Earl of Pembroke

The Earldom of Pembroke, associated with Pembroke Castle in Wales, was created by King Stephen of England. Several times the line has become extinct, and the Earldom has been re-created, starting the count over again with a new first Earl. On 1 September 1533 King Henry VIII created his queen Anne Boleyn Marchioness of Pembroke in her own right, a signal honour, because his great-uncle Jasper Tudor had been the Earl of Pembroke, and because Henry's own father, Henry VII, had been born there.

The current Earl also holds the title Earl of Montgomery (1605), created for the younger son of the 2nd Earl before he succeeded as 4th Earl, as well as the subsidiary titles Baron Herbert of Cardiff, of Cardiff in the County of Glamorgan (1551), Baron Herbert of Shurland, of Shurland in the Isle of Sheppey in the County of Kent (1605), and Baron Herbert of Lea, of Lea in the County of Wilts (1861). All are in the Peerage of England except the Barony of Herbert of Lea, which is in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

The family seat is at Wilton House in Wiltshire.

History in the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica

The title of Earl of Pembroke has been held successively by several English families, the jurisdiction and dignity of a palatine Earldom being originally attached to it. The first creation dates from 1138, when the Earldom of Pembroke was conferred by King Stephen on Gilbert de Clare (d. 1148), son of Gilbert Fitz-Richard, who possessed the Lordship of Strigul (Estrighoiel, in Domesday Book), the modern Chepstow. After the battle of Lincoln (1141), in which he took part, the Earl joined the party of the Empress Matilda, and he married Henry I's mistress, Isabel, daughter of Robert de Beaumont, Earl of Leicester.

De Clare

Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke (d. 1176), commonly known as Strongbow, son of the first Earl, succeeded to his father's estates in 1148, but had forfeited or lost them by 1168. In that year, however, he was chosen to lead a Norman expedition to Ireland in support of Diarmuid, King of Leinster, who had been driven out of his kingdom. The Earl crossed over in person in 1170, took both Waterford and Dublin, and was married to Diarmuid's daughter, Aoife, claiming the Kingship of Leinster after Diarmuid's death in 1171. Henry II, wary of his power, stripped Strongbow of his new holdings the same year, and invaded Ireland himself in 1172, putting his people in power. Strongbow returned to favour, and power in Ireland, in 1173 when he aided the King in his campaign against his rebelling sons. He died in 1176 after years of bitter struggle with Irish rebels.

Strongbow having died without male issue, his daughter Isabel became Countess of Pembroke in her own right, and the title was given to her husband, the famous Sir William Marshal, son of John the Marshal, by Sibylle, the sister of Patrick, Earl of Salisbury.

Marshal

William Marshal was held by many to be the greatest knight in Christendom, when, in August 1189, at the age of 43, he was given the hand of Isabel de Clare, and created the 1st Earl of Pembroke by Richard Coeur du Lion. Although he had previously served Richard's father, Henry II, against Richard's rebellions, Richard confirmed the old Kings licence for his marriage with the heiress of Strigul and Pembroke. He served Richard and John loyally, defending the latter against both the French and English rebel barons in the First Barons' War. He was present at the signing of the Magna Carta in 1215. Upon John's death in 1216, the seventy-year-old Marshal was named Regent of the kingdom and protector of the young King, Henry III. He defeated the rebels and their French allies, and reissued the Magna Carta in order to secure the peace. He fell ill early in the year 1219, and died on the 14th of May at his manor of Caversham near Reading. He was succeeded in the regency by Hubert de Burgh, and in his Earldom by his five sons in succession.

Marshal's eldest son, William Marshal (d. 1231), 2nd Earl of Pembroke of this line, passed some years in warfare in Wales and in Ireland, where he was justiciar from 1224 to 1226; he also served Henry III in France. His second wife was the Kings sister, Eleanor, afterwards the wife of Simon de Montfort, but he left no children.

His brother Richard Marshal (d. 1234), 3rd Earl, came to the fore as the leader of the baronial party, and the chief antagonist of the foreign friends of Henry III. Fearing treachery he refused to visit the King at Gloucester in August 1233, and Henry declared him a traitor. He crossed to Ireland, where Peter des Roches had instigated his enemies to attack him, and in April 1234 he was overpowered and wounded, and died a prisoner.

His brother Gilbert (d. 1241), who became the 4th Earl, was a friend and ally of Richard, Earl of Cornwall. When another brother, Anselm, the 6th Earl, died in December 1245, the male descendants of the great Earl Marshal became extinct. The extensive family possessions were now divided among Anselm's five sisters and their descendants, the Earldom of Pembroke reverting to the Crown.

de Valence

The next holder of the lands of the Earldom of Pembroke was William de Valence, a younger son of Hugh de Lusignan, count of La Marche, by his marriage with Isabella of Angoulême, widow of the English King John. In 1247, William, along with two of his brothers, moved from France to England, where their half-brother, Henry III was King. The King married William to Joan de Munchensi (d. 1307), a granddaughter and heiress to the great William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. Valence was granted custody of the lands, and the title of Earl of Pembroke, giving him great wealth and power in his new land. As a result, he was unpopular, and was heavily involved in the Second Barons' War, supporting the King and Prince Edward against the rebels lead by Simon de Montfort. After the final defeat of the rebels at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, William continued to serve Henry III, and then Edward I, until his death in 1296.

William's eldest surviving son, Aymer (c. 1265-1324), succeeded to his father's estates, but was not formally recognized as Earl of Pembroke until after the death of his mother Joan in 1307. He was appointed guardian of Scotland in 1306, but with the accession of Edward II to the throne and the consequent rise of Piers Gaveston to power, his influence declined. He became prominent among the discontented nobles, but in 1312, after the Earl of Warwick betrayed him by executing the captured Gaveston, he left the allied lords and joined the King. Valence was present at Bannockburn in 1314, and later helped King Edward defeat Thomas of Lancaster. However, by his death in 1324, he was again marginalized at court, and in financial trouble as well. His wife, Mary de Châtillon, a descendant of King Henry III, was the founder of Pembroke College, Cambridge.

Hastings

In 1339 Laurence, Lord Hastings (d. 1348), a great-grandson of William de Valence was created, or recognized as, Earl of Pembroke, having inherited (through the female line) a portion of the estates of the Valence Earls of Pembroke. His son John (d. 1376) married Margaret Plantagenet, daughter of King Edward III, and on the death without issue of his grandson in 1389 the Earldom of Pembroke reverted again to the Crown.

Plantagenet, Pole and Tudor

In 1414 Humphrey Plantagenet, fourth son of King Henry IV, was created Duke of Gloucester and Earl of Pembroke for life, these titles being subsequently made hereditary, with a reversion as regards the Earldom of Pembroke, in default of heirs to Humphrey, to William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk. Accordingly, on the death of Humphrey, without issue, in 1447 this nobleman became Earl of Pembroke. He was beheaded in 1450 and his titles were forfeited. In 1453 the title was given to Sir Jasper Tudor, half-brother of King Henry VI. Sir Jasper being a Lancastrian, his title was forfeited during the predominance of the house of York, but was restored on the accession of Henry VII. On his death without heirs in 1495, his title became extinct.

Herbert and Plantagenet

During his attainder Sir Jasper was taken prisoner by Sir William Herbert (d. 1469), a zealous Yorkist, who had been raised to the peerage as Baron Herbert by Edward IV, and for this service Lord Herbert was created Earl of Pembroke in 1468. His son William (d. 1491) received the Earldom of Huntingdon in lieu of that of Pembroke, which he surrendered to Edward IV, who thereupon conferred it (1479) on his son Edward, prince of Wales; and when this prince succeeded to the throne as Edward V, the Earldom of Pembroke merged in the crown.

Anne Boleyn

Anne Boleyn, a few months previous to her marriage with Henry VIII, was created Marchioness of Pembroke in 1532. It is doubted by authorities on peerage law whether the title merged in the royal dignity on the marriage of the marchioness to the King, or became extinct on her death in 1536.

Herbert

The title of Earl of Pembroke was next revived in favour of Sir William Herbert (c. 1501–1570), whose father, Richard, was an illegitimate son of the 1st Earl of Pembroke of the house of Herbert. He had married Anne Parr, sister of Henry VIII's sixth wife, and was created Earl in 1551. The title has since been held by his descendants.

An executor of Henry VIII's will and the recipient of valuable grants of land, Herbert was a prominent and powerful personage during the reign of Edward VI, both the protector Somerset and his rival, John Dudley, afterwards Duke of Northumberland, angling for his support. He threw in his lot with Dudley, and after Somerset's fall obtained some of his lands in Wiltshire and a peerage. It has been asserted that he devised the scheme for settling the English crown on Lady Jane Grey; at all events he was one of her advisers during her short reign, but he declared for Mary when he saw that Lady Jane's cause was lost. By Mary and her friends Pembroke's loyalty was at times suspected, but he was employed as governor of Calais, as president of Wales and in other ways. He was also to some extent in the confidence of Philip II of Spain. The Earl retained his place at court under Elizabeth until 1569, when he was suspected of favouring the projected marriage between Mary, Queen of Scots, and the Duke of Norfolk. Among the monastic lands granted to Herbert was the estate of Wilton, near Salisbury, still the residence of the Earls of Pembroke.

His elder son Henry (c. 1534–1601), who succeeded as 2nd Earl, was president of Wales from 1586 until his death. He married in 1577 Mary Sidney, the famous Countess of Pembroke (c. 1561–1621), third daughter of Sir Henry Sidney and his wife Mary Dudley. Sir Philip Sidney to whom she was deeply attached through life, was her eldest brother. Sir Philip Sidney spent the summer of 1580 with her at Wilton, or at Ivychurch, a favourite retreat of hers in the neighbourhood. Here at her request he began the Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia, which was intended for her pleasure alone, not for publication. The two also worked at a metrical edition of the Psalms. When the great sorrow of her brother's death came upon her she made herself his literary executor, correcting the unauthorized editions of the Arcadia and of his poems, which appeared in 1590 and 1591. She also took under her patronage the poets who had looked to her brother for protection. Spenser dedicated his Ruines of Time to her, and refers to her as "Urania" in Colin Clout's come home againe; in Spenser's Astrophel she is "Clorinda". In 1599 Queen Elizabeth was her guest at Wilton, and the Countess composed for the occasion a pastoral dialogue in praise of Astraea. After her husband's death she lived chiefly in London at Crosby Hall, where she died.

The Countess's other works include: A Discourse of Life and Death, translated from the French of Plessis du Mornay (1593), and Antoine (1592), a version of a tragedy of Robert Garnier.

William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke (1580–1630), son of the 2nd Earl and his famous countess, was a conspicuous figure in the society of his time and at the court of James I. Several times he found himself opposed to the schemes of the Duke of Buckingham, and he was keenly interested in the colonization of America. He was Lord Chamberlain of the royal household from 1615 to 1625 and Lord Steward from 1626 to 1630. He was Chancellor of the University of Oxford in 1624 when Thomas Tesdale and Richard Wightwick refounded Broadgates Hall and named it Pembroke College in his honour. By some Shakespearian commentators Pembroke has been identified with the "Mr W. H." referred to as "the onlie begetter" of Shakespeare's sonnets in the dedication by Thomas Thorpe, the owner of the published manuscript, while his mistress, Mary Fitton, has been identified with the "dark lady" of the sonnets. In both cases the identification rests on very questionable evidence. He and his brother Philip are the "incomparable pair of brethren" to whom the First Folio of Shakespeare is inscribed.

The Earl left no sons when he died in London on 10 April 1630. Clarendon gives a very eulogistic account of Pembroke, who appears, however, to have been a man of weak character and dissolute life. Gardiner describes him as the Hamlet of the English court. He had literary tastes and wrote poems; one of his closest friends was the poet Donne, and he was generous to Ben Jonson, Massinger and others.

His brother, Philip Herbert, 4th Earl of Pembroke (1584–1650), was for some years the chief favourite of James I, owing this position to his comely person and his passion for hulking and for field sports generally. In 1605 King James I of England created him Earl of Montgomery and Baron Herbert of Shurland, and since 1630, when he succeeded to the Earldom of Pembroke, the head of the Herbert family has carried the double title of Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery.

Although Philip's quarrelsome disposition often led him into trouble he did not forfeit the esteem of James I, who heaped lands and offices upon him, and he was also trusted by Charles I, who made him Lord Chamberlain in 1626 and frequently visited him at Wilton. He worked to bring about peace between the King and the Scots in 1639 and 1640, but when in the latter year the quarrel between Charles and the English parliament was renewed, he deserted the King who soon deprived him of his office of chamberlain. Trusted by the popular party, Pembroke was made governor of the Isle of Wight, and he was one of the representatives of the parliament on several occasions, notably during the negotiations at Uxbridge in 1645 and at Newport in 1648, and when the Scots surrendered Charles in 1647. From 1641 to 1643, and again from 1647 to 1650, he was chancellor of the university of Oxford; in 1648 he removed some of the heads of houses from their positions because they would not take the Solemn League and Covenant, and his foul language led to the remark that he was more fitted "by his eloquence in swearing to preside over Bedlam than a learned academy". In 1649, although a peer, he was elected and took his seat in the House of Commons as member for Berkshire, this "ascent downwards" calling forth many satirical writings from the royalist wits. The Earl was a great collector of pictures and had some taste for architecture.

His eldest surviving son, Philip (1621-1669), became 5th Earl of Pembroke, and 2nd Earl of Montgomery; he was twice married, and was succeeded in turn by three of his sons, of whom Thomas, the 8th Earl (c. 1656-1733), was a person of note during the reigns of William III and Anne. From 1690 to 1692 he was first Lord of the Admiralty; then he served as Lord Privy Seal until 1699, being in 1697 the first plenipotentiary of Great Britain at the congress of Ryswick. On two occasions he was Lord High Admiral for a short period; he was also Lord President of the Council and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, while he acted as one of the Lords Justices seven times; and he was President of the Royal Society in 1689-1690.

His son Henry, the 9th Earl (c. 1689-1750), was a soldier, but was better known as the "architect Earl." He was largely responsible for the erection of Westminster Bridge. The title descended directly to Henry, 10th Earl (1734-1794), a soldier, who wrote "The Method of Breaking Horses" (1762); George Augustus, 11th Earl (1759-1827), an ambassador extraordinary to Vienna in 1807; and Robert Henry, 12th Earl (1791-1862), who died in France without issue, he's buried in the Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. George Robert Charles, the 13th Earl (1850-1895), was a grandson of the 10th Earl and a son of Baron Herbert of Lea (q.v.), whose second son Sidney (b. 1853) inherited all the family titles at his brother's death.

Earls of Pembroke, first Creation (circa 1138)

Earls of Pembroke, second Creation (1189)

Earls of Pembroke, third Creation (1247)

Earls of Pembroke, fourth Creation (1339)

Earls of Pembroke, fifth Creation (1414)

Earls of Pembroke, sixth Creation (1447)

Earls of Pembroke, seventh Creation (1452)

Earls of Pembroke, eighth Creation (1468)

Earls of Pembroke, ninth Creation (1479)

Marchioness of Pembroke (1533)

Earl of Pembroke, tenth Creation (1551)

Heir Presumptives to both Earldoms (but not to the Barony Herbert of Lea): The Earl of Carnarvon (b. 1958)

Other use

There is a tall ship named Earl of Pembroke, which has been used in a number of historical films and see also HM Bark Endeavour

The city of Pembroke Pines, Florida is thought to have been named after the Earl of Pembroke, an Early landowner in Broward County.

Pembroke, New Hampshire was named after Henry Herbert, ninth Earl of Pembroke by Governor Benning Wentworth.

Sources and references

  • G. T. Clark, The Earls, Earldom and Castle of Pembroke (Tenby 1880)
  • J. R. Planche, "The Earls of Strigul " in vol. x. of the Proceedings of the British Archaeological Association (1855)
  • G. E. C(okayne), Complete Peerage, vol. vi. (London, 1895).
  • Giraldus Cambrensis, Expugnatio hibernica
  • the Song of Dermot, edited by G. H. Orpen (1892).
  • the metrical French life, Histoire de Guillaume le Marchal (ed. P. Meyer, 3 vols., Paris, 1891-1901)
  • the Minority of Henry III., by G. J. Turner (Trans. Royal Hist. Soc., new series, vol. xviii. pp. 245295)
  • W. Stubbs, ConstitutIonal History, chs. xii. and xiv. (Oxford, 1896f 897).
Pembroke Castle is a medieval castle in Pembroke, Wales.

Geography

It is surrounded on three sides by the tidal River Cleddau, which made it a formidable stronghold.
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Motto
Cymru am byth   (Welsh)
"Wales forever"
Anthem
"Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau"
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Stephen
King of the English, Duke of the Normans

Reign 22 December 1135 – 25 October 1154
Coronation 26 December 1135
Born c.
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Earl or Jarl was an Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian title meaning "chieftain" and referring especially to chieftains set to rule a territory in a king's stead. In Scandinavia, it became obsolete in the Middle Ages and was replaced with duke (hertig/hertug
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Eastern (Byzantine) Catholic Church, the new Liturgical Year (Indiction) also begins.
  • Church of England - Saint Giles.
  • Cameroon - Jour d'Union Nationale Camerounaise.
  • Libya - Revolution Day (1969).
  • New Zealand - National R.A.K.
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  • 15th century - 16th century - 17th century
    1500s  1510s  1520s  - 1530s -  1540s  1550s  1560s
    1530 1531 1532 - 1533 - 1534 1535 1536

    :
    Subjects:     Archaeology - Architecture -
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    Henry VIII
    King of England, King of Ireland, Prince of Wales

    Reign 22 April1509 – 28 January1547
    Coronation 24 June 1509
    Born 28 May 1491(1491--)
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    Anne Boleyn
    Queen Consort of England

    Anne Boleyn
    Born ca. 1501/1507 (see The birth controversy)
    Died 19 May 1536
    Tower of London
    Consort 28 May 1533 - 19 May 1536
    Consort to Henry VIII
    Issue
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    Marchioness could refer to:
    • A noblewoman with the rank of Marquess, or the wife of a Marquess.
    • The Marchioness, a pleasure boat that was sunk on the River Thames in 1989.

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    Henry VII
    King of England, Lord of Ireland

    Reign August 22 1485 - April 21 1509
    Coronation October 30 1485
    Born January 28 1457(1457--)
    Pembroke Castle
    Died
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    The title Earl of Montgomery (pronounced "Mun-gum-ery") was created in the Peerage of England in 1605 for Sir Philip Herbert, younger son of the 2nd Earl of Pembroke.
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    The barony Herbert of Lea was created in 1861 for Sidney Herbert, a Conservative/Peelite politician. On his death the barony passed to his son, George Herbert, who in 1862 succeeded to the earldom of Pembroke, with which title the barony remains merged.
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    The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union in 1707. In that year, the Peerages of England and Scotland were replaced by one Peerage of Great Britain.
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    The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Act of Union in 1801, when it replaced the Peerage of Great Britain.
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    Wilton House is an English country house situated at Wilton near Salisbury in Wiltshire. It has been the country seat of the Earls of Pembroke for over 400 years.

    The first recorded building on the site of Wilton House was of a priory founded by King Egbert circa 871.
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      Wiltshire (abbreviated Wilts) is a large English county in the South West England region of the UK.
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      county palatine is an area ruled by a count palatine (or earl palatine, who may hold the higher title of duke) with special authority and autonomy from the rest of the kingdom.
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      Stephen
      King of the English, Duke of the Normans

      Reign 22 December 1135 – 25 October 1154
      Coronation 26 December 1135
      Born c.
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      Gilbert de Clare, son of Gilbert Fitz Richard Earl of Clare and Alice de Claremont. Sometimes referred to as "Strongbow" but his son is better remembered by this name.
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      Chepstow
      Welsh - Cas-gwent


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      Battle of Lincoln or First Battle of Lincoln occurred on 2 February 1141.

      Relief

      The forces of King Stephen of England had been besieging Lincoln Castle but were themselves attacked by a relief force loyal to Empress Matilda and commanded by Robert, 1st Earl of
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      Matilda
      By the Grace of God Lady of the English, Countess of Anjou.

      Reign April- November 1141
      Titles Holy Roman Empress
      Lady of the English
      Countess of Anjou
      Born February, 1102
      Winchester
      Died September 10, 1167
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      Henry I
      King of the English, Duke of the Normans (picture can be found in S.S. books)

      Reign 3 August 1100–1 December 1135
      Coronation 5 August 1100
      Born c.
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      Earl of Leicester (pronounced "Lester") was created in the 12th century in the Peerage of England (now extinct), and is currently a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, created in 1837.
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      Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, Lord of Leicester, Justiciar of Ireland (1130 – 20 April 1176), known as Strongbow, was a Cambro-Norman lord notable for his leading role in the Norman invasion of Ireland.
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      Diarmait Mac Murchada (also known as Diarmait na nGall, "Dermot of the Foreigners", "Daimait MacMorchada"), anglicized as Dermot MacMurrough (died 1 January 1171) was the King of Leinster, and is often considered to have been the most notorious traitor in
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      For , see .


      Waterford (from the Old Norse: Veðrafjǫrðr meaning "windy fjord" or "haven from the wind-swept sea"; in Irish: Port Láirge) is a city in the Republic of Ireland.
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      Dublin (IPA: /ˈdʌblɨn, ˈdʊblɨn/, or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/) (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath,
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      The following is a provisional list of the Kings of Leinster who ruled the Irish province of Leinster up to 1632 with the death of Domhnall Spainnach MacMurrough-Kavanagh, the last legitimately inaugurated of the MacMurrough Kavanagh royal line.
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      Henry II
      By the Grace of God, King of the English
      and Duke of the Normans and Aquitanians
      and Count of the Angevins
      and Lord of Ireland


      Reign 25 October 1154-6 July 1189
      Coronation 19 December 1154
      Born
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