Noviembre.
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Criminal law
Part of the common law series
Elements of crimes
Actus reus  · Causation  · Concurrence
Mens rea  · Intention (general)
Intention in English law  · Recklessness
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Criminal law
Part of the common law series
Elements of crimes
Actus reus  · Causation  · Concurrence
Mens rea  · Intention (general)
Intention in English law  · Recklessness
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Mail fraud refers to any scheme which attempts to unlawfully obtain money or valuables in which the postal system is used at any point in the commission of a criminal offence.
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Wire fraud is a legal concept in the United States Code which provides for enhanced penalty of any criminally fraudulent activity if it is determined that the activity involved electronic communications of any sort, at any phase of the event.
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Economic policy
Monetary policy
Central bank   Money supply
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Financial market
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March 3 is the 1st day of the year (2nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 0 days remaining.

Events

  • 1431 - Eugene IV becomes Pope.

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20th century - 21st century - 22nd century
1970s  1980s  1990s  - 2000s -  2010s  2020s  2030s
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Jan - Feb - Mar - Apr - May - Jun
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restitution is the law of gains-based recovery. It is to be contrasted with the law of compensation, which is the law of loss-based recovery. Obligations to make restitution and obligations to pay compensation are each a type of legal response to events in the real world.
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United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. The U.S. Navy currently has over 340,000 personnel on active duty and nearly 128,000 in the Navy Reserve.
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flying ace or fighter ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down five or more enemy aircraft during aerial combat.

History

World War I

See also: List of World War I air aces

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Total dead: ~314,000
Total wounded: ~1,490,000
North Vietnam and NLF
dead and missing: ~1,100,000 [1] [2] [3] [4]
wounded: ~600,000+ [5]
People's Republic of China
dead: 1,446
wounded: 4,200

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City of Los Angeles

Flag
Seal
Nickname: The City of Angels, L.A.
Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California
Coordinates:
State
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State of Oklahoma

Flag of Oklahoma Seal
Nickname(s): Sooner State
Motto(s): Labor omnia vincit (Latin: Labor conquers all things)

Official language(s) None

Capital Oklahoma City

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